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Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2007  with  funding  from 

Microsoft  Corporation 



State  Historical  Society 




Secretary  and  Superintendent  of  the  Society 


The  French  Regime  in  Wisconsin— II 








if.  17 

Jublis^cb  bo   giutbantn  of  |tate 



Contents  and   Illustrations 

Portrait  of  Gilles  Hocquart,  Intendant  of  New  France 

Officers  of  the  Society,  1905-06 

Preface        ..... 







1727:  Co^cEE^-I^-G  the  Foxes  .  .  .  1 

1727:  Post  to  be  established  among  Sioux  .  .  7 

1727:  Missionaries  fob  the  Sioux  desire  Astronomical  In- 

"^  struments  .  .  ,  .  & 

1727:  Articles    of    the    Trading    Co3Ipany    fob    the    Post 

AMONG  the  Sioux      .  .  .  .10 

Commandants  for  the  Sioux  Post  and  Green  Bay     .         IS 
Complaints  of  Louisiana  .  .  .17 

Amariton  rescues  an  Illinois  Woman        .  .         18 

Officers  for  the  Posts  .  .  .20 

War  upon  Foxes  determined        .  .  .21 

The  Expedition  arrives  among  the  Sioux;  Fort  Beau- 
harnois  built  .  .  .  .22 

1728:  News  from  the  West;  Expedition  against  the  Foxes        2& 

1728:  Further  News  from  the  West  .  .         2ft 

1728:  The  Foxes   at  Home  .     .  .  .30 

1728:  Lignery's  Report  of  the  Expedition  .  .         31 

1728:  Conditions  at  Detroit  .  .  .35 

1728-29:     Narrative  of  De  Boucherville  ;  Captivity  among  the 

KicKAPOo;  Hostility  to  the  Foxes  .  .         36 

1729:  Montbrun's  Escape;  Fate  of  the  Captives  .         58 

1729:  Kickapoo    and    Mascoutin    declare    War    upon    the 

Foxes        .  .  .  ,  .59 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


























Western  Indians  at  Montreal    . 

The  Foxes  sue  fob  Peace 

The  Foxes  in  extremities 

List  of  Officers  serving  in  the  Companies  in  Can 

ADA,    with    the    strength    OF    THE    TrOOPS    COMPOSING 
them         .... 

Expenses  of  Expedition  of  1728 

Importance  of  Post  among  the  Sioux 

Foxes  attacked  by  their  Neighbors 

Expenses  of  De  Boucherville     . 

Copper  Mine  on  Lake  Superior 

Continued  Attacks  on  the  Foxes 

Marin  aids  the  Winnebago  against  the  Foxes 

French  and  Indians  gather  to  attack  the  Foxes 

River  of  the  West  rises  near  Lake  Superior 

Copper  Mines  near  Lake  Superior 

Lignery  acquitted  of  Misbehaviour  in  1728 

Services  of  De  Noyan 

DuBuissoN  reports  Condition  of  the  Foxes 

Victory  over  the  Foxes 

Foxes  seek  Allies  among  the  Iroquois  and  Loup 
De  Villiers  defeats  the  Foxes 
Project  of  War  against  the  Foxes 
Report  of  Defeat  of  the  Foxes 
Rivalry  of  the  English;  Conditions  at  Upper  Posts 
Treaty  of  the  new  Sioux  Company 
Tranquillity  in  the   Upper  Country;    Posts   among 
THE  Sioux  and  at  Green  Bay  to  be  re-established 
Post  of  Detroit 

Conditions  in  the  Upper  Country 
Illinois  attack  remnant  of  the  Foxes 
Iroquois  and  Huron  attack  the  Foxes 
The  King's  Memoir 
Sale  at  Mackinac  in  1728 
French  Indians  incited  to  attack  Foxes  and  Chicka 

SAW  .  .  ,  ^ 

Expenses  of  the  Indians  urged  to  War     . 
La  Ronde  seeks  to  exploit  Copper  Mines  of  Lake  StJ- 

perior       .  . 

Fate  of  the  Foxes;    Ltnctot  and  the  Sioux  Post 
Re-established  Post  at  Green  Bay 


1727-48]         Contents  and  Illustrations 












Speech  of  the  Illinois  and  Responses     . 
Conditions  at  Detroit;   Officers  for  the  Posts 
Foxes  attacked  in  their  Fort  at  Marameg;    Small- 
pox   SPREADS 

Letters   from   Upper   Country  intercepted;    Ravages 

of  Smallpox  .... 

Memoir  of  the  King    .  .  . 

News  from  the  West;   French  Indians  attack  the 

Hostiles  .... 

The  Remnant  of  the  Foxes  to  be  utterly  destroyed 
The  Illinois  attack  Wisconsin  Indians    . 
Indians   of  the   Upper  Country;    Foxes;    Shawnee; 

Illinois    ..... 
La  Ronde  and  St.  Pierre  at  Chequamegon 
Sauk  defend  Foxes  and  kill  the  French 
The  Calumet  Dance;   Foxes  intrigue  with  Abenaki 
Explanation  of  the  Affair  with  the  Sauk 
Detroit;   Need  of  Soldiers  to  garrison  Upper  Posts 
Punishment    prepared    for    the    Sauk;     Conditions 

among  Indians  of  the  Upper  Country     . 
Miami  in  the  French  Interest 
Ordinance  on  Fur-Trade 
De    Noyelle's    Expedition    against    the    Sauk    and 

Foxes        .... 
Copper  Mines  on  Lake  Superior 
Garrison    needed  at   Detroit 
Reports  from  the  Upper  Country 
Census  of  the  Indian  Tribes 
La  Ronde  sends  Specimens  of  Copper 
Pension  for  a  Habitant  wounded  in  the  Fox  Wars 
Condition  of  the  Foxes  and  Sauk 
The  King's  Orders  for  the  Upper  Country 
Copper  Mines;    Indian  Conditions 
Detroit;    The  Garrison  should  be  increased 
The  Sioux;    Detroit  . 
The  Sioux  Post  abandoned 


AND  Foxes 
War  between  the  Chippewa  and  Sioux 
The  Huron  of  Detroit  desire  to  migrate  . 
New  Commandant  for  Detroit  . 























Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol. 
















Report  of  Copper  Mines 
Arrangements  for  Detroit 
The   Beaver   Trade     . 
Memoir  of  La  Ronde  . 
New  Mines  near  Lake  Superior 
Marin  pacifies  the  Upper  Country 
The  Sioux  Repentant 
Wisconsin  Indians  at  Montreal 
Conditions  at  Detroit 
The  Detroit  Huron     . 
Indians  at  Montreal;  Hostilities  between  Sioux  and 
Foxes;  Disposition  of  Foxes;  Shawnee  Migration 
Detroit,  Huron,  and  Ottawa;   Beauharnois  to  re- 
move the  Huron;  Iroquois  at  Montreal;  Onondaga 
AND  TfiTEs  Plates    . 
Petition  of  La  Ronde 
Conditions  in  the  Upper  Country 
Secret  Project  concerning  the  Foxes 
Huron  and  T£tes  Plates 
Council  with  the  Huron  of  Detroit 
Indian  Council  at  Detroit;  Huron  Removal 
Instructions  to  Chevalier  De  Beauharnois 
Huron  of  Detroit 

New  Settlement  for  Ottawa  at  Mackinac 
Chevalier  De  Beauharnois  at  Detroit;    Huron  Re 
moval       ..... 
De  Noyan's  Grievances;  Improved  Conditions  at  De- 
troit;   English   Influence;    Beauharnois's   Visit 
Removal  of  Hurons 
Ottawa  refuse  to  remove 

Indian  Wars  in  Upper  Cuntry;  Foxes  and  WInneba 
Gos  TO  return  to  Green  Bay;  Marin's  Abilities 
Indians  seek  the  English 
Removal  of  Ottawa  of  Mackinac 
Removal  of  Detroit  Huron 
Chevalier  De  Beauharnois's  Negotiations  with  the 

Detroit  Huron 
Ottawa  at  Montreal 
Beauharnois  and  three  Huron  Chiefs 
Other  Western  Indians  at  Montreal 
Posts  to  be  auctioned 
Settlement  of  Detroit  Hurons;  Jesuit  interfebence 


1727-48]        Contents  and  Illustrations 




Official  Reports  of  Conditions  in  the  Upper  Country 

Blacksmiths  at  Mackinac 

Latest  News  from  Western  Posts 

Marin  requests  Leave  of  Absence 

Jesuits  and  the  Detroit  Huron 

Commandants  of  Western  Posts 

Mining  in   Wisconsin 

Lead-mining  in  Wisconsin 

Policy  toward  Foxes  and  Sioux  justified;   Illinois 

and  Chickasaw        .  .  .  . 

Expenses  for  the  Foxes  and  Sioux;  Marin's  Services 
Tranquillity  in  the  Upper  Country;  Evils  of  Leased 

Posts        .  .  .  .  . 

Arrangements  for  Western  Posts 
Bad  Results  of  Leasing  System  at  Green  Bay 
Disaffection  of  the  Indians  at  Detroit     . 
Western  Indians  on  the  Warpath;  Scarcity  of  Goods 
Difficulties  at  Western   Posts  occasioned  by  War 
Lease  for  the  Post  at  Green  Bay 
Revolt  of  Indians  of  the  Upper  Country  . 
Trade  at  the  Western  Posts  disarranged 
Salary  of  Commandants  of  Western  Posts 
Coureurs  des  Bois  injure  Trade 
Memoir  on  English  Encroachments 
Post  at  Chequamegon 
Revolt  in  the  West  spreads     . 
i*unishment  for  conspirators    . 
Importance  of  Illinois  Settlements 
Post  at  Chequamegon 
Recommendations  for  adjustment  of  Western  Posts 
Trade  at  the  Western  Posts;  Lease  System 
Western   Conspiracy  disintegrates 
Relations  between  Louisiana  and  Illinois 


























Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol. 



Portrait  of  Gilles  Hocquart,  Intendant  of  New  France.   From 

Suite,  Histoire  des  Canadiens-Frangais,  11,  p.  112    Frontispiece 
Carte  Trac^e  par  le  Sauvage  Ochagach  et  autres,  laquelle  a 


RESENTfiEs  DANS  LA  Carte  cy  aprel.  Reduced  facsimile 
from  original  MS.  in  Library  of  Dominion  Parliament, 
Ottawa  .  .  .  .  .102 

Bronze  Sun-Dial  found  near  Portage,  Wis.,  1903       .  .       278 

Portrait  of   Charles   le  Moyne,    Second  Baron  de  Longueuil. 

From  Suite,  Histoire  des  Canadiens-Frangais,  11,  p.  72         292 
Map  of  Kaskaskia  Settlements.     Adapted  by  Rev.  Arthur  E. 
Jones,    S.  J.,  from    Thomas   Hutchins's    map    in  Topo- 
graphical Description  of  Virginia,  etc.,  drafted  in  1764- 
1775  .  .  .  .  .428 

[  viii  ] 

OFFICERS,  1905-06 


William  Ward  Wight,  A.  M. 



Vice  Presidents 

Hon.  John  B.  Cassoday,  LL.  D. 
Hon.  Emil  Baensch     . 
Lucius   C.   Colman,   A.    B. 
Hon.  John  Luchsinger 
Hon.  Willliam  F.  Vilas,  LL.  D. 
Hon.  B.  F.  McMillan  . 

Secretary  and  Superintendent 

Reuben  G.  Thwaites,  LL.  D.       . 



La  Crosse 






Hon.  Lucien  S.  Hanks 


Librarian  and  Assistant  Superintendent 

Isaac  S.  Bradley,  B.  S. 

Curators,  Ex-Officio 

Hon.  James  O.  Davidson 
Hon.  Walter  L.  Houser 
Hon.  John  J.  Kempf    . 

Secretary  of  State 
State  Treasurer 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol.  xvii 

Curators,  Elective 

Term  expires  at  annual  meeting  in  1906 

Henet  C.  Campbell,  Esq. 
William  K.  Coffin,  M.  S. 
Hon.  Lucien  S.  Hanks 
Rev.  Patrick  B.  Knox 
Hon.  Robert  L.  MoCormick 
George  Raymer,  M.  L. 

Hon.  Arthur  L.  Sanborn,  LL.  B. 
Hon.  Halle  Steensland 
Hon.  E.  Ray  Stevens,  LL.  B. 
Hon.  Nils  P.  Haugen,  LL.  B. 
Hon.  AVilliam  F.  Vilas,  LL.  D. 
William  W.  Wight,  A.  M. 

Term  expires  at  annual  meeting  in  1907 
Hon.  Robert  M.  Bashford,  A.  M.     Dana  C.  Munro,  A.  M. 
Hon.  John  B.  C  as  sod  ay,  LL.  D.      William  A.  P.  Morris,  A.  B. 
Hon.  Jairus  H.  Carpenter,  LL.  D.  Hon.  Robert  G.  Siebecker,  LL.  B. 
Lucius  C.  CoLMAN,  A.  B.  Herbert  B.  Tanner,  M.  D. 

Hon.  Henry  E.  Legler  Frederick  J.  Turner,  Ph.  D. 

Hon.  B.  F.  McMillan 

Charles  R.  Van  Hise,  LL.  D. 

Term  expires  at  annual  m^eeting  in  1908 
Rasmus  B.  Anderson,  LL.  D. 
Hon.  Emil  Baensch 
Charles  N.  Brown,  LL.  B. 
Hon.  George  B.  Burrows 
Frederic  K.  Conover,  LL.  B. 
Alfred  A.  Jackson,  M.  A. 

Hon.  Burr  W.  Jones,  A.  M. 

Hon.  John  Luchsinger 

Most  Rev.  S.  G.  Messmer,  D.  C.  L. 

J.  Howard  Palmer,  Esq. 

John  B.  Parkinson,  A.  M. 

Hon.  N.  B.  Van  Slyke 

Executive  Committee 

The  thirty-six  curators,  the  secretary,  the  librarian,  the  governor,  the 
secretary  of  state,  and  the  state  treasurer,  constitute  the  executive 



Our  volume  xvi  was  devoted  to  the  documentary  history  of 
the  French  regime  in  the  region  of  the  upper  Great  Lakes,, 
from  1634  to  1727.  The  present  volume  is  in  continuation, 
thereof,  being  composed  entirely  of  documents  of  like  charac- 
ter, bearing  dates  1727-1748,  Englished  from  their  French- 
originals.  The  period  herein  treated  was  that  in  which  the 
French  possessed  the  most  complete  control  of  Western  terri- 
tory, and  dictated  every  step  of  policy  for  the  fur-trade  posts- 
and  their  aboriginal  allies. 

Having  for  a  generation  past  been  trained  in  subserviency 
to  French  traders,  the  savages  of  the  ''Upper  Country"  had  be^ 
come  economically  dependent  on  the  latter,  both  for  food  and 
clothing.;  Their  finery,  formerly  simple  and  of  domestic  make^. 
now  came  from  Paris,  in  the  form  of  silver,  bronze,  and  copper 
ornaments;  they  dressed  in  cloths,  not  skins;  they  pursued 
game  and  their  enemies  with  fire-arms,  rather  than  with  arrows- 
and  spears;  no  longer  did  primitive  agTiculture  and  manufac- 
ture  meet  their  desires;  they  cultivated  their  fields  with  hoes 
of  iron,  discarding  those  of  wood,  stone,  or  bone ;  their  currency 
was  no  longer  clam-shell  wampum,  but  artificial  beads  of  French 
porcelain;  and  tliey  had  acquired  a  passion  for  the  white 
man's  brandy — which  in  Indian  parlance  was  the  ''milk"  fur^ 
nished  by  their  nourishing  father,  the  governor  of  Canada. 

In  return  for  all  these  French  goods,  the  traders  demanded 
peltries.  To  obtain  these,  as  game  fast  receded  before  increased 
slaughter,  the  Indians  must  range  farther  and  farther  into 
the  Western  woods.  The  greed  of  their  European  masters  was 
inexorable.  (N'ot  content  with  the  trade  that  came  from  sup- 
plying the  ordinary  needs  of  their  customers,  the  latter  were- 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

urged  and  oven  forced  to  increase  the  stock  of  furs;  a  full  ex- 
ploitation  of  the  resources  of  the  wilderness  was  demanded,  and 
it  was  not  long,  under  this  regime,  before  the  aborigines  had 
quite  lost  their  independence. 

]N'o  longer  could  they  enjoy  their  free  life  of  the  past.  At 
the  commands  of  French  officers,  they  abandoned  their  old-time 
villages,  and  clustered  their  huts  and  tepees  around  the  fur- 
trading  posts,  which  were  established  at  centres  of  influence 
JJiroughout  this  vast  territory.  The  chief  of  these  were  at  De^- 
troit  and  Miackinac.  The  latter,  a  natural  entrepot,  was  the 
earliest  settlement  in  the  Upper  Country.  Detroit  was  of  later 
date,  and  intended  not  only  as  an  agricultural  station  but  as  a 
bulwark  against  the  machinations  of  the  English.  Of  sub- 
sidiary posts,  tliose  at  Green  Bay  (La  Baye),  and  Chequamegon 
(La  Pointe),  in  iWisconsin,  were  upon  strategic  trade  routes,  as 
well  as  in  the  midst  of  large  masses  of  Indians.  Th^e  posts  of 
tSt.  Joseph's  Riiver,  Ouiatanon,  and  Miami,  coanmandod  import- 
:ant  portages,  and  were  in  close  relation  with  populous  tribes  of 
ibarbarians.  Witliout  the  authority  of  the  governor  of  Canada, 
nevertheless  in  close  connection  with  the  interests  of  the  Upper 
Country,  were  the  Louisiana  posts  of  Vincennes  on  tlie  Wabash, 
and  Fort  Chartres  in  the  Illinois. 

At  these  several  wilderness  fortifications — crude  but  stout 
strongholds,  either  of  logs  or  of  stone,  as  situation,  needs,  or  ma- 
terials warranted — the  Jesuit  missionary  (or  ^'black  robe,"  as 
the  savages  called  him),  zealously  shepherded  his  flock  of  dusky 
neophytes,  baptized  their  infants,  married  their  young,  coun- 
selled the  wayward,  and  buried  their  dead.  All  might  have 
been  harmony  among  them,  had  it  not  been  for  the  one  recalci- 
trant tribe  of  Renards  (Foxes),  who>,  refusing  submission  to 
French  paternalism',  had  for  upwards  of  fifteen  years  embroiled 
the  security  of  the  Upj^er  Country. 

^  The  volume  opens  with  a  document  "Concerning  the  Foxes," 
giving  a  brief  sumimary  of  the  various  rebellious  and  punative 
expeditions  up  to  172Y.  The  Foxes  are  shown  to  be  now  in- 
triguing with  the  yet  unsubjected  tribes  of  the  Sioux  on  the 

[  xii  ] 




west,  and  the  Ebglish-sympathizing  Six  Nations  on  the  east — 
thus  linking  in  one  confederacy  savages  dwelling  throughout  the 
vast  stretch  from  Lake  Ontario  to  the  trans-Mississippi  regions ; 
and  threatening  by  their  superior  numbers  to  overwhelm  the 
French  Indians.  Orders  were  therefore  dispatched  from  Que- 
bec to  detach  the  Sioux  from  the  Fox  alliance  on  the  one  side; 
and  by  blocking  the  road  to  the  Iroquois  on  the  other  to  isolate 
the  Foxes,  and  then  crush  them  at  leisure. 

The  first  step  in  this  programme  was  to  be  the  erection  of  a 
post  among  the  Sioux.  Officers  and  missionaries  were  carefully 
chosen,  the  equipment  being  furnished  by  a  mercantile  company 
formed  to  exploit  the  trans-JVIississippi.  A  site  upon  Lake 
Pepin  was  selected,  and  the  construction  of  Fort  Beauharnois 
beg-un  amid  showers  of  fireworks,  of  which  it  was  written: 
"When  these  poor  people  saw  the  fireworks  in  the  air,  and  the 
stars  falling  from  heaven,  women  and  children  took  to  flight, 
and  the  most  courageous  of  the  men  cried  for  mercy,  and  ur- 
gently asked  that  the  astonishing  play  of  this  terrible  medicine 
should  be  made  to  cease." 

With  the  Sioux  thus  awed  into  submission,  an  expedition 
designed  to  crush  the  Foxes  in  tlieir  villages  was  sent  out  under 
the  command  of  Marchand  de  Lignery.  We  present  his  official 
report,  made  to  the  French  ministry,  wherein  he  admits  that  his 
army  of  tweilve  hundred  Indians  and  four  hundred  and  fifty 
French  succeeded  merely  in  burning  a  few  deserted  cabins  and 
retiring  ingloriously  to  Mackinac.  Messengers  were  sent  forth- 
with to  Fort  Beauharnois,  which  was  hastily  abandoned,  part 
of  its  garrison,  while  on  their  way  to  the  French  fort  in  the 
Illinois,  being  captured  by  hostiles..  La  Baye  (Green  Bay) 
was  likewise  evacuated,  and  for  the  time  being  the  Wisconsin 
wilderness  was  free  from  Eluropean  domination. 

The  only  recourse  now  left  to  the  defeated  French  was  to  turn 
loose  upon  the  victorious  Foxes  the  enmity  of  all  the  neighbor- 
ing tribes,  who  by  gradually  harassing  the  insolent  rebels  and 
cutting  off  stragglers,  might  wear  away  their  powers  of  resist- 
ance. This  policy  proved  successful  from  the  military  point  of 
view,  but  disastroiis  to  the  fur-traffic;  for  small  bands  of  trap- 

[  xiii  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol.  xvii 

pers  and  traders  Avere  no  longer  safe,  and  energy  and  ammuni- 
tion formerly  used  in  tracking  beaver  were  perforce  employed 
in  hunting  human  Foxes.  However,  by  the  year  1729,  the 
Renards  were  suing  for  peace,  and  the  succeeding  year  saw  them 
brought  to  bay.  After  a  fierce  campaign  in  the  Lake  Winne- 
bago coimtry,  lasting  for  more  than  a  month,  the  retreating 
tribes  were  discovered  entrenched  near  "le  Eocher,"  in  the  Illi- 
nois, attempting  to  cut  their  way  eastward  through  hostile  terri- 
tory to  an  asylum  among  the  Iroquois.  Messages  to  the  Illinois, 
to  Fort  St.  Joseph,  and  to  Guiatanon  brought  out  a  formidable 
war  party  of  French  and  Indian  allies,  which  for  twenty-nine 
days  besieged  the  fugitives  in  their  stronghold.  Reduced  at 
last  to  the  verge  of  starvation,  the  Renards  sallied  forth  in  the 
darkness  of  a  storm,  only  to  be  overtaken,  many  of  them  being 
massacred  during  the  following  days.  It  was  reported  to  the 
French  governor  that  ''not  more  than  50  or  60  men  Escaped 
Without  guns  and  Without  any  of  the  Implements  for  procuring 

This  staggering  defeat  appears  to  have  aroused  a  sentiment  of 
pity  among  the  savages  hostile  to  the  Renards.  '*'Our  tribes 
were  very  anxious  to  spare  the  renards'  lives;"  "Meanwhile  it 
was  Found  that  the  Sakis  were  betraying  us ;"  "the  Ouiatanons 
entered  with  reluctance  upon  the  siege" — these  are  the  signifi- 
cant reports  of  the  French  ooanmandants.  The  succeeding  year 
Grovemor  Beauhamois  writes  that  although  the  blow  inflicted 
on  the  Renards  was  "a  heavy  one,  and  caused  the  destruction  of 
the  majority  of  tliat  nation,  The  Slaves  whom  those  savages  had 
succeeded  in  withdrawing  from  the  I^atives  with  whom  they 
Were  had  enabled  them  to  make  up  a  Village  of  45  Cabins." 

Despite  the  covert  sympathy  of  the  attacking  tribes,  and  the 
efforts  of  the  Foxes  to  secure  allies  as  far  removed  from  their 
territory  as  the  Mahican  and  the  ilbenaki,  the  French  cause 
again  triumphed  in  the  far  West ;  the  Sioux  post  was  re-estab- 
lished, and  a  detachment  sent  to  re-erect  that  at  Green  Bay. 
During  the  progress  of  this  latter  event,  occurred  the  unfortun- 
ate encounter — which  has  until  now  been  known  only  through 
the  tradition  learned  from  the  Langlade  family — wherein  a 

[  xiv  ] 

1727-48]  Preface 

prominent  French  officer  was  killed  at  La  Baye.  De  Villiers^ 
the  victor  in  the  campaign  at  Le  Eocher  (1730),  being  sent  to 
coimmand  at  La  Baye  (1733),  incautiously  and  without  a  guard 
went  to  the  Sauk  village  to  demand  some  refugee  Foxes ;  a 
musket-shot  killed  his  son  at  his  side,  whereupon  De  Villiers 
fired  promiscuously  into  the  crowd  of  savages,  who  in  the  melee 
shot  him  down.  Even  the  French  reports  lay  the  blame  for  this 
mischance  upon  the  rash  officer  himself. 

This  affair  had  two  important  consequences :  First,  the  con- 
federating of  the  Sauk  with  the  Renards;  second,  the  removal 
of  the  allied  bands  beyond  the  borders  of  Wisconsin.  While 
frequently  sympathizing  with  and  secretly  aiding  their  kins- 
men the  Foxes,  the  Sauk  had  up  to  this  time  ostensibly  re- 
mained French  Indians.  Stung  by  a  sense  of  injustice,  and 
by  the  dread  of  not  being  able  to  expiate  the  death  of  so  promi- 
nent a  French  official,  they  now  united  their  fate  with  that  of 
the  Foxes.  Becoming  thus  more  formidable,  they  withdrew 
from  their  old  habitat  at  Green  Bay,  and  sought  refuge  in  the 
land  of  the  Iowa,  beyond  the  Mississippi.  There  they  continued 
to  harass  French  fur-traders,  to  cut  off  bands  of  French  Indians, 
and  to  pursue  the  timid  Illinois  to  the  very  gates  of  the  French 
posts.  Finally,  after  De  N'oyelle's  unsuccessful  land  expedition 
against  them  (1734),  they  grew  more  insolent,  killed  stray 
French  voyageurs,  and  compelled  the  abandonment  (1737)  of 
the  post  among  the  Sioux. 

Although  foiled  in  tlieir  exploitation  of  the  trans-Mississippi 
region,  the  French  were,  under  the  lead  of  the  venturesome  La 
Verendryes,  discovering  new .  territory  and  building  new  forts 
in  the  far  ,^orthwest,  beyond  Liake  Superior  and  out  towards 
Lake  Winnipeg  and  its  great  tributary  valleys.  These  explora- 
tions not  being  within  our  field,  we  have  omitted  reports  con- 
cerning them,  save  Avhere  they  bear  upon  the  history  of  Wiscon- 
sin and  the  struggle  of  the  French  with  the  Foxes  and  the 

During  all  the  difficulties  along  the  great  Fox-Wisconsin  port- 
age route  through  Wisconsin,  Sieur  de  la  Ronde,  a  French  offi- 
cer of  long  experience,  had  succeeded  in  keeping  in  order  the 



Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

Chippewa,  resident  near  his  post  on  the  Bay  of  Chequamegon, 
and  in  preserving  a  trade  rente  to  the  Mississippi  by  way  of 
Lake  Superior  and  the  intei'lacing  rivers  Bois  Brnle  and  St. 
Croix.  Information  was  here  secured  concerning  masses  of 
copper  ore  along  the  southern  shore  of  the  great  lake.  S'peoi- 
mens  sent  to  France  assayed  satisfactorily,  and  La  Ronde  was 
ordered  to  exploit  the  mines.  Lacking  expert  advice,  he  suc- 
ceeded in  securing  through  the  agency  of  the  home  government 
t\vo  German  miners,  who  tested  the  lodes  at  Ontonagan,  Black, 
and  Iron  rivers  and  reported  favorably  upon  their  richness  and 
availability.  Thereupon  La  Ronde  presented  an  elaborate 
memoir,  detailing  his  past  services,  and  proposing  certaiin  grants 
from  tlie  king  to  work  the  mines  and  build  barques  for  the 
transport  of  the  metal  down  the  Great  Lakes.  These  plans  had, 
however,  no  permanent  result.  War  breaking  out  between  the 
Sioux  and  Chippewa,,  the  entire  upper  region  was  embroiled, 
and  La  Ronde  died  before  he  could  secure  results. 

Meanwhile  an  officer  appeared  in  the  West  who  proved  him- 
self able  to  comimand  the  recalcitrant  tribes  and  restore  tranquil- 
ity in  the  Upper  Country.  This  was  Sieur  Marin,  who  figures 
largely  in  this  period  of  Wisconsin  history.  The  sources  of  his 
influence  are  not  clearly  discernible,  but  probably  were  due  to 
his  tact  and  intimate  acquaintance  with  aboriginal  characteris- 
tics. He  was  out  of  favor  at  court,  so  that  only  by  repeated 
expostulations  and  asseverations  of  his  usefulness  could  the  gov- 
ernor maintain  this  valuable  official  in  his  command.  ]N"ever- 
theless  he  succeeded  where  all  others  failed,  bringing  Sioux, 
Fox,  and  Sauk  chiefs  to  Montreal  to  sue  for  peace,  and  finally 
persuading  a  portion  of  the  rebels  to  return  to  their  ancestral 
seats  on  the  upper  waters  of  Fox  River. 

But  prolonged  defiance  by  this  one  obstinate  tribe  had  had  its 
effect  upon  the  loyalty  of  the  subservient.  After  the  strain  of 
hostilities  between  French  and  English,  in  King  George's  War 
(1744-1748)  had  continued  nearly  three  years,  the  spirit  of  re^ 
volt  began  to  arise  among  all  the  allied  tribes,  and  on  every  side 
the  vast  Indian  empire  of  :N'ew  France  threatened  to  fall  in 
ruins.     A  new  system  of  leasing  the  posts  to  the  highest  bidder 


1727-48]  Preface 

was  now  inangiTrated,  wliichj  while  replenisliing  the  depleted 
colonial  treasury,  maintained  a  governmental  monopoly  of  the 
Indian  trade,  extorting  extravagant  prices  for  the  supplies  that 
had  become  necessary  to  aboriginal  existence.  This  caused 
much  dissatisfaction  among  the  natives  and  embarrassing  con> 
parison  with  the  freedom  enjoyed  by  English  traders,  who  in 
consequence  could  offer  better  prices  and  better  goods.  For 
some  years  the  Miami  had  been  secretly  dealing  with  Pennsyl- 
vanians  who  descecaded  the  Ohio^  A  large  band  now  boldly  de- 
parted from  the  French  fort  oji  Maumee  River  and  established 
a  new  village  at  Pickawillany,  on  the  Great  Miami,  where  they 
openly  traded  with  the  Flnglish  who  flocked  thither. 

The  Detroit  Huron  had  long  been  restless  under  the  enmity 
of  their  Ottawa  and  Potawatomi  neighbors..  The  band  of  chief 
]N"icolas  settled  at  Sandusky  in  order  to  approach  more  nearly 
to  the  English  settlements,  and  here  was  laid  the  plot  for  a  for- 
midable conspiracy  which  was  to  surprise  and  miassacre  the 
French  garrison  at  Detroit.  The  Ottawa  at  Michilimackinac 
were  likewise  intriguing — none  but  the  Potawatomi  could  now 
be  trusted.  However,  the  threatened  revolt  collapsed  before 
doing  serious  harm.  A  premature  uprising  warned  the  Detroit 
garrison.  Aniong  the  Miami,  a  few  French  were  killed  and  the 
fort  partially  burned,  but  a  detachment  of  soldiers  from  Detroit 
restored  order  and  autliority.  A  strong  convoy  was  shipped  both 
to  Mackinac  and  Detroit,  and  this  show  of  force,  coupled  with 
news  of  the  prospect  of  amity  between  England  and  France, 
thus  bringing  cheaper  prices,  drove  tlie  savages  into  a  reluctant 
peace.  The  volume  closes  with  the  re-establishment  of  French 
control  in  tlie  Upper  Country,  supplemented  by  plans  for  a 
more  extensive  exploitation  of  the  posts,  and  for  a  closer  affilia- 
tion with  the  Louisiana  colony  of  Illinois. 

The  entire  series  of  documents,  now  for  the  first  time  pub- 
lished in  their  sequence,  lays  bare  French  paternalismi  both  at 
its  best  and  its  worst.  The  unity  and  harmony  obtained  by  a 
central  administration,  with  power  to  throw  forces  to  the  weak- 
est spot,  secured  certain  military  and  governmental  advantages ; 
on  the  other  hand,  the  corruption  and  inefficiency  of  the  officers, 

[  xvii  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

each  throwing  blame  upon  the  shoulders  of  others,  the  depend- 
ence upon  distant  orders,  the  lack  of  initiative,  the  timiditr)^  of 
military  movements,  show  the  paralyzing  effects  of  over-centrali- 
zation. The  savages  became  in  turn  fawning  and  subservient, 
emasculated  or  sullen,  reckless  or  rebellious.  The  system 
was  held  together  simply  through  the  energy  of  the  governors- 
general,  two  of  whom  were  administrators  during  our  period — 
the  Marquis  de  Beauhamois  and  the  Comte  de  la  Galissoniere, 
botli  of  them  able  and  incorruptible.  When,  in  the  final  years 
of  'New  France,  corruption  was  everywhere  evident,  the  frailty 
of  this  vast  continental  empire  became  apparent;  the  posts  of 
the  Upper  Cbuntry  now  proved  a  source  of  weakness  rather  than 
strength,  in  the  life-and-death  struggle  with  the  English  for  the 
dominion  of  North  America. 

Like  those  contained  in  its  predecessor,  the  documents  pub- 
lished in  the  present  volume  are  for  the  most  part  transcripts 
made  for  the  Society  from  the  several  French  archives  in  Paris. 
In  making  a  selection  of  papers  to  be  copied,  we  have  been 
obliged  to  rely  chiefly  upon  the  calendars  thereof  prepared  by 
Joseph  Marmette,  commencing  in  1883,  with  a  supplement  by 
Edouard  Richard  (1899),  and  published  in  the  Reports  on  Cand- 
dicm  Archives  edited  by  the  late  Douglas  Brymner.  But  these 
calendars,  while  useful  as  far  as  they  go,  are  sometimes  in- 
correct and  certainly  not  exhaustive.  Patient  search  throughout 
the  various  archives,  by  a  scholar  versed  in  the  history  of  the 
Middle  West,  would  undoubtedly  reveal  the  existence  in  Paris 
of  many  other  documents  appertaining  to  the  French  regime  on 
our  upper  lakes. 

The  Paris  material  is  supplemented  by  some  of  the  same  na- 
ture already  printed  in  the  New  York  Colonial  Documerds  and 
the  Macalester  College  Contributions;  we  also  give  a  few  docu- 
ments Englished  from  Pierre  Margry's  Decouvertes  et  Etab- 
lissements  de  Frangais,  and  several  appearing  in  early  Cana- 
dian periodicals.  While  not  claiming  to  be  absolutely  com- 
plete, it  is  thought  that  the  existing  material  for  the  region  of 
the  :N"orthwest  during  the  hundred  and  fifteen  years  included 

[  xviii  ] 


1727-48]  Preface 

within  volumes  xvi  and  xvii  has  now  largely  been  exploited,  as 
well  as  for  the  first  time  given  to  the  public  in  connected  form. 

We  have  made  considerable  effort  to  secure  documents  emana- 
ting from  such  part  of  Louisiana  as  comes  within  our  historical 
•domain.  But  until  a  calendar  has  been  prepared  of  material 
in  French  archives  bearing  upon  the  district  of  the  Illinois, 
€uch  an  attempt  is  bound  to  be  impracticable;  which  still  fur- 
ther illustrates  the  necessity  for  a  much  closer  examination  of 
these  archives,  so  far  as  they  bear  upon  Western  historical  prob- 
lems, than  has  heretofore  been  possible. 

The  Editor  wishes  to  express  his  earnest  appreciation  of  the 
l^aithful  and  sympathetic  translations  made  for  the  present  vol- 
ume and  its  predecessor  by  Mr.  Crawford  Lindsay,  of  Quebec, 
a  widely-recognized  authority  on  early  French-Canadian  terms. 
In  the  work  of  annotation  and  of  indexing,  the  Editor  has  had 
valuable  assistance  throughout  from  Louise  Phelps  Kellogg, 
Ph.  D.,  editorial  assistant  on  the  Society^s  staff. 

This  volume  was  due,  in  regular  order  of  publication,  some 
eighteen  months  ago,  but  congestion  in  the  office  of  the  State 
Printer  has  delayed  its  appearance  until  the  present  time.  It 
is  hoped  that  volume  xviii,  containing  the  remainder  of  such 
French  papers  as  we  have  been  able  to  obtain,  together  with 
other  documentary  material  having  an  important  bearing  on 
the  history  of  the  state,  may  appear  within  the  present  year. 

E.  G.  T. 

January,  1906. 


The   French   Regime  in 
Wisconsin— II 


[Resumg  of  French  relations  with  the  Foxes,  from  1715  to  1728.  MS. 
dated  April  27,  1727,  in  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris; 
press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  49,  c.  11,  fol.  564."] 

Tlie  nation  of  the  Renards  has  from  all  times  been  the  Enemy 
of  the  other  savage  IvTations  of  the  upper  country.  Those 
Savages  have  killed  Frenchmen  on  various  occasions.  In 
accordance  with  representations  made  in  1715  on  this  subject 
by  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  YaudreuiP  that  it  was  absolutely 
necessary  to  take  steps  to  destroy  them,  Orders  were  issued 
by  the  Court  to  act  in  such  a  manner  as  to  maintain  peace  with 
them^ — ^without,  however,  compromising  the  honor  of  the  na- 
tion— and  at  the  same  time  to  act  as  if  preparations  were  being 
made  for  war;  and,  to  that  end,  to  gather  the  coureurs  des 
Bois  at  Missilimakinao  by  granting  them  an  Amnesty. 

Those  savages  having  been  guilty  of  disorders  again  th.e  fol- 
lowing year,  the  Sieur  de  Louvigny  was  sent  fromi  Montreal  on 
the  first  of  May  1716  with  425  Frenchmen  to  proceed  against 
them.  He  drove  them  into  their  fort  and  forced  them  to  sue 
for  peace  on  onerous  conditions  which  he  believed  they  would 
not  accept,  the  chief  articles  whereof  were:     That  they  sjiould 

lA  translation  of  this  same  document  is  printed  under  date  of  1726 
in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  xvi,  pp.  463-468,  taken  from  a  copy  in  the 
Quebec  provincial  archives.  We  have  since  that  publication  secured 
a  transcript  direct  from  the  Paris  archives,  which  is  here  given  as 
more  exact  and  complete  than  the  former  version. — ^Ed. 

2  For  sketch  of  Vaudreuil,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  220.— E». 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

make  peace  with  all  the  savage  nations  tributary  to  the  King; 
That  they  should  by  force  or  by  friendly  counsel  induce  the 
Kicapons  and  the  Mascoiitins,  their  allies,  to  do  the  same ;  that 
they  should  give  up  the  captives  of  all  the  I^^ations/  etc. 

Upon  notice  being  given  in  1722,  by  Monsieur  de  Vaudreuil 
and  by  the  Commandant  of  Louisiana  that  these  Renards  were 
re-commencing  the  war,  that  they  had  attacked  several  French- 
men and  were  waging  war  against  the  Ilinois,  orders  were  given 
Monsieur  de  Vaudreuil  in  1723  to  take  suitable  measures  with 
the  Sieur  de  Boisbriant,  the  Commandant  of  the  Company  of  the 
Indies  in  the  Ilinois  country,^  to  compel  the  Eienard  nation  to 
make  amends  for  those  offences  and  to  compel  them  to  live  in 

That,  on  his  part,  he  was  to  incite  the  other  savages,  the  allies 
of  France,  to  wage  war  upon  the  Renards  and  destroy  them  ;  also 
to  send  some  soldiers  thither  and  to  choose  an  experienced  officer 
to  go  and  command  at  la  Baye  and  put  a  stop  .to  their  disorders. 

Monsieur  de  Vaudreuil  sent  the  Sieur  de  Lignery,  a  Captain.^ 
That  officer,  according  to  the  report  of  Monsieur  de  Longneuil 
who  was  Commandant  in  Canada  owing  to  the  death  of  Monsieur 
de  Vaudreuil,  assembled  the  Chiefs  of  the  Renards  and  those  of 
the  Sakis  and  Puants,  their  allies,  at  la  Baye  on  June  7,  1726, 
and  told  them  on  behalf  of  the  King  that  they  must  lay  down 
the  Tomahawk  they  had  lifted  against  the  Ilinois.  To  this  they 
replied  that  they  gave  their  word  to  keep  the  peace;  that  they 
knew  the  King  had  pity  on  them  inasmuch  as  he  held  out  his 
arms  to  them.  The  manner  in  Avhich  their  answer  was  given 
convinced  him  that  they  had  spoken  sincerely,  and  that  there 
was  reason  to  hope  for  a  real  and  lasting  peace. 

It  was  necessary  to  take  measures  to  make  such  peace  sure, 
and  the  Sieur  de  Lignery  promised  to  give  them  an  answer  from 
the  King  in  a  year. 
—' — t 

1  For  these  events,  see  dociimets  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi. — ^Ed. 

2 For  sketch  of  Boisbriant,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  429.— Ed. 

3  For  sketch  of  Marehand  de  Lignery,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  pp. 
113-115.— Ed. 



French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

1727]        rrencn  Keg 

The  Sieur  de  Lignery  wrote  at  the  same  time  to  the  Sieur 
Desliettes,  the  Commandant  of  the  Company  in  the  Ilinois 
jCOuntry^  to  inform  him  of  what  he  had  done. 

That  letter  states,  amongst  other  things,  that  the  Chiefs  of 
! those  three  Nations  are  well-intentioned  and  are  fully  aware  that 
they  can  hope  for  no  further  mercy  unless  they  obey;  that  it  is 
necessary  to  detach  the  Scioux  nation  from  its  alliance  with  the 
Kenards  by  leading  them  to  expect  some  presents ;  finally  to  bar 
the  Renards'  passage  by  the  River  St.  Joseph  and  Detroit  in  the 
event  of  their  seeking  to  join  the  Iroquois  who  have  offered  them 
an  asylum. 

He  says  that  this  is  what  he  had  in  view  in  proposing  peace  to 
them  in  order  the  better  to  overcome  them  should  they  not  keep 
their  word ;  because,  if  they  failed  to  keep  it,  it  would  be 
necessary  to  take  the  surest  means  to  destroy  them  by  force  of 
arms,  uniting  the  troops  of  both  Colonies. 

He  remarks  that  these  savages  are  now  convinced  that  this  will 
certainly  happen,  and  that  Oliachala,  the  great  Chief  of  the 
Kenards,  and  the  other  Chiefs  have  made  their  countrymen 
understand  it  clearly,  saying:  "We  still  hold  the  Frenchman 
by  the  hand,  but  if  he  escape  us  we  are  lost.'' 

He  notifies  the  said  Sieur  Desliettes  to  send  back  the  captive 
Renards,  having  told  their  Chiefs  to  do  the  same  with  such 
Frenchmen  as  they  might  make  prisoners. 

And  he  adds  that  If  all  goes  well  in  a  year  he  will  agree  to 
have,  at  Chicagou  or  at  le  Rocher  of  la  Biaye,^  a  meeting  of  the 
Canadian  tribes,  those  of  Louisiana,  the  Ilinois  and  the  nations 
of  la  Baye  whom  he  will  notify  of  the  date  of  the  rendezvous; 

1  Charles  Henry  Desliettes  de  Tonty,  nephew  of  La  Salle's  lieuten- 
ant, Henri  de  Tonty,  was  commandant  at  Fort  Chartres  in  Illinois 
from  1726-30.  Other  relatives  by  the  same  name  (the  maternal  fam^ 
ily  of  de  Tonty)  were  prominent  in  early  French  Illinois.  See  Wallace, 
Illinois  and  Louisiama  under  French  Rule  (Cincinnati,  1893);  also 
Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  index, — ^Ed. 

2 Chicagou  was  an  Indian  site,  about  the  same  place  as  the  present 
city  of  Chicago.  Le  Rocher  is  the  famous  rock  of  that  name  on  the 
Illinois  river — the  document  is  here  defective;  "le  Rocher  de  la  Baye" 
should  be  "le  Rocher  ou  la  Baye,"  la  Baye  being  the  ordinary  French 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

that  it  will  be  necessary  to  be  the  first  on  the  spot,  to  erect  a  fort 
and,  at  the  same  time,  determine  the  number  of  the  French  and 
of  the  savages  who  are  to  assemble  there. 

Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Beauhamois  confirms  the  news  of 
this  peace,  and  says  that  it  will  be  advantageous  to  make  it  per- 
manent in  order  to  avoid  a  war  which,  however  successful  it 
might  be,  would  be  very  costly  to  both  Colonies ;  That  his  opin- 
ion, shared  by  the  Sieurs  de  Longueuil  and  de  Lignery,  is  that 
the  war  between  the  Renards  and  the  Ilinois  should  be  termin- 
ated by  means  of  alliances  between  those  two  nations ;  that  it  is 
not  necessary^  for  that  purpose,  to  abandon  the  project  of  detach- 
ing, if  possible,  the  Scioux  from  the  interests  of  the  Renards, 
and  that  he  will  take  measures  with  Monsieur  Dupuy  to  send 
Missionaries  to  the  Scioux. 

He  has  learned  through  Monsieur  de  Lignery  that  since  the 
promise  given  him  by  the  Eenard,  Saki,  and  Puant  Chiefs  at 
la  Baye  to  wage  war  no  longer  on  the  Ilinois,  two  bands  of  young 
Renards  set  out  to  avenge  the  death  of  one  of  their  relatives; 
that  the  strongest  of  those  two  bands,  consisting  of  10  men,  was 
completely  defeated,  4  being  killed  and  4  wounded  and  cap- 
tured by  the  Ilinois;  that,  nevertheless,  no  untoward  conse- 
quences will  result  from  this  affair  if  the  latter  send  back  to 
the  Renards'  Village  the  captives  they  have  taken,  wdth  presents 
to  cover  the  dead,  according  to  custom ;  and  by  that  means  they 
will  disarm  the  Renards  and  prevent  the  formation  of  other 
bands.  This  the  Sieur  de  Lignery  wrote  the  Sieur  Desliettes  it 
was  advisable  to  do. 

Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Beauharnois  sends  a  Memorandum 
respecting  the  most  suitable  means  for  making  the  peace  a  last- 
ing one. 

He  proposes  to  grant  the  request  privately  made  by  Ouachala, 
the  great  Chief  of  the  Renards,  for  a  French  Chief  to  help  him 
to  restrain  the  young  men  of  his  Village  and  to  prevent  them 
from  thinking  of  evil  designs.     He  suggests  that  it  would  b« 

designation  for  the  post  at  Green  Bay.  Three  places  would  thus  be 
designated  as  the  place  for  the  rendezvous — Chicago,  le  Rocher,  or 
la  Baye.— Ed. 




1727]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

necessary  for  the  French  officer  in  command  at  la  point  de  Olia- 
gouamigon,  on  his  part,  to  strive  to  get  the  Scionx  to  draw  off 
from  their  alliance  with  the  Eenards,  and  to  detach  them  from 
the  latter  by  presents ;  also  to  lead  the  Scionx  to  hope  that  they 
will  have  a  Missionary  and  some  Frenchmen  amongst  them,  as 
they  have  asked.  He  requests  that  the  same  should  be  written 
to  the  officers  in  Command  at  the  Posts  of  Detroit  and  River 
St.  Joseph  in  order  that  the  savage  nations  in  the  vicinity  of 
their  Posts  may  be  detached  from  the  Renards  through  their 
efforts  and  may,  in  the  event  of  war,  bar  their  way  and  prevent 
their  seeking  an  asylum  amongst  the  Iroquois  and  other  I^Tations 
whither  they  might  wish  to  retreat. 

The  Sieur  Desliettes,  who  commands  for  the  Company  of  the 
Indies  in  the  Ilinois  country,  has  written  to  the  Sieur  de  Lignery 
that  the  Penards  are  suspicious  and  fear  treachery  and  that  the 
surest  method  would  be  to  destroy  them ;  that  he  has  proposed 
this  to  the  Superior  Council  of  ^ew  Orleans,  and  has  given 
information  of  it  to  the  Company  of  the  Indies. 

Monsieur  de  Beauhamois  writes  that  this  Would  be  the  better 
expedient,  but  that  it  would  be  dangerous,  because,  if  unsuc- 
cessful, there  would  no  longer  remain  any  chance  of  surprising 
the  Penards  and  keeping  them  shut  up  in  a  fort  as  in  the  last 
War,  and,  if  they  should  flee  to  the  Scioux  or  to  the  Ayouets,  they 
would  attack  the  French  in  the  upper  country  and  it  would  be 
impossible  to  go  from  one  Colony  to  the  other  without  running 
the  risk  of  losing  one's  life  or  of  being  pillaged. 

Nevertheless,  if  after  the  measures  that  are  being  taken  to 
establish  a  lasting  peace  with  them,  they  should  again  break  their 
word,  it  will  then  be  necessary  to  take  measures  conjointly  with 
the  nations  of  both  Colonies  to  destroy  them  by  force  of  arms. 

Meanwhile,  it  is  advisable  that  the  Sieur  Des  Liettes  should 
make  the  Ilinois  restore  to  the  Penards  such  captives  of  that 
nation  as  they  may  have  in  their  hands ;  and  that  he  should  not 
follow  the  example  of  the  Commandants  who  have  preceded  him, 
and  who  thought  they  would  intimidate  the  Penards  by  burning 
the  prisoners  of  their  nation, — wbicb  served  only  to  irritate  them 
and  to  make  the  war  rage  more  bitterly. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

If,  with  such  circumspection  on  the  part  of  the  Ilinois,  the. 
Renards  can  be  kept  quiet  for  a  year,  a  conference  may  he  held 
with  the  Sieur  Des  Liettes  at  Chicagou  or  at  the  Rocher  where 
the  Chiefs  of  the  nations  of  the  Ilinois  country  and  of  la  Baye 
may  be  assembled  and  the  number  determined  of  the  rrench 
and  of  the  savages — both  from  the  Ilinois  country  and  from 
Canada — who  will  be  posted  in  a  fort  to  be  erected  at  the  spot 
selected  for  the  Rendezvous.  Then,  after  the  Treaty  of  peace 
with  the  Renards  and  their  allies  has  been  renewed,  Oiiachala, 
the  great  Chief  of  the  Renards  and  the  war-Chiefs  of  the  Sakis, 
Puants,  Kicapoux,  Maskoutins  and  Scioux — one  from  each 
of  those  iTations  allied  with  the  Renards — may  be  sent  down 
to  Montreal  the  following  Summer  to  be  questioned  regarding 
their  dispositions  and  to  be  informed  at  the  same  time  of  the 
King's  intentions. 

It  would  then  be  advisable  that,  in  the  presence  of  those  Chiefs 
and  of  those  of  the  Sauteurs,  Poutouatamis,  Outaouais  and 
other  nations  of  the  Lakes — from  each  of  which  it  would  also 
be  advisable  to  send  a  Chief  and  in  addition  a  Chief  or  two  of 
lihe  Ilinois  to  be  witnesses  of  what  shall  be  agreed  upon  with  the 
Renards  and  their  allies — Otiachala  should  publicly  ask  for  a 
French  Chief.  There  will  be  no  difficulty  in  giving  him  one, 
although  such  is  not  the  desire  of  the  Commandants  of  the  Post 
of  la  Baye  who  are  no  doubt  opposed  to  this  Establishment  solely 
through  motives  of  private  interest  which  should  always  yield  to 
the  welfare  of  the  service  and  of  the  Colony. 

Messieurs  de  Beauharnois  and  Dnpuy  have  learned  through 
the  Sieur  de  Lignery,  Commandant  at  Michilimakinac,  that  the 
Renards  are  asking  for  a  Commandant  and  a  Missionary ;  they 
told  him  that  they  were  the  only  ones  neglected  and  that  a  Com- 
mandant and  a  Missionary  would  give  them  sense  like  the  others 
and  would  help  them  to  restrain  their  young  men.^ 

Father  Chardon,  the  superior  of  the  Missions  of  the  upper 

iThe  letters  and  documents  of  which  this  is  a  summary,  were  trans- 
lated and  printed  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  iii,  pp.  148-161.  The  spelling  of 
the  proper  names  can  be  corrected  from  the  above. — Ed. 



1727]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

coimtrv/  writes  that,  in  order  to  compel  the  x^ation  of  the 
Kienards  to  keep  quiet  and  in  awe  of  ns,  it  would  be  advisable : 
f  first,  to  deprive  them  of  the  refuge  they  have  secured  amongst 
the  Scioux,  and,  to  that  end,  prevent  their  being  given  any  of 
the  goods  they  procure  in  the  upper  country,  especially  at  the 
posts  established  at  la  Baye  des  Puans  and  at  the  River  St. 
Joseph,  and,  to  do  this  effectively,  it  would  be  necessary  to  sup- 
press those  two  posts  where  trade  both  in  Brandy  and  in  mer- 
chandise is  notorious,  as  the  Commandants  have  bought  those 
posts.  Secondly,  to  bar  their  passage  to  the  Iroquois.  Thirdly, 
to  let  loose  all  the  Savages  that  may  wish  to  wage  war  upon 
them ;  this  will  exhaust  them  to  such  an  extent  that,  having  noth- 
ing wherewith  to  defend  themselves,  they  will  be  compelled  to 
submit  to  everything,  and  when  we  shall  have  an  establishment 
amongst  the  Scioux  the  Eenard  will  be  obliged  in  spite  of  hiror 
self  to  keep  quiet.  Thereby,  we  shall  be  spared  the  expense  o£ 
a  co«tly  War,  whose  success  is  very  uncertain,  inasmuch  as  the 
Renards  have  an  assured  refuge  amongst  the  Scioux.^ 


[Memorandum  about  the  Sioux,  dated  April  29,  1727,  based  on  re- 
ports from  Canada.  The  original  MS.  of  this  document  is  in  the 
archives  of  the  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris,  where  it  was  transcribed 
for  the  Society,  in  whose  collection  the  transcript  is  preserved.  Press- 
mark, "Canada,  Corresp.  gen.,  vol.  49,  c.  11,  fol.  576."] 

It  was  recommended  to  Messieurs  de  Beauharnois  and 
Dupuis^  by  the  King's  Memorial  that  they  should  do  all  in  their 

iFor  sketch  of  Father  Chardon,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  206. — Ed. 

2 Marginal  note  on  MS.:  "Approved,  what  is  proposed  to  secure 
peace  and  render  it  stable." 

3  Charles  de  la  Boische,  Marquis  de  Beauharnois,  was  governor  of 
New  France  from  August,  1726,  to  Sept.  19,  1747.  He  was  reputed 
to  be  a  natural  son  of  Louis  XIV,  was  born  about  1670,  and  trained 
for  the  French  navy.     After  his  service  as  governor  of  New  France, 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

poAver  to  Make  an  Esta])lishm€nt  among  the  Scionx,  who  have 
asked  for  Missionaries,  and  to  send  there  a  Commandant  who 
wonld  suit  them/  However  .such  an  Establishment  seemed 
difficult  to  found  because  news  was  received  from  there  last  year 
that  a  band  of  Renards  had  killed  two  Frenchmen  who  were  on 
their  way  thither,  and  that  those  Savages  had  declared  that 
they  would  not  let  a  single  Frenchman  pass  to  the  Scioux  since 
it  would  diminish  their  Trade.^ 

They  write^  that  it  is  now  easier  than  formerly  to  Establish  a 
Post  among  the  Scioux.     That  the  Sieur  de  Lignery  who  com- 

he  returned  to  France,  and  was  made  lieutenant-general  of  naval 
forces,  a  position  he  held  but  a  short  time,  dying  in  June,  1749.  For 
his  instructions  when  appointed  governor  of  New  France,  see  O'Cal- 
laghan  ed.,  N.  Y.  Colonial  Documents  (Albany,  1856-58),  ix,  p.  956. 
The  first  husband  of  Josephine,  empress  of  the  French,  was  descended 
from  this  family. 

Claude  Thomas  Dupuy  was  appointed  intendant  of  New  France  when 
Beauhamois  was  made  governor.  They  became  involved  in  disputes, 
and  Dupuy  having  antagonized  both  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  author- 
ities was  recalled  in  September,  1728. — Ed. 

iSee  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  441,  442. — Ed. 

2  This  information  is  to  be  found  in  the  following  extract  from  a 
letter  of  de  Longueuil  and  B^gon  to  the  French  ministry,  dated  Quebec, 
Oct.  31,  1725:  "We  have  been  informed  by  a  letter  of  the  21st  of 
July  last,  from  the  Reverend  Father  Chardon,  missionary  at  la  Baye, 
to  the  Reverend  Father  La  Chasse,  superior  of  the  Jesuits,  who  had 
designed  that  the  former  should  begin  the  mission  among  the  Sioux, 
that  in  addition  to  the  five  Frenchmen  killed  two  years  ago,  two 
others  were  slain  last  spring,  by  a  party  of  Kikapous  and  Renards; 
that  the  latter  say  that  they  will  not  permit  the  French  to  go  to  the 
Sioux,  since  the  trade  that  they  will  carry  on  will  considerably  dimin- 
ish their  o\^ti;  that  the  allied  Renards  and  Sioux  have  made  an  at- 
tack on  the  French  established  among  the  Illinois,  and  that  they 
are  so  exasperated  against  the  Illinois,  that  they  cannot  be  deterred, 
nor  even  the  Sakis  who  live  at  la  Baye,  from  waging  war  upon  them; 
and  that  all  these  reasons  indicate  the  difficulty  and  postponement  of 
the  enterprise  to  establish  a  missionary  and  a  commandant  among 
the  Sioux."  Margry,  Decouvertes  et  6tablissements  des  Frangais 
161Jnl754  (Paris,  187G-85),  vi,  p.  543.— Ed. 

3 Marginal  note  on  original  MS.  gives  date  14th  October,  1726,  re- 
ferring to  a  previous  letter  of  the  governor  and  intendant. — Ed. 



French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

mands  at  Michilimakinac  lias  reported  that  the  chiefs  of  the 

tSakis,  of  the  Puants,  and  of  the  Renards  have  promised  him  not 

Only  to  put  an  end  to  the  war  that  they  were  waging  against  the 

Ilinois,  but  also  to  induce  their  allies  to  do  the  same.     So  that 

>y  sending  an  officer  in  the  Spring  to  La  pointe  on  Lake  Su- 

jrior,we  may  prepare  to  Establish  a  post  where  we  have  already 

?cupied  one/     And  he  by  means  of   a  few  presents,    and  by 

>pening  a  Trade  with  the  Savages  of  that  Quarter,  will  form 

[connections,  and  gradually  dispose  those  Savages  [the  Eenards] 

abandon  the  War  against  the  Ilinois,  and  divert  them  from 

^oing  to  detroit  as  they  had  intended  to  do  to  seek  an  asylum 

long  the  Iroquois. 


[Letter  from  Marquis  de  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Apr.  30,  1727.  Translated  from  a  document  in  Quebec  provincial  ar- 
chives, transcribed  from  a  MS.  in  Paris  archives.] 

The  Reverend  Jesuit  fathers  who  are  to  go  among  the  Sioux, 
ask  for  mathematical  instruments.  Those  which  are  in  their 
establishment,  and  which  belong  to  the  King  will  serve  their  pur- 
pose until  His  Majesty  sends  others  for  Quebec,  namely:  a  case 
of  mathematical  instruments,  a  dial  plate  of  universal  astronomy, 
A  graduated  semi-circle  with  the  degrees  indicated,  a  spirit  level, 
a  chain  with  stakes,  and  a  telescope  six  or  seven  feet  long,  (this 
telescope  does  not  belong  to  the  king,  but  they  take  one  from 
their  establishment,  and  request  another  from  the  king  to  replace 

It  would  be  well,  Monseigneur,  if  they  could  receive  these 

iPor  the  previous  occupation  of  a  post  at  "La  Pointe,"  in  Chequam- 
cgon  Bay,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xiii,  pp.  410,  111;  xvi,  p.  380. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

instruments  by  this  year's  ships,  if  this  letter  arrives  in  time  for 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  etc.  etc. 



[This  agreement  between  the  governor  of  Canada  and  certain  mer- 
chants for  exploiting  the  fur-trade,  and  providing  expenses  for  the 
post  among  the  Sioux  is  translated  from  a  document  dated  June  6, 
1727,  in  Margry,  Decouv.  et  etaM.,  vi.  pp.  547-552.] 

Clim'lcs,  marquis  de  Beavharnois,  'knight  of  the  military  Or- 
der of  St.  Louis,  governor  and  lieutenant-general  of  the  King  in 
the  whole  of  New  France. 

In  virtue  of  the  orders  addressed  to  us  by  the  King's  Memo- 
ran  duir.i  of  May  14,  1726,  respecting  the  establishment  of  a 
commandant  and  two  missionaries  amongst  the  Sioux,  in  com- 
pliance with  His  Majesty's  instructions,  we — in  the  presence  of 
Monsieur  de  Lono'ueuil,  governor  of  this  town  of  MontTeal  f  of 

1  Margry,  Decouv.  et  etabh,  vi,  p.  544,  note,  says  that  in  a  letter  of 
Sept.  23,  1727,  the  governor  calls  to  mind  this  request  of  the 
Jesuit  fathers  who  departed  in  the  spring  for  the  Sioux,  and  that  since 
then  they  have  again  asked  him  to  request  a  compass  with  a  grapho- 
rneter. — Ed. 

2  Charles  le  Moyne,  second  of  the  name,  and  first  baron  of  Longueuil, 
was  the  eldest  of  the  famous  sons  of  the  first  Sieur  de  Longueuil, 
a  Canadian  colonist  ennobled  by  the  king.  His  most  noted  brothers 
were  Bienville  and  Iberville,  connected  with  the  founding  of  Louisi- 
ana. Charles,  as  the  eldest,  remained  in  Canada.  He  was  a  man  of 
ability  and  esteemed  by  his  contemporaries;  was  adopted  among  the 
Iroquois  and  had  great  influence  with  them.  He  was  born  at  Mon- 
treal, 1656;  sent  to  France  to  be  educated;  served  as  an  officer  from 
1687-91,  when  he  went  to  France  to  recover  from  a  wound.  Return- 
ing to  Canada  he  served  efficiently  the  remainder  of  that  war,  and 
In  that  of  1702-13;  was  made  governor  of  Montreal,  and  served  as 
acting  governor  of  Canada  1725-26.     He  died  in  1729.— Ed. 



1727]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Monsieur  d'  Aigremont,  commissary-general ;  and  of  Monsieur 
de  La  Corne,  lieutenant  of  the  King,  at  Montreal — have  settled 
and  deteilnined  the  articles  of  engagement  demanded  of  the 
undersigned  interested  in  the  Sioux  Company  as  follows,  to  wit : 

First  Article. — ^That  the  trade  of  the  whole  Sioux  country 
shall  he  granted  and  permitted  to  the  undersig-ned  purely  and 
simply  for  three  entire  and  consecutive  years  to  the  exclusion  of 
all  others  whomsoever,  so  tliat  nobody  shall  be  permitted  to  go  or 
to  send  one  or  more  canoes  thither  without  the  consent  of  the 
said  Company.  And  if  any  person,  of  whatsoever  quality  or 
condition  he  may  be,  should  go  there  to  trade,  the  commanding 
offiicer  shall  be  at  liberty  and  is  even  ordered  to  have  his  goods 
■confiscated  and  distributed  in  accordance  with  the  orders  we 
may  deem  advisable  to  give,  and  that  one  half  of  the  goods  so 
confiscated  shall  belong  to  the  said  Company. 

That  the  said  interested  parties  shall  not  trade  nor  hunt  in  the 
■direction  of  Point  Chagouamigon,  elsewhere  than  in  the  hunt- 
ing grounds  whither  the  Sioux  go,  and  that  on  the  side  of  la 
Baye,  they  shall  likewise  go  only  in  the  Sioux  hunting  grounds, 
they  shall  not  be  permitted  to  trade  on  the  Ouisconsin  nor  on  the 
portage  by  which  they  must  pass  to  reach  the  Sioux,  which  shall 
serve  as  the  boundary  for  both  territories. 

Second  Article. — That  they  shall  not  build  forts  nor  houses 
equivalent  to  the  same  in  the  hunting  grounds,  but  only  in  the 
place  where  the  commanding  officer  shall  establish  his  post. 

Third  Article. — That  the  said  interested  parties  shall  have 
permission  to  send  up  to  the  Sioux  country  during  the  next  two 
years  such  number  of  canoes  as  they  may  deem  advisable. 
Should  the  prospects  of  the  profit  to  be  gained  in  the  trade  be- 
come greater,  in  order  to  induce  them  to  increase  the  quantity  of 
goods  and  the  number  of  canoes  to  be  sent  thither,  the  share  at 
present  owned  by  each  of  the  associates  shall  be  increased  in  the 
same  proportion  as  general  increase  of  the  whole  trade.  Thus, 
if  the  trade  which  at  present  employs  nine  canoes  should  after- 
wards employ  twelve,  each  one  may  increase  what  he  had  at  the 
beginning  by  one  fourth. 

Fourth  Article. — That  at  the  expiration  of  three  years  they 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

shall  be  given  the  preference  over  the  highest  and  last  bidder. 
If  the  trade  be  given  to  the  highest  bidder,  or  if  we  should  deem 
advisable  to  fix  the  price  ourselves,  they  shall  have  the  preference 
over  all  others  if  they  wish  to  accept. 

Fifth  Article. — Should  they  be  stopped  on  the  way  in  the 
country  of  the  Eenards  or  beyond,  or  should  tbey,  when  tbey 
reach  the  Sioux  country,  be  compelled  by  superior  force  to  return 
this  year,  they  shall  be  permitted  to  trade  their  goods  wherevei^ 
they  think  proper,  under  the  orders  of  the  commanding  officer, 
who  shall  have  power  to  decide  the  destination  of  each  one  in 
?uch  manner  as  he  may  deem  most  expedient  for  the  welfare  of 
the  King's  service  and  that  of  the  Colony. 

Sixth  Article. — That  all  of  the  said  interested  parties  who 
may  be  compelled  thereto  through  illness  or  domestic  reasons, 
shall  be  at  liberty  to  abandon  the  trade  and  to  return  to  it  before 
the  expiration  of  the  three  years,  in  such  manner  nevertheless 
that  no  one  shall  leave  the  Sioux  country  without  the  expresa 
permission  in  writing  of  the  commanding  officer. 

Seventh  Article. — That  no  associate  shall  transfer  his  share 
either  wholly  or  partially  except  to  persons  of  good  character, 
free  from  scandal  of  every  kind  and  who  will  not  interpose  any 
obstacle  to  the  establishment  of  Religion  amongst  that  great 
number  of  barbarous  peoples,  so  that  God's  blessings  may  rest 
on  their  persons  and  trade. 

Eighth  Article. — That  all  the  associates  without  exception  and 
all  persons  in  their  employ  shall  be  forbidden  to  absent  them- 
selves from  the  fort  that  is  to  be  built,  for  the  purpose  of  hunt- 
ing, without  the  express  permission  of  Monsieur  the  com- 

Ninth  Article. — That  the  said  interested  parties  bind  them- 
selves to  leave  in  the  fort  next  spring  two  men  per  canoe,  making 
eighteen  men  not  including  the  servants  of  Messieurs  the  offi- 
cers; and  those  of  the  missionaries,  and  that  they  may  employ 
the  other  voyageurs  in  conveying  their  furs  to  Montreal  and  in 
bringing  back  goods  therefrom ;  this  shall  likewise  apply  to  the 
last  two  years. 

Tenth  Article. — That  when  they  shall  leave  the  said  post  they 


1727]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

shall  be  at  liberty  to  sell  the  houses  they  may  have  built  for  them- 
selves and  on  their  private  account. 
i     In  return  for  the  above  concessions  the  said  interested  parties 
undertake : 

1.  To  build  a  fort  of  stakes,  a  chapel,  a  house  for  the  com- 
manding officer,  and  one  for  the  missionaries  in  such  place  and  in 
such  manner  as  may  be  ordered  by  the  commanding  officer, 
whom  they  promise  to  obey  and  listen  to  in  everything  he  may 
command  them  for  the  King's  service,  the  discipline  of  the  post, 
and  the  welfare  of  the  Colony. 

2.  They  further  undertake  to  have  conveyed  free  of  cost  from 
here  to  the  Sioux  country  whatever  may  be  given  them  either  for 
the  commanding  officer  or  for  the  missionaries  to  the  extent  of 
600  pounds  weight  per  canoe,  namely :  300  pounds  weight  for  the 
commandant  and  as  much  for  the  missionaries ;  this  shall  be  so 
<jonstrued  that  the  canoe  carrying  the  officer  shall  not  be  included, 
for  this  year  only,  in  the  number  of  those  that  will  have  to  carry 
600  pounds  weight,  neither  shall  the  canoe  in  charge  of  the 
officer  second  in  command,  and  the  two  canoes  carrying  the  two 
missionaries  with  their  provisions,  chapel,  and  beds  shall  each 
carry  300  pounds  weight; 

3.  During  the  following  years,  they  shall  be  absolutely  bound 
to  cause  to  be  conveyed  into  the  said  Sioux  country,  to  the  fort 
to  be  built  there,  and  to  the  house  of  the  commanding  officer  pro- 
visions and  other  necessary  and  useful  articles  to  the  extent  of 
1,350  pounds  weight  for  each  of  the  last  two  years.  But  should 
the  trade  not  be  successful  and  should  it  be  possible  to  send  down 
only  a  small  number  of  canoes,  then  and  in  such  case  they  shall 
be  bound  to  carry  only  1,000  pounds  weight  for  the  commanding 
officer ; 

4.  They  likewise  undertake  to  cause  to  be  conveyed  from 
Montreal  to  the  said  Sioux  country,  to  the  missionaries'  house, 
whatever  may  be  given  them  for  the  latter  in  each  of  the  said 
years  to  the  extent  of  1,000  pounds  weight,  whether  many  canoes 
<x>me  here  or  not ; 

5  They  further  undertake  to  purchase  three  or  four  extra 
canoes  when  they  reach  Michilimakinak  in  order  the  more  easily 

[  :t;i  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

to  traverse  the  Eiver  of  the  Eenards  and  that  of  Ouisconsing^ 
and  to  carry  in  such  canoes  600  pounds  weight  for  the  mis- 
sionaries, and  also  to  convey  the  said  goods  to  the  weight  of  600 
pounds  from  Missilimakinak  to  the  Sioux  country,  not  including 
the  sacks  of  Indian  corn  which  they  undertake  to  carry  for  the 
subsistence  of  the  said  missionaries,  not  only  in  this  first  year 
but  in  those  following. 

Finally  it  is  agreed  with  one  of  the  associates,  named  Fran- 
gois  Oampeau,  that  he  shall  be  at  liberty  to  work  at  his  trade  of 
blacksmith  for  all  who  may  wish  to  employ  him  and  pay  him 
therefor;  in  consideration  whereof  the  said  Campeau  undertakes 
to  give  to  the  said  Company  for  each  of  the  said  three  years,  the 
sum  of  400  livres  in  furs  or  in  coin  at  his  option  and  in  addi- 
tion to  provide  free  of  charge  thirty  screws  [Fr.  vices;  vis?]  or 
the  equivalent  thereof  in  primers  [Fr.,  grain'].^ 

All  the  associates  have  agreed  to  everything  above  set  forth 
and  have  consented  that  if  any  of  them  shall  infringe  any  of  the 
above  articles  he  shall  be  severely  punished  and  deprived  of  all 
his  rights. 

And,  after  reading  the  articles  of  demands  and  undertakings 
above  set  forth  the  said  associates  of  the  Sioux  Company  have 
consented  to  carry  out  everything  therein  contained,  and  have 
accepted  and  agreed  to  all  the  charges  and  conditions  therein 
stipulated,  for  the  fulfilment  whereof  they  have  all  signed  with 
us,  and  also  the  above  named. 

Done  at  Montreal,  this  sixth  day  of  June  one  thousand  seven 
hundred  and  twenty  seven. 

Signed:  Beauharnois,  Longueuil,  La  Come,  d'  Aigremont, 
Saint  George  Dupre,  Youville,  Pierre  Daillay,^  Marin,  Etienne 
Petit,  Garrau,^  Frangois  Campeau,  Frangois  du  May,  Pierre 

lyices.  Phonetically,  this  would  be  vis  (screws).  All  whom  I  have 
consulted  agree  on  this.  If  the  word  be  vis,  I  should  say  that  it  means 
the  special  screws  required  for  the  flint-locks  of  the  guns  of  the  period. 
In  that  case,  grains  would  mean  primers.  However,  this  is  merely  con- 
jecture.— Crawford  Lindsay,  translator. 

2 Given  as  Dumay,  in  Supplement  to  Canadian  Archives,  1899,  p.  132, 
where  this  document  is  calendared. — Ed. 

sGarreau,  IMd. — Ed. 


1727J         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

\  .  . 

Richard,  Jean  Baptiste  Boucher  de  Monthrun,  Francois  Boucher 
,  de  Montbrun  and  Jean  Garran.^ 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  the  Marquis  de  Beauharnois  and  Monsieur 
Dupuy2  to  the  French  Minister,  translated  from  a  document  published 
by  Margry,  Dccouv.  et  ctdbl.,  vi,  pp.  545,  546.] 

Quebec,  September  25th,  1727. 

You  recommend  me  also,  Monseigneur,  to  give  great  care  to 
sending  one  or  two  missionaries  among  the  Sioux.  The  Eev- 
erend  Jesuit  Fathers,  of  whom  I  have  requested  two  for  this 
pur]'X)se,  have  assigned  them,  and  they  departed  last  spring.^  It 
was  necessary,  on  account  of  the  condition  of  affairs  with  regard 
to  the  Renards  (which,  we  have  had  the  honor  to  report  to  you, 

iMost  of  these  men  were  natives  of  Canada,  and  inhabitants  of 
Montreal.  The  two  Bouchers  de  Montbrun  seem  to  have  been  the 
leaders  in  the  enterprise.  They  were  sons  of  Ren6  Jean  Boucher, 
seigneur  de  Montbrun,  and  in  1729  commandant  of  the  mlilitia  for 
all  the  "southern  coast"  of  New  France.  It  is  probable  that  Marin 
was  the  man  of  that  name  who  played  so  conspicuous  a  part  in  the 
Fox  War.    See  p. ,  vost. — ^Ed. 

2  So  in  Margry,  but  internal  evidence  proves  it  to  be  from  Beauhar- 
nois only. — Ed. 

3 These  were  Guignas  and  De  Gonnor.  Michel  (or  Louis  Ignace) 
Guignas  was  born  in  1681,  and  entered  the  Jesuit  order  in  1702.  Four- 
teen years  later  he  came  to  Canada,  and  was  sent  to  the  Ottawa  mission 
at  Mackinac.  Chosen  by  his  superiors  to  undertake  the  new  mission 
to  the  Sioux  in  1727,  several  accounts  of  his  adventures  are  extant 
(see  post).  The  fort  being  abandoned  in  1728,  on  account  of  the  Fox 
war,  Guignas  was  captured  by  Wisconsin  Indians,  and  narrowly  es- 
caped death  at  the  stake.  He  was  again  at  the  Sioux  post  (1732-37), 
and  returning  to  Quebec  in  1740,  died  there  in  1752. 

Nicolas  (or  Flavin)  de  Gonnor  accompanied  Guignas  to  the  Sioux 
fort.  He  returned  to  Quebec  with  La  Perriere  in  1728,  and  was  after- 
wards stationed  at  the  missions  of  Sault  St.  Louis  and  Lorette,  dying 
at  Quebec  in  1759,  aged  68  years.— Eu. 

[  15  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

Monsieur  Dupuy  and  myself,  in  reply  to  a  Memoir  of  the  King) 
to  have  these  two  missionaries  accompanied  by  a  certain  number 
of  Frenchmen,  both  to  put  them  in  a  position  to  defend  them- 
selves in  case  of  war,  and  also  to  work  with  more  diligence  upon 
the  post,  which  it  is  necessary  to  make  for  the  safety  of  these 

I  made  an  agreement  with  the  voyageurs  who  conveyed  them, 
according  to  which  they  are  charged  with  all  the  expenses,  as 
you  will  see  by  the  copy  of  the  agreement,  which  I  have  the  honor 
to  send  you. 

It  was  necessary,  also,  Monseigneur,  for  discipline  and  good 
order,  to  place  at  the  head  of  this  detachment  a  wise  and  dis- 
interested officer.  The  Reverend  Jesuit  Fathers  urgently  re- 
quested Sieur  de  la  PerriererBoucher,^  whom  I  had  appointed, 
in  conformity  with  the  orders  that  you  had  addressed  to  Mon- 
sieur le  baron  de  Longueuil,  to  go  to  la  Baye  instead  of  Sieur 
de  La  ISToue,"  whom  you  had  designated  to  relieve  Sieui'  Am^ari- 
ton.  I  could  not  send  Sieur  de  La  J^oue  to  this  post  for  the 
reasons  which  I  have  formerly  written,  and  because  of  the  repre- 
sentations made  to  me  since  my  arrival  by  the  Jesuit  Fathers, 
who  assured  me  that  this  officer,  although  a  very  capable  and 
worthy  subject,  had  the  misfortune  not  to  be  acceptable  to  the^N'a- 
tions  of  that  post  and  to  be  distrusted  by  the  tribe  of  the  Re- 
nards,  their  allies.  Is'either  could  I  refuse  the  request  of  tlie 
Reverend  Jesuit  Fathers  for  the  sieur  de  la  Perriere  to  under- 

iRene  Boucher,  Sieur  de  la  Perriere,  one  of  the  sons  of  Sieur  Pierre 
Boucher  de  Boucherville,  governor  of  Trois  Rivieres,  was  born  in 
1668,  and  died  in  1742.  He  was  a  noted  French  officer,  and  commanded 
one  division  of  the  expedition  that  attacked  Haverhill,  Mass.,  in  1708. 
In  1715  he  had  been  sent  among  the  Sioux  to  try  and  detach  them 
from  the  Renard  alliance.  The  two  leaders  of  the  trading-company, 
the  Montbruns,  were  his  nephews. — Ed. 

2Zacherie  Robertel,  Sieur  de  la  Koue,  born  in  1665,  was  in  command 
of  the  post  at  Kamanistigoya,  north  of  Lake  Superior,  from  1717*21. 
Possibly  the  reason  he  was  so  unacceptable  to  the  tribes  at  La  Baye 
was,  because  he  had  instigated  the  Cristinaux  and  other  northern  tribes 
to  attack  the  Sioux,  allies  of  the  Foxes.  See  also,  Wis.  Hist.  Colls., 
xvi,  p.  440. — Ed. 

[  16  ] 


1727]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


ke  the  Sioux  establishment.  Under  these  circumstances,  I  was 
oblig-ed  to  send  sieur  Duplessis^  back  to  la  Baye,  whei'e  he  bad 
been  stationed  by  Monsieur  de  I^ngueuil,  before  he  received 
your  orders,  but  I  count  on  being  able  to  relieve  him!  next  spring, 
he  liim&elf  having  requested  of  me  permission  to  return  to  his 

Mm  T 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Sept.  25,  1727.  MS.  in  archives  of  Ministdre  des  Colonies,  Paris; 
press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  gen.,  vol.  49,  c.  11,  fol.  132."] 

MoxsETGXEui^ — I  believe  that  it  is  my  duty  to  have  the 
honor  to  inform  you  that  every  year  there  come  into  this  Colony 
people  from  M'issisipy,  who  descend  to  Montreal  and  Quebec  in 
order  to  go  to  France,  and  likewise  the  French  of  Canada  pasa  to 
the  Mississipy,  of  whom  there  is  no  more  information,  both 
classes  Without  passports.  This  gives  rise  to  great  abuses  and 
rascalities  on  the  part  of  those  who  pass  from  one  colony  to  the 
other,  without  paying  the  merchants,  who  have  lent  them  mer- 
chandize in  good  faith  and  who  hear  nothing  more  of  them; 
It  is  to  remedy  these  abuses  that  I  have  undertaken,  Monseig- 
neur,  to  beg  you  to  give  orders  to  the  commandant  of  Louisiana 
to  arrest  all  the  French  of  Canada  who  go  to  the  Missisijjy 
Without  being  furnished  with  a  Passport,  and  to  give  me  notice 
of  it;  I  only  Hope  that  you  will  find  it  satisfactory  that  I  shall 
do  the  same  for  the  French  of  the  Missisipy,  who  come  to  this 
Colony  without  a  Passport ; 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  a  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 

seigneur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant 

Quebec,  September  25th,  1727. 

iFrangois  Lefebre,  Sieur  Duplessis-Fabert,  was  in  command  at  La 
Eaye  in  1T2G.  In  a  list  of  Canadian  officers  drawn  up  in  1736,  he  la 
thus  described:  "Age,  45  to  50.  Precise.  Clever.  Few  friends.  Ca- 
det, 1698;  Ensign,  1700;  Lieutenant,  1714;  Captain,  1727."— Ed. 

2  [17] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol.  xvii 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated,  Oct.  24,  1727, 
with  an  enclosure  dated  Oct.  15,  1726.  MS.  in  archives  of  Minist§re 
des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  49,  c.  11, 
fol.  164  ff."] 

MoNSEiGNEUK — The  Sieur  Amariton^  has  brought  me  an 
Extract  from  a  letter  of  Monsieur  de  Liette,  which  will  be  added 
to  my  packet,  whereby  you  will  see,  Monseigneur,  that  that 
officer  incurred  considerable  expense  in  ransoming  an  Ilinois 
.woman  who  was  tied  to  the  stake  to  be  burned.  I  had  given 
Monsieur  the  Intendant  a  Statement  of  the  expense  and  the 
certificates  of  the  Missionary  fathers  to  be  annexed  to  the  Joint 
letter.  I  told  the  Sieur  Amariton  to  see  Monsieur  Dtipuy  to 
have  the  joint  letter  made  out  thereon.  He  came  to  tell  me  that 
Monsieur  the  Intendant  would  write  privately  and  that  I  should 
do  the  same  on  my  part  I  have  read,  Monseigneur,  the  original 
of  Monsieur  de  Liette's  letter. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig- 

neur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant. 

Quebec,  October  24th,  1727. 

As  we  have  no  news  of  the  Sioux  detachment,  everybody 
believes  that  it  has  passed. 

Extract  from  a  Letter  written  hy  Monsieur  de  Liette,  captain 
and  commandant  at  fort  de  chastre^  in  the  ilinois  country,  to 
Monsieur  de  Lignery,  captain  in  Canada  and  commandant  gevr 
eral  of  the  savage  countries,  dated  October  15,  1726. 

iFrangois  Amariton,  captain  in  the  colonial  troops,  had  been  com- 
mandant at  Green  Bay,  1723-26.  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  for  his 
career  at  this  place. — ^Ed. 

2 Fort  Chartres  was  originally  built  in  1720  by  Boisbriant  as  a  cen- 
tre for  defense  in  the  Illinois  country,  on  a  site  a  mile  east  of  the 
Mississippi,  and  about  sixteen  miles  northwest  of  Kaskaskia.  This 
first  fort  was  of  the  ordinary  stockade  kind,  replaced    (1753-56)    by 

[  18  ] 

"1727]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

I  represented  with  praise  to  the  illinois  nation  the  kindness 
displayed  by  monsieur  Amarition  in  Ransoming  the  Illinois 
voman  who  passed  as  The  wife  of  michel  aco/  and  the  large 
uantity  of  goods  it  cost  him  to  save  her  from  the  fire,  but  it 
as  in  vain.     Those  savages  are  ungrateful  beings  who  think 
ne  is  obliged  to  do  what  one  does  for  them.     It  is  nevertheless 
sad  thing  that  that  captain  should  have  incurred  so  heavy  an 
pense.     It  should  be  paid  by  The  company,  to  which  I  have 
■written.     I  ho'pe  it  will  produce  some  effect  but  I  have  difficulty 
in  believing  it.     It  is  harder  to  obtain  repayment  from  The 
company  than  I  from   the  king.^     If    peace   were  concluded,  I 
think  that  monsieur  damariton  might  be  able  with  The  cer- 
tificates of  the  reverend  Jesuit  fathers  and  of  the  French,  to 
obtain  some  repayment.     I  should  like,  with  all  my  heart,  to 
be  of  some  use  to  Him  in  this.     If  he  thinks  I  can  be^  let  him 
tell  me  in  what  manner  and  I  will  do  everything  in  my  power. 
True  copy  of  the  original  which  is  in  my  hands, 

De  Ligneei. 

an  immense  stone  fortiflcatiou  which  cost  nearly  $1,000,000.  This  lat- 
ter was  surrendered  to  the  English  in  1765.  Nine  years  later.  Fort 
Chartres  was  undermined  by  the  Mississippi,  and  had  to  be  aban- 
doned. See  "Old  Fort  Chartres"  in  Mason,  Chapters  from  Illinois 
History  (Chicago,  1901).— Ed. 

1  Michael  Accault  (Aco)  accompanied  Hennepin  on  his  voyage  of 
discovery  in  1680,  probably  as  chief  of  the  party  sent  out  by  La  Salle. 
He  settled  among  the  Illinois,  and  married  the  daughter  of  a  Kaskas- 
kia  chief;  their  child  was  baptized  in  1695.  This  woman  rescued 
by  Amariton  was  evidently  the  same  person. — Ed. 

2Desliettes  refers  to  the  Company  of  the  Indies,  for  whose  history 
see  Wis.  ffist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  440,  note. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 


[Extract  from,  a  letter  from  the  French  minister  to  the  Intendant 
Dupuy,  dated  May  14,  1728.  MS.  in  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colo- 
nies, Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  gen.,  vol.  50,  c.  11,  fol.  464.] 

Monsieur — • 


If  he  [Beauhamois]  has  not  coQSTilted  you  in  regard  to  the 
recall  of  some  Officers  from  the  posts  and  to  the  choice  of  those 
who  were  to  replace  them,  it  is  hecanse  he  alone  has  the  power 
to  order  such  changes  and  destinations.  I  am  nevertheless  con- 
vinced that  had  the  accord  between  you  been  such  as  his  Majesty 
had  ordered,  He  would  not  have  failed  to  communicate  such 
Views  to  you,  not  only  as  regards  the  trade  at  those  posts  but 
also  in  order  to  have  your  advice/  You  would  have  acted  as 
he  has.  done  in  similar  circumstances,  and  it  is  not  without 
reason  that  His  Majesty  had  recommended  you  to  live  on  good 
Terms,  inasmuch  as  discordant  conduct  is  always  opposed  to 
the  good  of  his  Service  and  the  welfare  of  the  Colony. 

With  Kegard  to  the  Sieur  de  la  Eonde,  I  am  writing  to 
Monsieur  de  Beauharnois  to  recall  him  from  the  post  where  he 
is  and  not  to  give  him  any  other  under  any  pretext  whatsoever. 
I  am  also  sending  him  a  Copy  of  the  two  documents  which  you 
have  discovered  in  connection  with  his  conduct  during  his 
journey  to  Boston  in  1723,  without  informing  him  by  whom 
that  discovery  was  made."  You  will  be  pleased  to  send  me  the 
two  Originals  on  the  return  of  Monsieur  the  Comte  Des  Gouttes 
who  commands  the  store-ship  TElephant.  Should  you,  in  the 
future,  make  any  similar  discoveries  respecting  other  Officers, 
you  will  be  careful  to  inform  me  of  the  same. 

You  will  see,  by  what  his  Majesty  writes  to  Monsieur  de 

1  Beauharnois  and  Dupuy  were  not  in  accord,  and  the  latter  was 
recalled  in  September  of  this  same  year. — Ed. 

2 For  this  expedition  of  La  Ronde,  see  his  memoir,  post.  He  suc- 
ceeded in  clearing  himself  of  the  charges,  since  Beauharnois  appointed 
him  to  La  Pointe  de  Chequamegon,  a  post  which  he  held  for  many 
years. —  Ed. 


il28]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


^eaiiharnois  and  you  jointly,  what  his  views  are  regarding  the 

farming  of  the  posts,  which  must  be  carefully  considered. 

You  will  also  see  by  the  same  despatch  what  his  Intentions 

are  with  reference  to  the  post  established  by  the  English  at 

Choiiegan  [Oswego]. 


I  remain,  Monsieur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient 

Versailles,  May  14th,  1728. 


[Extract  of  a  memoir  from  the  king  to  the  governor  and  intendant 
of  New  France,  dated  at  Versailles,  May  14,  1728.  N.  Y.  Colon.  Docs., 
ix,  pp.  1004,  1005.] 

According  to  the  intelligence  his  Majesty  had  received  re- 
specting the  negotiation  of  peace  between  the  Illinois  and  Foes 
Indians,  he  had  reason  to  believe  that  it  was  on  the  eve  of  being 
concluded,  and  has  been  much  surprised  to  learn,  not  only  that 
it  had  been  broken  off,  but  still  more,  that  Sieur  de  Beauharnois 
had  determined  on  making  war  on  the  Foxes. ^  His  Majesty 
is  persuaded  of  the  necessity  of  destroying  that  l^ation,  as  it 
cannot  keep  quiet,  and  as  it  will  cause,  so  long  as  it  exists,  both 
trouble  and  disorder  in  the  Upper  country ;  but  he  should  have 
wished  that  such  a  step,  the  success  whereof  is  problematical. 
had  been  postponed  until  his  orders  had  been  received.  It  is 
even  to  be  feared  that  the  project  may  not  have  been  so  secret 
as  that  the  Indians  have  not  been  informed  of  it.  In  this  case, 
if  they  foresee  their  inability  to  resist,  they  will  have  adopted 
the  policy  of  retreating  to  the  Scioux  of  the  Prairies,  from 
which  point  they  will  cause  more  disorder  in  the  Colony  than 
if  they  had  been   allowed  to  remain  quiet  in   their  village. 

iFor  Beauhamois's  change  of  plan,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  iii,  pp.  161- 
165.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

Possibly,  even  the  other  l^ations,  who  have  been  apparently 
animated  against  the  Foxes,  will  be  touched  at  their  destruction, 
and  become  more  insolent  should  we  not  succeed.  As  the  expe- 
dition is  apparently  organized  at  present,  his  Majesty  has  been 
graciously  pleased  to  allow  the  60  m."  demanded  by  Sieurs  de 
Beauhamois  and  Dupuy,^  for  the  expenses  of  that  war,  newa 
of  the  success  of  which  will  be  expecting  [expected]  with  im- 


[Relation  of  the  voyage  by  Father  Guignas,  in  a  letter  to  Beauhar- 
nois,  dated  at  the  mission  of  the  Archangel  St.  Michael,  Fort  Beauhar- 
nois,  in  the  Sioux  Country,  May  29,  1728.  Translated  from  a  tran- 
Bcript  made  in  Paris  for  St.  Mary's  College,  Montreal.  Also  given  in 
Margry,  Becouv.  et  etab.,  vi,  pp.  552-558.] 

The  convoy  for  the  Sioux  departed  from  the  end  of  Montreal 
Island,  last  year,  on  the  16th  of  the  month  of  June,  toward 
eleven  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  reached  Michilimakinac  on 
the  22nd  of  the  month  of  July.  This  post  is  251  leagues  from 
Montreal,  almost  directly  west,  in  45°  46'  North  latitude.  We 
spent  the  rest  of  the  month  at  this  post,  hoping  from  day  to  day 
to  receive  some  news  from  Montreal,  and  for  the  purpose  of 
strengthening  ourselves  against  the  pretended  extreme  diffi- 
culties of  securing  free  passage  through  the  country  of  the 
Renards.  Finally,  as  nothing  was  seen,  our  journey  was  re- 
sumed on  the  first  of  the  month  of  Augvist ;  and,  after  73  leagues 
of  prosperous  navigation  along  the  Northern  shore  of  lake 
Michigan,  running  towards  the  Southwest,  we  reached  la  Baye 
on  the  8th  of  the  same  month,  at  half  past  5  o'clock  in  the 

That  post  is  in  44°  41'  north  latitude;  a  halt  of  two  days 
was  made  there,  and  on  the  morning  of  the  11th  we  embarked, 
as  we  were  very  impatient  to  arrive  among  the  Eenards. 

iSee  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  476,  477.— Ed. 

[  22  ] 


1728]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

'  On  the  third  day  after  the  departure  from  la  Baye,  very  late 
in  the  evening,  even  somewhat  far  into  the  night,  the  chiefs  of 
the  Piiants^  came  out  three  leagues  from  their  village  to  meet 
the  French,  with  their  peace  calumets  and  with  refreshments  of 
bear's  meat.  On  the  next  day,  the  French  w^ere  received  by 
this  nation,  now  very  small  in  numbers,  to  the  sound  of  several 
discharges  of  musketry,  and  amid  great  demonstrations  of  joy. 
They  asked  us  with  so  good  grace  to  do  them  the  honor  of 
spending  some  time  among  them,  that  the  rest  of  the  day  was 
granted  them,  from  noon  until  the  following  night.  There  may 
be  in  this  village  60  or  80  men  in  all;  but  all,  both  men  and 
women,  are  very  tall  and  well-built.  They  are  upon  the  borders 
of  a  very  pretty  little  lake,  in  quite  an  agreeable  place,  both 
for  situation  and  for  the  good  quality  of  the  soil,  at  14  leagues 
from,  la  Bayc  and  8  leasrucs  from  the  Eenards. 

F'arly  the  next  morning,  the  15th  of  the  month  of  August, 
the  convoy  set  out  in  fairly  good  weather  to  continue  on  its  way, 
but  a  storm  having  arisen  in  the  afternoon,  we  arrived  quite  wet 
and  while  the  rain  was  still  falling,  at  the  cabins  of  the  Renards, 
a  nation  so  dreaded  and  really  very  little  to  be  dreaded,  to  judge 
from  all  appearances.  It  is  composed  of  200  men  at  the  most; 
but  there  is  a  nursery-garden  of  children,  especially  of  boys 
between  ten  and  fourteen  years  old,  well  made  and  sturdy. 

Their  cabins"  are  upon  a  little  eminence  on  the  banks  of  a 
small  river  which  bears  their  name,  very  winding  or  sinuous, 
so  much  so  that  one  is  continually  making  the  entire  turn  of 
the  wheel  of  the  compass  there.  It  is,  however,  quite  broad  in 
appearance,  lying  between  a  chain  of  hills  upon  each  side ;  but 
there  is  only  one  miserable  little  channel  amid  this  apparent 
extent  of  bed,  which  is  a  kind  of  swamp  filled  with  rushes  and 
wild  rice  of  an  almost  impenetrable  density.  They  have  only 
simple  cabins  of  bark  without  any  sort  of  palisade  or  other 
fortification.     When  the  French  canoes  touched  their  shores, 

1  French  name  for  the  Winnebago  Indians.  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi, 
index. — ^Ed. 

2  For  the  location  of  the  Fox  village,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p. 
39,  note. — Ed. 

[  23  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

ttey  ran  down  with  their  peace  calumets  lighted  in  spite  of  the 
rain,  and  everybody  smoked. 

We  sojourned  among  them  the  rest  of  this  day  and  all  the 
next,  to  learn  their  intentions  and  sentiments  regarding  the 
French  establishing  themselves  among  the  Sioux.  Sieur 
Eeaume/  interpreter  of  the  languages  of  the  Indians  at  la  Baye, 
acted  with  zeal  and  devotion  to  the  King's  service.  Even  if  my 
testimony,  Monsieur,  should  not  be  deemed  impartial,  I  must 
have  the  honor  of  telling  you  that  the  Eieverend  Father  Chardon, 
an  old  missionary,  w^as  of  very  great  service  there :  and  the  pres- 
ence of  the  three  missionaries,  who  were  there,  reassured  these 
cut-throats  and  assassins  of  the  French  more  than  all  the  dis- 
courses of  the  best  orators  would  have  done.  A  general  council 
was  called  together  in  one  of  their  cabins ;  we  spoke  to  them  civ- 
illy and  amicably.  On  their  part  they  gave  us  some  rather  fine 
sides  of  dried  meat. 

Early  in  the  morning  of  the  following  Sunday,  the  17th  of 
the  month  of  August,  Father  Chardon  departed  with  Sieur 
Keaume  to  return  to  la  Baye,  and  the  company  of  the  Sioux, 
greatly  rejoicing  at  having  passed  with  so  much  ease  over  this 
obstacle  that  had  been  everywhere  represented  as  so  formidable, 
got  under  way  to  try  and  reach  their  destination. 

Kever  w^as  there  a  more  tiresome  voyage  made  than  this  that 
followed  on  account  of  the  uncertainty  regarding  the  route. 
"No  one  knew  it,  and  we  were  continually  going  astray  both  by 
water  and  by  land  for  lack  of  guides  and  pilots.  We  continued 
to  grope  our  way,  as  it  were,  for  a  week;  for  we  did  not  arrive 
until  the  ninth,  towards  three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  by  pure 
chance  (believing  ourselves  still  far  away)  at  the  portage  of  the 
Ouisconsin,  which  is  forty-five  leagues  from  the  Renards,  count- 
ing the  length  of  the  turnings  and  windings  of  this  wretched 
river.  This  portage  is  half  a  league  long,  the  half  of  it  being 
only  a  sort  of  swamp  full  of  mud.  The  Onisconsin  is  quite  a 
pretty  river,  but  far  inferior  to  what  has  been  said  of  it ;  prob- 
ably those  who  gave  a  description  of  it  in  Canada  had  only  seen 

1  Pierre  Reaume  was  Fox  interpreter  in  1718.    Ihid,  p.  377. — Ed. 

[  24  ] 

1728]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

it  at  higli  water  in  spring.  It  is  a  shallow  river  upon  a  bed  of 
shifting  sand  which  forms  banks  almost  everywhere,  which 
often  change  place.  The  shores  are  either  bare  and  rugged 
mountains  or  low  points  with  a  foundation  of  sand.  Its  course 
from  the  portage  is  from  I^orth  East  to  South  West.  To  its 
discharge  into  the  Mississipi  I  have  estimated  the  distance  at 
thirty-eight  leagues.  The  portage  is  in  43°  24'  North  latitude. 
The  Mississipi  from  the  mouth  of  the  Oiiisconsin  upwards 
flows  from  the  ITorth  West.  This  beautiful  river  is  spread  out 
between  two  chains  of  high  mountains,  barren  and  very  sterile, 
regularly  distant  from  each  other  one  league,  three  quarters  of 
a  league,  or  half  a  league  where  it  is  the  narrowest.  Its  centre 
is  occupied  by  a  chain  of  islands  well  wooded,  so  that  in  looking 
at  it  from  the  top  of  the  heights,  one  would  imagine  that  one 
was  looking  at  an  endless  valley  watered  on  right  and  left  by 
two  immense  rivers.  Sometimes  also  one  does  not  see  any 
river,  for  these  islands  are  overflowed  every  year  and  are  suit- 
able for  raising  rice.  At  58  leagues  according  to  my  estimate, 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Oiiisconsin,  in  going  up  the  Mississipi, 
is  lake  Pepin,  which  is  nothing  else  than  this  river  itself  stripped 
of  islands  in  this  place,  where  it  may  be  half  a  league  wide. 
The  part  of  this  river  that  I  have  traveled  over  is  not  very  deep, 
and  has  shallow  water  in  several  places,  because  its  bed  is  of 
shifting  sand  like  that  of  the  Oiiisconsin. 

On  the  17th  of  September,  1727,  at  noon,  we  reached  this 
lake,  which  had  been  chosen  as  the  end  of  our  voyage.  We 
established  ourselves  towards  evening  about  the  middle  of  the 
!N'orthern  shore  upon  a  low  point  whose  soil  is  excellent.  The 
woods  were  very  dense  there,  but  they  are  already  thinned  on 
account  of  the  rigor  and  length  of  the  winter,  which  has  been 
severe  for  the  climate,  for  we  are  here  in  latitude  43°  51'.^  It 
is  true  that  the  difference  in  the  winter  is  great  compared  with 
that  of  Quebec  and  Montreal,  whatever  certain  poor  judges  may 

iShea,  Early  Voyages  up  and  down  the  Mississippi  (Albany,  N.  Y., 
1861),  has  43°  41',  but  all  other  authorities  give  51'.  The  true  latitude 
is  about  44°  31'.— Ed. 

[  25  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

say  of  it.  The  day  after  landing  axes  were  applied  to  the  trees 
and  four  days  later  the  fort  was  entirely  finished.^  It  is  a  plat  of 
gronnd  a  hundred  feet  square  surrounded  by  stakes  twelve  feet 
high  with  two  good  bastions.  For  such  a  small  space  there  are 
large  buildings,  detached  and  not  crowded,  each  30,  38  and  25 
feet  long  by  16  feet  wide.  All  would  go  well  there  if  the  place 
was  not  subject  to  inundations ;  but  this  year,  on  the  15th  of  the 
month  of  April,  we  were  obliged  to  go  and  camp  outside  and  the 
water  roso  in  the  houses  to  the  height  of  two  feet  eight  inches ; 
and  it  is  useless  to  say  that  it  was  the  quantity  of  snow  that  fell 
this  year.  The  snow  about  the  fort  was  melted  a  long  time  be- 
fore ;  and  there  was  certainly  not  more  than  a  foot  and  a  half 
from  the  8th  of  February  until  the  15th  of  March ;  all  the  rest  of 
the  winter  one  could  not-  have  used  snowshoes.  I  have  good  rea- 
son for  believing  that  this  place  is  inundated  every  year.  I  al- 
ways had  the  same  opinion  of  it ;  but  they  were  not  obliged  to 
believe  me,  because  old  people  who  said  they  had  lived  here  fif- 
teen or  twenty  years  asserted  that  it  was  never  inundated.  We 
could  not  re-enter  the  rather  dilapidated  houses  until  the  30th  of 
the  same  month  of  April,  and  even  today  the  damages  are  hardly 

Before  the  end  of  October  all  the  houses  were  finished,  ,and 
furnished;  and  everyone  found  himself  lodged  peacefully  in 
his  own  home.  Nothing  was  thought  of  then  but  to  go  and 
reconnoitre  the  neighboring  districts  and  rivers,  to  see  those 
herds  of  fallow-deer  of  all  species  of  which  they  tell  such  tales 
in  Canada.  They  must  have  disappeared  or  have  greatly 
diminished  since  the  time  these  former  travelers  left  the  coun- 
try. They  are  no  longer  in  such  great  numbers,  and  it  is  hard 
to  kill  any. 

After  having  wandered  about  the  country  for  some  time 
everybody  returned  to  the  fort,  and  only  thought  of  enjoying 
for  a  little  the  fruits  of  their  labors.  On  the  4th  of  the  month 
of  INTovember  it  was  not  forgotten  that  this  was  the  fete  day  of 

1  For  the  location  of  Fort  Beauharnois,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  x,  pp. 
S02,    371.— Ed. 


1728]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Monsieur  the  General.  Holy  Mass  was  said  for  him  in  the 
morning,  and  we  were  much  inclined  to  celehrate  the  holiday  in 
the  evening;  but  the  slowness  of  the  Pyrotechnist,  and  the 
changeableness  of  the  weather  caused  the  celebration  to  be  post- 
poned until  the  14th  of  the  same  month,  when  some  very  fine 
rockets  were  fired  off  and  the  air  was  made  to  resound  with  a 
hundred  shouts  of  "Long  live  the  King,"  and  "Long  live  Charles 
•de  Beauharnois."  It  was  on  this  occasion  that  the  wine  of  the 
Sioux  was  made  to  flow,  and  it  was  most  excellent,  although  there 
are  no  finer  vines  here  than  in  Canada.  What  contributed 
much  to  the  amusement  was  the  terror  of  some  cabins  of  Indians 
who  were  then  around  the  fort.  When  these  poor  people  saw 
the  fireworks  in  the  air  and  the  stars  falling  from  heaven, 
women  and  children  took  to  flight,  and  the  most  courageous  of 
the  men  cried  for  mercy,  and  urgently  asked  !that  the  astonishing 
play  of  this  terrible  medicine  should  be  made  to  cease. 

As  soon  as  we  had  arrived  among  them  they  assembled  in  a 
very  few  days  around  the  French  fort  to  the  number  of  95 
cabins,  which  would  amount  in  all  to  150  men,  for  there  are 
at  the  most  two  men  each  in  their  portable  cabins  of  dressed 
skins,  and  in  many  there  is  only  one.  These  were  all  that  we 
have  seen,  except  a  band  of  about  60  men  who  came  on  the  26th 
of  the  month  of  February  and  were  of  those  Nations  that  are 
called  the  Sioux  of  the  Prairies.  At  the  end  of  l^ovember  the 
savages  departed  for  their  winter  quarters.  It  is  true  that  they 
did  not  go  far  away  and  that  there  were  always  some  to  be 
seen  during  the  winter.  But  since  the  2nd  of  last  April,  when 
several  cabins  of  them  repassed  here  to  go  to  their  spring  hunt- 
ing, none  of  them  have  been  seen.  One  canoe  of  ten  men, 
detailed  to  go  and  find  them,  looked  for  them,  in  vain  for  a  week 
even  for  more  than  sixty  leagues  up  the  Mississipi;  it  arrived 
yesterday  without  hearing  any  tidings  of  them. 

Although  I  have  said  that  the  Sioux  were  alarmed  at  the 
rockets,  which  they  took  for  new  phenomena,  it  must  not  be 
supposed  from  that  [that]  they  are  less  intelligent  than  other 
Indians  we  know. 

They  seem  to  me  more  so,  at  least  they  are  apparently  much 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

gayer  and  more  open  and  far  more  dexterous  thieves,  great 
dancers  and  great  medicine  men.  The  men  are  almost  all  large 
and  well  made;  but  the  women  are  very  ugly  and  disgusting, 
which  does  not  however  check  debauchery  among  them,  and  is 
perhaps  an  effect  of  it.^ 

1728:     NEWS    FROM    THE    WEST;    EXPEDITION    AGAINST    THE 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Aug.  4,  1728.  MS.  in  archives  of  ministSre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press- 
mark, "Canada,  Corresp.  g^n.,  vol.  50,  c.  11,  fol,  132."] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  liavc  the  honor  to  Send  you  Extracts  from 
several  Letters  written  from  the  upper  country  (respecting  the- 
Renards),  which  I  have  received  since  my  return  to  quebec. 
They  will  Show  you,  Monseigneur,  the  dispositions  of  those  sav- 
ages toward  the  French  and  that  the  ISTews  they  have  Had  of  the 
war  that  is  to  be  waged  against  them  has  not  made  Them  abandon 
their  village  as  was  At  first  stated.  I  augur  very  favorably,  Mon- 
seigneur, for  that  Undertaking,  having  received  l^ews  that  they 
were  divided  into  Two  parties  one  of  Which  claims  never  to 
have  killed  any  French  and'  those  of  the  other,  according  to 
appearances,  have  Convicted  themselves.  Their  forts  are  said 
to  be  at  a  distance  of  a  League  from  one  another. 

iThe  last  two  paragraphs  are  wanting  in  the  Montreal  MS.  and 
the  one  in  Margry,  vi,  pp.  552-558,  which  were  both  transcribed  from, 
the  Colonial  archives  in  Paris.  They  are  supplied  from  Shea's  trans- 
lation (op.  cit.),  who  says  that  this  letter  was  preserved  "among, 
the  papers  of  the  Geographer  Buache,  and  now  in  the  possession  of 
Mr.  Brevoort."  The  preceding  paragraph  in  Shea,  is  mutilated  and 
Imperfect;  either  he  translated  incorrectly,  or  the  MS.  he  used  was- 
an  imperfect  transcription. — ^Ed. 

2  This  expedition,  determined  on  by  Beauharnois,  left  Montreal  June^ 
5,  1728.  Tlie  standard  account  is  that  of  Crespel,  the  French  chaplaiiit 
of  the  expedition.  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  pp.  86-91;  x,  pp.  49-53. 
For  the  result  of  the  expedition,  see  letters  of  Lignery  and  Beau- 
harnois, Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  V,  pp.  92-95. — Ed. 



H  f  172S]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

B  f       I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig- 

neur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant, 

^  Beauhaenois* 

Quebec,  August  4th,  1728. 

The  fact  of  the  Scioux  having  been  killed  is  an  important 
item  in  this  matter.  This  news  is  all  the  more  welcome  since 
among  them  was  the  asylum  whither  it  was  thought  they  would 

Monsieur  Desliettes^  had  not  Yet,  on  April  12,  received 
^ews  Of  the  co-operation  [desired  of  him]  but  As  The  delay 
in  sending  my  Letter  was  due  solely  to  the  Illness  of  Monsieur 
de  Vincennes  who  was  not  among  the  Ouyatamons,^  There  is 
fiome  appearance  of  his  having  been  notified  of  it  before  the 
•end  Of  the  same  Month ;  They  will  in  any  case  have  plenty  of 
time  to  effect  the  Junction. 


[Letter  from  the  governor  to   the  French  Minister.     Source,   same 
as  that  of  preceding  document,  but  vol.  oO,  c.  11,  fol.  135.] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  have  the  honor  to  Send  You  an  Extract 
from  the  ]N^ews  received  from  the  upper  countries.     Monsieur 

1  For  the  letter  of  Beauharnois  requesting  the  co-operation  of  Des- 
liettes,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  iii,  p.  163. — Ed. 

2  Francois  Margaue  de  la  Valtries,  Sieur  de  Vincennes,  was  born  in 
1672,  and  in  1719  succeeded  his  uncle,  Jean  Baptiste  Bissot  as  the 
seigneur  of  Vincennes,  also  in  his  position  among  the  Miami  Indians. 
For  this  reason  the  identity  of  the  two  men  is  often  confused-  The 
junior  Vincennes  founded  the  post  on  the  Wabash,  called  by  his  name, 
probably  about  1727,  at  the  instigation  of  Perier,  governor  of  Louisiana, 
in  order  to  counteract  English  influence  among  the  Miamis.  Vincennes 
led  the  Miami  contingent  in  the  unfortunate  Chickasaw  expedition 
in  1736,  being  captured  and  burned  to  death  at  the  stake.  The 
Ouiatanon  (Wea)  Indians  were  an  important  tribe  of  the  Miamis.  For 
a  description  of  their  villages  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  376.  A 
French  commandant  was  sent  among  them  between  1715  and  1718. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvh 

De  La  perriere  and  Eeverend  Fatlier  de  Gonnor  have  arrived 
at  Montreal  from  the  Scionx.  They  passed  through  the  coun- 
try of  the  Renards  whom  they  found  very  quiet  In  Their  vil- 

There  is  Reasoni  To  hope,  Monseigneur,  that  The  affair  will 
he  concluded  to  The  advantage  Of  the  King's  army,  which  is 
a  Considerable  one  and  which  started  With  the  Intention  of 
absolutely  Eating  up  the  three  Villages  of  the  Renards  who  had 
sowed  a  great  extent  of  land  This  year.  I  expect  Reverend 
Father  de  Gonnor  at  any  moment  to  obtain  all  the  particulars 
of  his  Journey.  Monsieur  De  La  perriere  who  has  been  very 
111  and  who  has  not  Yet  recovered  his  health,  is  at  present  unable 
to  Come  down  to  Quebec. 

Our  Settled  Iroquois,  Monseigneur,  to  whom  I  had  Said  (In 
a  Council  that  I  held  with  Them)  that  they  must  speak  proudly 
to  the  Outawais  of  Missilimakina,  have  done  so  for  a  Wonder. 
They  reproached  them  in  the  presence  of  The  hurons  with  all 
the  Evil  things  that  they  knew  about  them  and  they  warned 
them  to  open  their  eyes  on  their  Conduct  And  that  if  they  did 
not  They,  the  Iroquois,  would  Go  to  Their  country  to  Avenge 
the  French  without  calling  the  latter  there. 

I  have  the  honor  To  Be  with  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 
seigneur, Your  very  humble  And  very  obedient  servant, 

Quebec,  August  18th,  1728. 

1728:     THE  FOXES  AT  HOME 

[Extracts  from  letters  of  La  Perriere  and  La  FresniSre,  dated 
respectively,  Sept.  10,  and  Sept.  13,  1728,  being  those  referred  to  by 
Beauharnois  in  the  preceding  document.  Macalester  College  ContribVr 
lions  (St.  Paul,  1890),  1st  series.  No.  7,  p.  188.  Cited  in  Canadian 
Archives  1886  (Ottawa,  1887),  p.  Ixxix.] 

La  Perriere  wrote  from  Montreal,  There  is  every  reason  to 
think  that  Monsieur  de  Lignery  will  find  the  Foxes  at  home. 
On  my  return  I  called  at  their  village,  which  seemed  to  be  very 

[  30  ] 

1728]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

quiet.     They  invited  me  to  stop,  but  I  told  them  never  could  I 
stay  in  a  place  stained  with  French  blood. 

Monsieur  de  La  Fresniere  wrote:  Nothing  had  been  done 
to  the  Sioux,  Tlie  French  there  having  been  well  enough  treated. 
Monsieur  de  La  Perriere  called  on  the  JFoxes,  who  wished  him 
to  stop  and-  camp  with  them,  but  he  said  that  he  could  never 
sleep  on  a  mat  dyed  with  French  blood.  The  chief  replied: 
"We  are  dead  men  since  our  Father  will  not  stop  one  night 
with  us.  Come !  if  you  will  take  me  in  your  canoe,  I  will  carry 
my  body  to  Montreal."  Monsieur  de  La  Perriere  said  that  he 
would  willingly  take  him. 


[Copy  of  a  letter,  dated  la  Baye,  Aug.  SO,  1728,  from  Lignery  to  Beau- 
harnois,  being  the  official  report  of  his  expedition.  MS.i  in  archives 
of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Collection  Moreau-St 
M6ry,  vol.  9,  f.  11,  1727-31,  fol.  152."] 

Monsieur — I  Avail  myself  of  The  opportunity  presented  by 
Monsieur  de  Cavagnial's^  departure  to  assure  you  of  my  Re- 
spect and  to  tell  you  in  a  few  words  what  oc.curred  on  our  jour- 
ney. I  reached  Michilimakinac  on  the  4th  of  August  and 
found  the  nation  of  the  Detroit ;  the  foUes  avoines  to  whom  I 
spoke  in  passing  and  who  followed  me  to  the  number  of  a  hun- 

1  This  is  the  letter  referred  to  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  p.  92;  but  appar- 
ently the  original  has  never  before  been  published  in  full. — Ed. 

2  This  was  Pierre  Franeois  Rigault,  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil,  later  gov- 
ernor of  Louisiana,  and  of  New  France.  He  was  born  in  Canada  In 
1698,  son  of  the  former  governor  of  the  same  name.  On  entering  the 
military  service  he  soon  attained  the  rank  'of  major,  and  was  known 
as  the  Chevalier  de  Cavagnal.  In  1733,  he  was  governor  of  Three  Riv- 
ers; 1743-53  of  Louisiana;  when  he  was  appointed  governor  of  New 
France,  which  office  he  held  until  the  conquest  by  the  English.  He 
died  at  Quebec  in  1793.  He  appears  to  have  accompanied  Lignery's 
expedition  as  commissary. — Ed. 

[  31  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

dred  men;  the  outaouas  of  Michilimakinac ;  the  saultenrs  and 
other  Savages  of  Lake  huron,  making  nearly  three  hundred 
men.  In  a  word,  Monsieur,  our  army  was  composed  of  nearly 
twelve  hundred  savages  and  four  hundred  and  fifty  French, 
including  those  whom  I  enlisted  at  Michilimakinac.  I  pro- 
ceeded to  la  Baye  where  we  arrived  about  midnight.  I  posted 
a  Detachment  of  Savages  on  one  side  of  the  river  and  one  of 
French  on  the  other.  With  the  help  of  some  sakis  whom  I  had 
with  me,  our  French  captured,  three  Puants  and  a  Eenard, 
whom  I  gave  to  the  tribes  that  they  might  drink  of  their  Broth. 
They  put  them  to  death  on  the  following  Day.  On  The  sec- 
ond day  of  our  march,  a  poulx  Settled  among  the  Puants  came 
to  meet  us  with  a  flag  followed  by  four  men  of  the  village  in 
order  to  ask  if  their  lives  might  be  spared,  the  latter  did  not 
appear  for  I  would  have  stopped  them.  I  sent  back  the  poulx 
to  tell  them  that  I  had  come  to  Listen  to  all  the  !N'ations,  even 
the  Renard  in  order  to  keep  them  there ;  but  the  poulx  did  not 
return.  We  continued  our  march  tow^ards  the  village  of  the 
puants,  but  they  had  left  tw^o  or  three  days  in  advance  of  us 
owing  to  our  having  been  delayed  by  the  rapids  of  the  river  in 
which  most  of  our  canoes  were  broken.  We  left  shortly  after- 
wards and  camped  between  two  villages  of  the  Renards.  It 
was  too  late  to  go  there.  I  sent  out  Scouts  and  on  the  Follow- 
ing morning  we  reached  the  first  village,  where  w^e  captured  an 
old  woman  and  a  young  girl  whom  we  questioned;  They  told 
us  that  their  people  had  left  in  great  haste  three  days  before. 
From  there  we  w^ent  to  the  second  village  where  we  captured 
an  old  Renard  who  told  us  the  same  thing.  We  continued  on 
our  way  and  slept  at  a  third  village,  where  we  found  no  one. 
I  summoned  all  our  savages  to  a  Council.  Having  learned 
from  some  scouts  that  they  had  found  a  wide  trail,  I  told  them 
that  the  nations  must  make  up  a  large  party  to  follow  it  for  at 
least  two  days  to  See  whether  they  could  not  discover  something; 
but  two  things  prevented  this.  Five  or  six  hundred  Savages 
had  remained  behind  at  the  second  village  of  the  Renards, 
which  delayed  The  matter,  moreover  the  savages  asked  me  for 
at  least  two  hundred  Frenchmen.     These  were  found  unfit  to 



r^     1728] 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

start  by  tlie  inspection  I  had  had  made  by  Monsieur  tlie 
Major  and  his  assistants;  as  the  men  had  no  Shoes  and  no 
other  food  than  Com.  Matters  remained  in  that  position. 
Moreover,  it  would  have  been  useless  to  Ck>ntinue  the  expedition 
in  the  Condition  in  which  we  found  ourselves,  whereof  Mon- 
;sieur  the  Major  will  inform  you,  Monsieur,  and  I  also  when  I 
ehall  have  the  honor  of  seeing  you,  unless  we  wished  to  Expose 
■  all  the  French  of  our  party  to  perish.  I  returned  to  the  middle 
village  where  I  found  an  old  Slave  woman  whom  the  Outaouas 
had  captured.  I  had  her  questioned  by  Ouilamek  and  she 
[stated  that  the  Renards  had  departed  four  nights  before  and 
lat  they  had  more  than  a  hundred  canoes  in  which  they  put 
'the  old  men,  the  women  and  children  while  all  the  warriors  fol- 
lowed on  foot  on  the  banks  to  protect  them.  Consequently, 
Monsieur,  the  nations  no  longer  spoke  of  going  after  them  and 
some  even  told  me  that  it  would  be  useless.  At  the  time  I 
thought  of  nothing  but  bringing  back  the  army  which — the 
savage  portion  at  least — had  obtained  ample  supplies  of  Indian 
Com.  I  caused  fire  to  be  set  to  the  four  villages,  and  all  the 
scattered  Cabins  to  be  Burned,  also  all  the  Com  to  be  cut  of 
which  there  was  so  great  a  quantity  that  one  could  not  believe 
it  without  seeing.  I  also  had  the  village  of  the  Puants  burned. 
Thus,  Monsieur,  terminated  our  Expedition  which  will  be  no 
less  advantageous  to  the  glory  of  the  King  and  the  welfare  of 
both  Colonies,  inasmuch  as  one-half  those  people  will  die  of 
hunger.  I  have  the  honor  of  informing  you.  Monsieur,  that 
before  leaving  the  Renards'  country,  I  sent  five  Frenchmen 
through  the  Woods  to  the  scioux.  I  gave  them  as  guides  two 
folles  avoines  who  had  come  from  there  this  year.  They  have 
been  well  paid,  and  I  trust  they  will  take  our  Frenchmen  to 
their  destination  in  safety,  I  informed  Monsieur  de  Boucher- 
ville  and  E-evereiid  Father  Guignas  of  all  that  we  had  done, 
and  I  told  them  to  strive  to  win  the  scioux  to  their  interests 
by  assuring  them  that  if  they  gave  the  Eenards  refuge  amongst 
Them,  they  would  bring  upon  themselves  a  War  with  all  the 
nations;  also  to  consider  what  was  the  best  thing  they  could 
do,  to  remain  or  to  return  by  la  pointe;  that  they  were  to  be 
3  [33] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol.  xvu 

guided  by  the  interest  the  scionx  might  take  in  them,  and  that 
next  spring  we  might  go  and  join  them  by  la  pointe ;  that  they 
■were  to  try  to  send  news  concerning  themselves  during  the 
winter  to  the  French  in  this  post,  that  I  would  tell  Monsieur  de 
Clignancourt,^  who  is  to  winter  here,  to  give  them  news  about 
himself  in  exchange  and  finally  not  to  Expose  themselves  nn- 
necessarily.  Such,  Monsieur,  is  The  mission  I  have  sent  to  the 
scionx.  The  two  foUes  avoines  are  to  return  to  their  village  in 
thirty-five  days  at  the  latest.  I  told  Monsieur  de  la  'Noiie  to 
send  news  about  himself  early  in  the  spring  to  Michilimakinac, 
and  I  ordered  my  son  to  Forward  the  same  to  Montreal  at  once, 
in  order  that  steps  may  be  taken  to  send  off  the  convoy  that  is 
to  go  to  the  scioux;  I  Send  herewith.  Monsieur,  a  letter  from 
Monsieur  Deliette  whi(?h  informs  you  of  what  he  has  done. 
Had  he  marched  toward  the  Oiiisconscink  with  the  southern 
people,  the  Renards  would  have  been  surrounded,  but  I  have  had 
the  honor  of  telling  you  that  those  people  could  not  be  relied 
on,  after  what  had  already  happened.  Monsieur  the  Major 
will  inform  you,  Monsieur,  of  many  other  slight  details.  We 
have  incurred  Expenses  at  Michilimakinac  for  canoes,  Indian 
corn,  and  beads  and  for  repairing  arms,  and  other  things.  He 
will  also  tell  you  of  the  unwillingness  of  the  Canadians.  I 
have  never  been  more  alive  to  the  necessity  of  having  troops  in 
this  country.  I  beg  you.  Monsieur,  to  honor  me  with  your 
protection  with  the  minister.  I  may  perhaps  come  down  late. 
I  flatter  myself  that  you  will  be  good  enough  to  Write  him.  in 
my  favor.  I  have  never  had  so  much  trouble  in  my  life  a:* 
during  the  past  four  months,  and  I  foresee  that  I  shall  have  a 
great  deal  of  trouble  at  Michilimakinac  in  getting  all  our 
French  sent  down  owing  to  the  mutinous  spirit  and  the  un- 
willingness of  the  voyageurs,  together  with  the  fact  that  most 
of  our  canoes  are  worthless  and  there  are  no  provisions.  I  will 
do  everything  for  the  best. 

iThis  was  probably  Louis  Matthieu  Damours,  Sieur  de  Clignancourt, 
born  in  16^,  married  1730,  and  dying  in  1753.  He  was  present  at  a 
council  held  at  Green  Bay  in  1726.     See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  lii,  p.  150.— ^Ed. 




1^]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

I  have  the  honor  to  remain  with  very  deep  respect,  Monsieur, 
Your  most  hnmble  and  obedient  servant 



[Letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister.  MS.  in  archive* 
I  of  Minlstdre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  gfin., 
[vol.  50,  c.  11,  fol.  205."] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — The  Sieur  Deschaillons/  captain  of  a  Comr 
pany,  whom  I  "sent;  to  Detroit  as  commandant  there,  has  hegged 
me  to  have  the  honor  to  inform  you  that  he  would  !N'ot  go  to  That 
post  to  serve  in  lieu  of  his  promotion,  as  he  prefers  the  honoura 
of  the  Corps  to  everything.  You  are  Aware,  Monseigneur,  that 
[lie  is  an  Excellent  officer  and  enjoys  a  great  reputation. 

I  have  the  honor  to  Be  with  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 
^seigneur.  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant,, 


P.  S.  I  was  Astonished,  Monseigneur,  that  Monsieur  Dupuy 
should  have  ventured  to  Write  you  that  he  had  decided  not  to 
have  Delivered  to  Monsieur  Deschaillons  the  2000  sacks  of 
powder  that  were  given  to  Monseiur  Tonty,  knowing  that  that 
officer  had  not  asked  it  from  him.  But  from  Me,  who  had  prom- 
ised it  to  him  subject  to  your  good  pleasure ;  and  that  he  should 
also  have  stated  that  the  Other  Commandants  are  charged  With 
the  expense  of  Their  Posts,  as  there  is  no  other  post  In  the  wholo 

ijean  Baptiste  Saint  Ours  Deschaillons  was  born  in  Canada  in  1669; 
married  one  of  the  La  Gardeur  family;  commanded  a  detachment  for 
the  upper  country  in  1715;  later  held  command  at  Fort  St.  Joseph; 
and  in  1727  at  Kaministogoya,  whither  he  was  removed  to  Detroit  in 
1728.  In  1736,  he  was  in  command  of  Crown  Point,  and  Is  thus  char- 
acterized (Can.  Archives,  1899,  p.  26):  "Age  60.  Bright  witted,  loved 
by  the  troops.  Has  given  grounds  for  talk  as  to  his  morals.  In  com»- 
mand  at  Pointe  k  la  Chevelure.  Ens.,  1692;  Lieut,  1710;  Cap.,  1718." 
Deschaillons  died  in  1747. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

Colony  but  that  of  Detroit  where  matters  are  on  That  footing, 
in  consequence  of  the  contract  that  Monsieur  de  T'onty  had  en- 
tered into  for  the  Exclusive  Trade  of  Detroit. 

It  is  to  be  Feared,  Monseigneur,  that  Monsieur  Deschaillons 
who  has  made  himself  liked  by  all  the  Nations  wherever  he  has 
been  and  who  had  undertaken  to  pay  all  the  expenses  of  That 
post  on  the  Same  Conditions  as  Monsieur  de  Tontv,  will  Ask 
to  return  to  his  garrison  as  soon  as  he  Learns  that  he  is  not  given 
the  two  Thousand  sacks  of  powder  his  predecessor  had. 


1728-29:     NARRATIVE     OF     DE     BOUCHERVILLE ;      CAPTIVITY 

[This  relation  of  the  adventures  of  Monsieur  de  Boucherville,i  of 
his  return  from  the  country  of  the  Sioux  in  1728  and  1729,  followed 
by  "Observations  on  the  manners,  customs,  etc.,  of  those  Savages"  was 
published  in  La  BibliotMque  Ganadienne,  Michel  Bibaud,  editor  and 
proprietor  (Montreal,  1826),  iii,  pp.  11,  ff.  The  manuscript  was  evi- 
dently in  his  hands.  The  following  translation  is  from  the  printed 

After  the  failure  of  the  expedition  against  the  E-enards,  Mon- 
sieur De  Ligneris  sent  seven  Frenchmen  and  two  Folles-avoines^ 
to  inform  me  of  all  that  had  happened  in  order  that  I  might  take 
proper  measures  for  our  safety,  and  that  I  might  induce  the 
Scioux  to  refuse  their  protection  to  the  Renards. 

On  September  9,  1728,  two  days  after  the  arriavl  of  the 
seven  Frenchmen,  I  sent  six  of  our  people  to  conduct  to  the 
Scioux  at  Sault  St.  Antome^  two  Folles-avoines  who  had  acted 

1  Pierre  Boucher,  sieur  de  Boucherville,  third  of  the  name,  was  bom 
1689,  and  died  in  1767  at  Montreal.  He  was  captain  of  infantry,  chev- 
alier de  St.  Louis,  and  commandant  at  Niagara  in  1740.  He  was  ensign 
at  this  time,  and  apparently  left  in  command  of  the  garrison  at  Fort 
Beauharnois,  when  his  uncle,  La  Perriere,  returned  to  Montreal. — Ed. 

2 The  French  appellation  for  the  Menominee  Indians.  See  Wis.  Hist. 
Colls.,  xvi,  p.  411.— Ed. 

3  Falls  of  St.  Anthony,  at  the  present  city  of  Minneapolis,  Minn. — Ed. 



1728-29]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

as  guides  to  Monsieur  De  Ligneri's  envoys,  and  who  were  comi- 
missioned  on  behalf  of  all  the  savages  living  below  to  exhort  the 
Scioux  to  take  sides  against  the  Renaxds,  or  at  least  to  refuse 
them  an  asylum  in  their  country. 

These  envoys  returned  to  the  Fort  some  days  afterwards, 
ather  dissatisfied  with  the  result  of  their  negotiations.  Afteif 
ccepting  their  presents  and  amusing  them  with  fine  promises, 

e  Scioux   soon  let  them   see  that  they  had   renard  hearts. 

evertheless  Ouacautape  accompanied  them  on  their  return,  and 
assured  me  that  the  Eenards  would  never  secure  a  refuge 
amongst  the  Scioux. 

But,  seeing  that  it  would  be  unwise  to  confide  in  these  in- 
constant tribes,  I  gathered  all  our  French  together  on  September 
18,  in  order  to  come  to  a  final  decision.  All  were  of  opinion  that 
the  post  was  no  longer  tenable;  that  the  remaining  provisions 
would  not  suffice  for  our  subsistence  until  the  arrival  of  the  con- 
voys; that  the  fugitive  Eenards  would  employ  their  usual 
stratagems  to  seduce  our  allies,  and  that — to  comply  with  the 
order  of  Monsieur  De  Ligneris  who  forbade  us  to  expose  our- 
selves ill-advisedly  by  keeping  so  unsafe  a  post — it  was  better  to 
depart  at  once  and  to  take  advantage  of  our  enemies'  difficulties. 
After  coming  to  this  decision,  all  withdrew  and  each  one  made 
his  preparations  for  the  departure. 

On  the  following  day  several  told  me  that  they  had  changed 
their  minds  and  would  be  unable  to  sell  their  goods  elsewhere. 
In  vain  I  represented  to  them'  that  the  king's  service  and  the 
welfare  of  the  colony  should  prevail  over  private  interests ;  their 
minds  were  made  up  and  I  was  compelled  to  leave  without  them'. 

We  took  three  canoes  and  started  on  October  3,  to  the  num- 
ber of  twelve  amongst  whom  were  the  Reverend  Father  Guignos 
and  the  Messieurs  Monbrun.  Although  the  waters  of  the  Mis- 
sissipi  were  low,  we  deemed  it  advisable  to  attempt  that  route 
in  order  to  reach  the  Illinois  country  and  proceed  thence  to 

Hardly  had  we  arrived  opposite  the  Ouisconsin  than  we  dis- 
covered traces  of  a  party  of  Renards;  and  after  three  days' 
journey,  we  found  their  canoes,  which  they  had  left  at  the  river 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

of  the  Ayous  in  order  to  penetrate  more  easily  into  the  depths 
of  the  surrounding  country. 

On  October  13,  somewhere  near  the  river  of  the  Kihapous,^  we 
found  other  camping  places,  traces  of  men,  women,  and  chil- 
dren; and  on  the  fifteenth,  we  saw  a  number  of  animals  running 
along  the  shore  who  seemed  to  be  flying  from  hunters.  Great 
fires  that  were  lighted  and  the  noise  of  some  gun-shots  led  me  to 
believe  that  the  enemy  was  not  far  off.  For  greater  safety  I 
deemed  it  expedient  to  travel  at  night;  but,  as  the  waters  were 
very  low,  our  birch-bark  canoes  were  in  danger  of  being  broken 
at  any  moment. 

On  the  16th,  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning  some  Kihapous 
discovered  us  and,  leaving  t'heir  pirogues,  they  ran  to  the  village 
situated  on  a  small  river  three  leagues  from  the  Mississipi.  As 
we  approached  the  mouth  of  this  little  river^  we  saw  a  number 
of  savages  coming  by  land  and  in  canoes  with  the  apparent  inten- 
tion of  barring  our  way.  We  at  once  loaded  our  twenty  five 
guns,  resolved  to  defend  ourselves  stoutly.  They  called  out  to 
us  from  afar:  ''What  fear  ye,  my  brothers?  The  Renards  axe 
far  from  here.  We  are  Kikapous  and  Mascoutins  and  have  no 
evil  design."  I  sent  two  Erenchmen  and  the  interpreter  to 
whom  they  said  that  their  village  was  only  three  leagues  from 
where  we  were ;  that  they  were  in  want  of  everything ;  that  they 

iThe  river  of  the  Ayous  (lowas)  and  the  river  of  the  Kikapous, 
simply  mean  the  rivers  on  which  those  tribes  dwelt.  The  former  was 
that  now  called  Wapsipinicon  River  in  Iowa.  The  river  of  the  Kick- 
apoos  was  Rock  River,  Illinois,  upon  which  was  a  large  permanent 
village  of  that  nation. — Ed. 

2  There  seems  to  be  no  basis  for  the  identification  of  this  "little 
river,"  other  than  that  it  was  known  las  "Riviere  aux  Boeufs"  and 
was  three  days  below  Rock  River,  Possibly  it  was  the  present  Skunk 
River  in  Iowa,  just  above  the  Des  Moines.  In  the  official  report  of 
the  expedition  of  1734,  the  Fox  fort  on  the  Wapsipinicon  Rfver  is  said 
to  be  not  far  from  where  De  Boucherville  and  Gruignas  were  captured. 
Ferland,  Gours  W  Histoire  du  Canada  (Quebec,  1865),  ii,  p.  141,  iden- 
tifies this  "Riviere  aux  Bceufs"  with  Buffalo  Creek,  Jones  County,  Iowa. 
This  could  not  have  been  the  spot  where  the  French  were  arrested, 
since  Buffalo  Creek  does  not  reach  the  Mississippi  River. — Ed. 


172329]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

would  be  glad  to  have  us  stay  a  day  or  two  with  them  and  to 
trade  with  us.  But  seeing  that  in  spite  of  their  fine  promises 
we  were  making  ready  to  proceed  on  our  way,  they  surrounded 
us  with  their  twenty-five  pirogues,  calling  out  as  loud  as  they 
could  :  "Frenchmen,  do  not  resist;  we  have  no  evil  design  in 
stopping  you."  At  the  same  time  numbers  of  them  embarked  in 
our  canoes  although  the  chiefs  cried  out:  "Gently,  young  mem" 
They  dragged  us  to  their  village  where  we  thought  the  greatest 
favor  we  could  expect  would  be  to  be  plundered.  Far,  however, 
from  taking  away  our  arms,  they  requested  us  on  our  arrival  to 
salute  the  fort  with  a  discharge  of  musketry  which  we  did  with 
fairly  good  grace.  Afterwards  they  held  a  council  and  came 
to  the  conclusion  to  lodge  us  in  the  cabin  of  Ouiskouba  whose 
relatives  had  just  been  killed  by  the  French  acting  with  the 
Illinois.  All  our  baggage  was  carried  into  this  cabin;  Father 
Guignas  was  placed  upon  a  mat  and  upon  a  very  fine  l>ear 
skin;^  an  equally  honorable  place  was  prepared  for  me  opposite 
the  Reverend  Father ;  we  were  regaled  with  deer  flesh.  We  had 
no  lack  of  company  throughout  the  night  as  a  great  many  of 
these  barbarians  had  never  seen  a  Frenchman  and  were  attracted 
by  curiosity.  Ouiskouba  and  several  chiefs  who  were  hunting 
in  the  neighborhood  were  sent  for. 

On  the  following  day  the  elders  entered  our  cabin  and  spoke 
to  Father  Guignos  as  follows:  "You  Black  gowns^  used  for- 
merly to  maintain  peace  amongst  the  nations ;  but  now  you  are 
greatly  changed.  ISTot  long  ago  one  of  your  comrades  was  seen 
leading  a  party  and  waging  a  bloody  war  against  us."  These 
elders  referred  to  Father  Dumas,  the  chaplain  of  Monsieur 
Desliettes'  army." 

1  An  Indian  mode  of  showing  honor. — Ed, 

2  This  was  the  Indian  appellation  for  the  Jesuit  missionaries,  who 
wore  their  black  cassocks  into  the  wilderness. — Ed. 

3  Jean  Dumas  was  born  at  Lyons,  France,  Sept.  10,  1696,  and  entered 
the  Jesuit  order  at  the  age  of  fifteen.  In  1726,  he  was  sent  to  Louisiana, 
and  in  1727  assigned  to  the  Illinois  mission.  Some  time  before  1740 
he  returned  to  France,  and  taught  Hebrew  at  Lyons.  He  died  in 
1770.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


Fatlier  Guignos  replied,  "You  know  not  the  Black  gowns;  it 
18  not  their  custom  to  fight  and  to  steep  their  hands  in  blood. 
They  follow  the  army  solely  for  the  purpose  of  helping  the  sick 
and  ministering  to  the  dying." 

The  dispute  would  have  lasted  longer  had  not  the  young 
men — ^wiser  in  this  than  the  elders — imposed  silence  on  them. 
"Be  silent,  old  babblers,"  they  said  to  them:  "Are  not  the 
French  sufficiently  in  trouble  and  is  it  proper  for  you  to  add 
affliction  to  affliction  ? "  These  words  put  a  stop  to  the  invectives 
for  a  while;  but  as  soon  as  Father  Guignos  began  to  read  his 
breviary,  the  rubrics  printed  in  red  ink  caused  a  fresh  quarrel 
about  nothing  to  break  out.  "  Those  drops  of  blood,"  they  said 
to  one  another,  "warn  us  to  be  on  our  guard  against  this  dan- 
gerous man."  To  appease  those  suspicious  minds,  the  Father 
closed  his  book  for  some  days  and  we  had  an  interval  of  peace. 

Seven  days  after  this  first  upbraiding,  a  chief  delivered  a 
harangue  in  favor  of  the  Father  and  said :  "  Of  what  are  you 
thinking,  my  brothers,  and  why  should  you  forbid  the  Black 
gown  from  saying  his  accustomed  prayers  ?  Know  you  not  that 
amongst  all  the  nations  these  Fathers  have  full  liberty  to  pray 
in  their  own  manner?"  This  speech  was  applauded  and  the 
Father  obtained  permission  to  read  his  red-lettered  book  in 

On  the  sam«  day,  Ouiskouba  returned  from  hunting  and 
spoke  to  us  as  follows :  "My  father  the  Black  gown,  and  thou 
my  father,  the  French  chief,  I  have  just  learned  that  you  have 
been  put  in  my  cabin  and  that  I  have  been  declared  the  arbiter 
of  your  fate  to  repay  me  for  the  loss  of  my  wife  and  children 
whom  the  French,  acting  with  the  Illinois,  have  just  taken  from 
me.  Fear  not ;  my  heart  is  good.  Our  father  Ononthio,^  whom 
I  saw  two  years  !ago,  gave  me  wisdom.     His  arm  governs  my 

iThe  Indian  title  for  the  governor  of  Canada,  later  extended  to  all 
governors,  and  also  to  the  king.  This  savage  had  evidently  been  down 
to  Montreal  on  one  of  the  yearly  expeditions.  For  a  description  of 
these  gatherings  see  Parkman,  Old  Regime  in  Canada  (Boston,  1874), 
pp.  303,  304.— iED. 



1728-29]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

thoughts  and  my  actions.  Eely  on  my  word  and  no  harm  will 
oome  to  you." 

We  thanked  him  and  presented  him  with,  a  brasse^  of  tobacco ; 
and  we  promised  that  all  the  good  he  would  do  us  would  be 
repaid  a  hundred  fold. 

The  White  rohe,  a  famous  orator,  paid  me  a  visit  the  follow- 
ig  day.  "Tby  face,"  I  said  to  him,  "is  not  unknown  to  me. 
•id  I  not  see  thee  at  Detroit  in  Monsieur  De  Lamotte's^  time? 

lou  wert  then  considered  a  wise  man  and  I  am  delighted  to  see 
."  The  savage  was  charmed  with  my  compliment  and  the 
>bacco  I  gave  him  and  expressed  bis  regret  at  our  detention ;  he 
idvised  me  to  he  wise,  that  is  to  say  to  get  myself  cleverly  out  of 
^the  difficulty  by  giving  presents  to  the  young  men. 

Chaouenon,  a  man  of  credit  and  respected  above  all  by  the 
[young  Kikapous,  was  also  profuse  in  his  offers  to  serve  me,  and  I 
["Won  him  to  my  interest  by  great  promises.  Everything  being 
[thus  prepared  and  the  chiefs  being  all  gathered  together  in  the 
[village,  I  caused  the  council  to  be  assembled. 

Word  of  Monsieur  De  Boucherville  accompanied  by  4  barrels 
[of  powder,  2  guns,  a  30  pound  kettle,  7  pounds  of  vermilion,  12 
[liatchets,  2  dozen  large  knives,  7  braided  coats,  2  cloth  blankets, 
[2  white  blankets,  7  bags  of  shot,  etc.,  etc. 

"My  brothers,  children  of  Ononthio.  I  learned  from  six 
trrenchmen  and  two  Folles-avoines  that  the  French  and  their 
[allies  had  driven  the  Renards  from  their  country  to  punish  them 
for  having  deluged  the  earth  with  blood,  and  having  last  spring 
reddened  the  waters  of  the  Mississipi  with  the  blood  of  many 
TVenchmen.  Perfidious  people  that  they  are,  when  we  passed 
through  their  land  a  year  ago,  they  promised  us  to  remain  quiet 
and  atone  for  the  past.  We  declared  to  them  that  they  had 
everything  to  hope  from  the  clemency  of  their  new  father 
Ononthio ;  and  that  we,  on  our  part,  would  strive  to  pacify  the 

lA  French  linear  measure,  equivalent  to  5.318  English  feet.  The 
tobacco  was  twisted  into  a  sort  of  rope,  and  measured  off  by  this  stand- 
ard.— Ed. 

2 Consult  documents  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  204-208,  242-247, 
251-256,  292,  379.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

land  and  urge  the  Scioux  to  peace.  I  have  kept  my  word  and 
stopped  several  bands  of  Sauieux^  and  of  Scioux  who  breathed 
naught  but  war.  I  left  my  fort  to  inform  our  father  Ononthio 
of  all  this  and  to  learn  his  intentions.  That  is  the  object  of  my 
journey.  Today  I  ask  you  by  these  presents  that  my  road  may 
be  clear.  I  would  be  very  sorry  to  leave  you  without  relieving 
your  wants  by  sharing  our  goods  with  you.  I  have  reason  to 
fear  the  Eenard ;  I  know  he  is  not  far  from  here.  He  would 
cause  trouble  to  you  and  to  us  likewise  were  he  to  take  into  his 
head  to  come  to  this  village.  I  therefore  beg  you,  Kikapous  and 
Mascoutins,  not  to  refuse  me  so  reasonable  a  request." 

Their  reply  was  that  our  presents  would  be  set  apart,  and  that 
they  would  give  me  their  answer  by  the  following  day. 

In  fact,  a  great  meeting  was  held  on  the  morrow.  Reverend 
Father  Guignas,  myself  and  some  Frenchmen  were  invited.  On 
a  white  beaver  robe  was  placed  a  slave,  seven  or  eight  years  old, 
who  was  offered  to  us  with  a  little  dried  beaver  flesh. 

Word  of  the  Kikcupous 

"To  our  father  Ononthio  we  offer  this  word,  this  little  slave, 
and  this  small  quantity  of  beaver  flesh,  to  beg  him  not  to  be 
displeased  with  us  if  we  keep  the  French  chief,  the  black  gown 
and  their  companions.  After  the  flight  of  the  Renards,  the 
burning  of  their  cabins,  and  the  ravaging  of  their  fields,  we 
were  warned  to  withdraw  to  the  banks  of  the  Mississipi  because 
our  father  Ononthio  is  angry  with  us,  and  because  all  the  nations 
that  "winter  in  our  neighborhood  will  soon  fall  upon  us.  It  is 
therefore  for  the  purpose  of  saving  our  children's  lives  that  we 
stop  you ;  you  will  be  our  safeguard. 

"You  say  that  you  fear  the  Renards!  Well,  my  brothers, 
what  have  you  to  fear  ?  The  Renards  are  far  from  here ;  you 
will  not  see  them.  Even  should  they  come  to  seek  you,  do  you 
think  they  could  succeed  ?  Look  at  these  warriors  and  at  these 
brave  young,  men  who  surround  you ;  all  promise  to  die  with  you 
and  their  bodies  will  serve  you  as  ramparts.     Prepare  your- 

1  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  8. — Ed. 



1728-29]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

selves  therefore  to  spend  the  winter  with  us  and  begin  to  build 
cabins  for  your  use." 

"Have  you  pondered  well,"  I  replied,  "on  what  I  represented 
to  you  yesterday.  Do  you  realize  that  you  will  have  to  answer 
for  us,  body  for  body,  and  that  if  any  accident  should  befall  us 
you  will  be  held  accountable  ? '' 

"We  know  it,  we  think  of  it,"  they  answered ;  "We  have  come 
to  our  decision  after  mature  deliberation." 

It  was  therefore  necessary  to  attack  the  forest  with  our  axes, 
and  with  the  assistance  of  the  young  Kikapous  we  finished  our 
houses  in  a  week.  We  were  already  beginning  to  settle  down ; 
we  had  no  further  quarrels  to  endure;  we  were  living  on  good 
terms.  But,  on  November  2,  a  Kikapou  informed  me  that  ten 
Renards  had  arrived  in  the  village.  A  moment  afterwards 
Kansekoe,  the  chief  of  these  new  comers,  entered  my  house,  held 
out  his  hand  to  me  and  said:  "I  greet  thee,  my  father,"  and 
the  better  to  deceive  me,  he  assured  me  that  he  had  an  order  to 
lodge  in  my  dwelling.  I  put  a  good  face  on  the  matter  in 
spite  of  my  surprise ;  and  offered  food  to  my  treacherous  visitor. 
Our  faithful  Chaouenon  told  me  that  Kansakoe  was  endeavoring 
to  seduce  the  Kikapous  by  means  of  presents.  But  fortunately 
I  had  already  won  the  young  men  by  a  barrel  of  powder,  2 
blankets,  2  pounds  of  vermilion,  and  other  presents. 

The  Kikapous,  after  refusing  the  calumet  and  porcelain^  of 
the  Renards,  were  nevertheless  intimidated  by  their  threats  and 
urged  me  to  help  them  by  presents  to  cover  the  last  Renards 
who  had  died.^  I  gave  them  two  braided  coats,  two  cloth 
blankets,  50  pounds  of  powder,  50  pounds  of  lead,  two  pounds 
•of  vermilion,  etc. 

On  the  following  day,  a  great  council  was  held  at  which  I  was 
present  with  Father  Guignas;  this  gave  me  an  opportunity  of 
preparing  a  present  to  be  sent  to  the  Renards  in  my  own  name. 

iThis  was  the  Canadian  terra  for  the  wampum  belts,  which  were 
used  as  a  pledge  of  an  alliance. — Ed. 

2  An  Indian  phrase  for  appeasing  the  wrath  of  the  relatives  of  a 
murdered  man  by  presents.  Compare  the  "wergeld"  of  the  early 
Germans. — ^Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol.  xvu 

Word  of  the  Kikapous  and  Mascontins  by  a  barrel  of  5  pounds 
of  powder,  5  pounds  of  lead,  2  pounds  of  vermilion,  2  braided 
cjoats  and  a  blanket, 

"My  brothers,  for  a  long  while  we  have  not  seen  the  sun — 

"Fear  nothing,"  I  said  to  them,  "my  cousins^  will  do  you 
justice  and  will  appreciate  the  services  you  have  rendered  us." 
This  promise  reassured  them  and  they  resolved  to  save  us  at  all 
costs.  "For  if  they  perish  we  are  dead  men,"  they  said  to  one 
another ;  "and  since  we  are  too  much  exposed  here  to  the  attacks 
of  the  Eenards,  let  us  go  and  establish  ourselves  on  the  neigh- 
boring island  on  which  they  will  not  be  able  to  land  unless  we 
choose."  This  was  a  very  wise  decision.  By  means  of  presents 
I  urged  the  young  Kikapous  to  shift  the  camp  as  quickly  as 
possible ;  and  as  soon  as  we  were  settled  on  the  island  couriers 
were  sent  out  to  notify  the  Kikapous  scattered  in  the  woods. 

About  that  time  we  were  informed  of  the  barbarous  design 
of  Pechicamengoa,  a  Eikapou  chief,  a  great  warrior,  redoubt- 
able through  the  credit  he  had  gained,  and  the  great  number  of 
his  brothers  and  relatives,  and  of  young  Kikapous  subject  to  his 
orders.  As  he  had  married  a  Renard  wife,  Kansekoe  and  his 
companions  had  no  difficulty  in  inducing  him  to  assassinate  Rev- 
erend Father"  Guignas,  and  they  made  him  promise  that  he  would 
not  go  to  the  village  of  the  Eenards  without  bringing  the  father's 
scalp  with  him. 

In  order  that  he  might  not  fail  in  striking  his  blow,  he  con- 
cealed his  w'ieked  design  for  some  days.  One  fine  night  he 
invited  two  of  his  young  men  to  keep  him  company  in  a 
sweating  lodge,  not  so  much  for  the  purpose  of  sweating  as  of 
cleverly  allowing  his  secret  to  ooze  out  according  to  the  custom 
of  the  Svavages  iui  those  sweating  lodges,  and  of  inducing  those 

iTwo  pages  are  missing  here  from  the  manuscript  from  which  this 
is  copied.    This  accounts  for  the  hiatus. — Bibaud. 

2  The  hiatus  apparently  contained  an  account  of  the  escape  of  the 
brothers  Monthrun,  who  were  cousins  of  De  Boucherville;  and  of  the 
suhsequent  fear  of  the  Kickapoo.  This  escape  saved  the  rest  of  the 
party  from  being  delivered  to  the  Foxes.     See  post,  p.  60. — Ed. 




1728-29]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

yoiino;  mem  tO'  help  him.  God  did  not  perniit  the  treacherous 
plotter  to  sncceed.  The  sweating  over,  the  young  Kikapous,  "Who 
were  indignant  at  such  treachery  told  the  well-disposed  chiefs 
of  it. 

The  alarm  caused  in  the  village  by  this  conspiracy  may  be 
imagined.  "What!"  they  exclaimed,  "We  thought  we  had 
only  the  Eenards  to  fear ;  now  our  own  brothers  betray  us  and 
wish  to  stain  our  mats  with  blood  by  a  massacre  of  the  French ! 
What  is  to  be  done  under  the  circumstances  ?  Had  a  Renard 
made  an  attempt  on  the  father's  life  we  would  have  settled  the 
matter  by  breaking  his  head;  but  the  guilty  man  is  a  chief  of 
our  nation  I  .  .  .  Let  us  endeavor  to  appease  himi  with 
presents."  These  were  offered  him,;  he  accepted  them,  and 
promised  to  abandon  his  cowardly  design. 

But,  in  order  to  avoid  similar  acts  of  treachery,  we  were 
lodged  in  less  suspected  cabins  where  ten  men  watched  night  and 
day  over  our  safety.     We  remained  eighteen  days  in  that  state. 

Kansekoe  and  his  nine  colleagues,  three  days  after  their  de- 
parture, encountered  a  hundred  Renards  who  were  coming  for 
us.  They  had  orders,  in  the  event  of  refusal,  to  threaten  the 
Kikapous  with  the  coming  of  six  hundred  warriors,  both 
Renards  and  Puants,  fully  resolved  to  be  revenged  for  the  insults 
offered  them.  Kansekoe  perceived  in  the  band  the  father  of 
the  young  Eenard  whom  the  French  had  killed  at  la  Baie  not 
long  before.  He  said  to  him :  "  I  see  well,  my  father,  that  thou 
wilt  ask  for  a  Frenchman  in  the  place  of  thy  son ;  but  return  with 
us  to  the  village ;  come  and  listen  to  the  words  addressed  to  thy 
dead  child,  and  refuse  not  the  presents  offered  thee."  The  old 
man,  touched  by  this  mark  of  distinction,  allowed  himself  to  be 
won  over.  "I  am  quite  willing,"  he  said,  "that  you  should 
restore  my  disturbed  mind.  I  will  follow  you."  Many  thought 
as  he  did ;  others  said  they  must  continue  their  march  and  compel 
the  Kikapous  to  deliver  up  the  French.  Finally,  after  many 
disputes,  seventy  Renards  returned  home  and  thirty  came  to  the 
banks  of  the  Mississipi.  When  the  Kikapous  saw  them  in  such 
small  numbers  they  considered  that  they  could  without  danger 

[  45  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

allow  them  on  the  island ;  but  they  reinforced  the  guard  watch- 
ing over  our  safety.  On  entering  the  village,  a  Eenard  was 
inspired  with  the  idea  of  delivering  a  harangue,  contrary  to  the 
custom  of  the  savages  who  harangue  only  in  cabins.  This 
insolent  man  spoke  to  us  as  follows : 

"We  are  unfortunate,  my  brothers  ;  we  have  been  driven  from 
our  lands  by  the  French.  The  sorrow  caused  us  by  our  mis- 
fortunes has  brought  us  here  to  beg  you  to  wipe  away  our  tears. 
You  are  our  relatives;  refuse  us  not  the  favor  we  ask.  You 
will  give  us  as  many  Frenchmen  as  you  choose;  we  do  not 
demand  all  of  them." 

They  entered  the  cabin  of  our  friend  Chaouenon,  being  con- 
vinced that  if  they  could  win  him  over  they  would  easily 
persuade  the  other  chiefs.  All  being  assembled,  the  Kenards 
began  to  weep  for  their  dead,  making  the  air  resound  with  their 
cries,  and  spreading  out  a  bloody  robe,  a  shell  all  reddened  with 
blood,  and  a  red  calumet  with  feathers  all  dripping  blood.  Such 
a  dreadful  spectacle  was  calculated  to  produce  an  impression, 
and  all  this  blood  called  most  eloquently  for  ours.  A  tall  young 
penard  warrior,  much  painted,  arose,  lit  his  calumet  and  pre- 
sented it  to  Chaouenon,  to  Bceuf  noir  (Black  Bull)  and  to  the 
young  chiefs  who  barely  deigned  to  touch  it  with  the  tip  of  their 
lips,  and  drew  but  a  puff  or  two.  The  old  chiefs  smoked 
heartily  and  emptied  the  renard's  calumet  to  show  that  their 
sentiments  were  in  accord  with  his.  The  young  Renard  took 
back  his  calumet,  and  presented  it  once  more  to  the  young  chiefs 
with  as  little  success  as  at  first.  Finally  after  again  weeping 
for  their  dead,  they  left  their  presents  and  were  told  that  the 
answer  would  be  given  on  the  following  day.  The  young 
Kikapous  passed  the  whole  night  without  sleep.  The  Renards 
roamed  about  unceasingly  and  tried  to  intimidate  them  by  great 
threats,  but  all  in  vain. 

On  the  following  day,  the  savages  assembled  and  the  Kika- 
pous  replied  as  follows:  "My  brothers,  you  are  not  unaware 
that  we  had  no  evil  design  in  stopping  the  French.  We  wish 
them  to  live.     And.  what  would  become  of  us  if  they  perished 



fp     1728-1 

1728-29]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

while  in  onr  hands?  Retnrn  in  peace,  accept  onr  present;  we 
will  die  together  rather  than  give  np  a  single  one  of  these 

The  Renards,  angered  at  this  reply,  arose  with  fire  in  their 
eyes;  they  threatened  vengeance,  made  np  their  bnndles  and 
fCrossed  the  river,  and  having  met  at  a  distance  of  three  days' 
jonmey  from  the  Renard  village  a  Kikapou  and  a  Mascontin 
rho  were  hunting,  they  massacred  them  without  pity,  and  car- 
ted their  scalps  home  with  them. 
This  murder  caused  much  disturbance  amongst  the  Renards. 
"We  are  lost  beyond  hope,"  the  old  men  exclaimed.     "What, 
rou  foolish  young  men,  it  is  but  a  slight  thing  in  your  eyes  to 
lave  raised  up  against  us  all  the  nations  that  have  sworn  to 
'destroy  us;  you  must  likewise  massacre  our  kin<?men !     What 
shall  we  do  to  atone  for  this  murder  ? " 

They  at  once  dispatched  five  men  to  go  and  weep  for  the  two 
dead  ones,  and  to  offer  themselves  as  expiatory  victims  to  the 
'bereaved  old  man  who  was  not  far  from  the  renard  village.  As 
soon  as  they  appeared  before  him  they  spread  out  a  white  robe 
on  which  two  Renards  stretched  themselves  quite  naked. 
"Revenge  thyself,  my  brother,"  they  said  to  him  in  this  humble 
posture.  "Thy  children  have  been  killed  but  we  offer  thee  our 
bodies;  vent  thy  rage  and  thy  just  indignation  upon  us." 
The  old  man  replied :  "Our  village  is  informed  of  your  crime ; 
the  matter  is  no  longer  Jn  my  hands ;  the  decision  rests  with  the 
young  Kikapou  chiefs."  At  these  words  the  prostrate  Renards 
arose  and  returned  home. 

Two  young  Kikapous  arrived  shortly  afterwards  on  the  bank 
of  the  river,  and  uttered  death-yells  at  night.  A  pirogue  was 
sent  for  them  and  they  related  the  sad  event  to  their  comrades. 
The  news  spread  consternation  throughout  the  village.  ISTothing 
was  heard  everywhere  but  weeping,  lamentations,  and  horrible 
yells.  Couriers  were  at  once  sent  to  warn  the  Kikapous  scat- 
tered in  the  woods  to  quickly  take  refuge  on  the  island.  The 
elders  did  not  fail  to  come  and  reproach  me  with  the  death  of 
their  young  men.  "You  are  the  cause  of  our  being  massacred," 
they  said,  "  and  we  are  paying  very  dearly  for  the  pleasure  of 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol.  xvii 

having  you."  I  replied  to  them :  "Had  you  wished  to  believe 
me,  to  accept  my  present  and  consent  to  our  separation,  this 
misfortune  would  not  have  hapypened  to  you.  Did  T  not  warn 
you  of  this."  "Thou  art  right,"  they  replied,  "but  what  are  we 
to  do  in  the  present  predicament?  We  are  between  two  fires; 
the  Renard  has  killed  us,  the  Illinois  has  killed  us,^  the  French- 
man is  angry  with  us.     What  are  we  to  do?" 

"Your  affairs,"  I  answered,  "are  not  so  difficult  to  arrange  as 
you  imagine.  Give  me  two  chiefs  to  accompany  me ;  I  will  start 
for  the  Illinois  country,  and  I  pledge  myself  to  make  your 
peace  with  those  tribes."  "That  is  a  very  good  idea,"  they  said. 
Bu't  the  trouble  was  to  find  people  brave  enough  to  accompany 
me.  After  much  discussion  a  Kikapou  and  a  Mascoutin,  bora 
of  illinois  mothers,  offered  themselves.  One  of  them  had  lo»t 
his  son  in  the  war. 

We  started  on  December  27,  notwithstanding  the  unendur- 
able severity  of  the  season;^  and,  after  many  hardships  and 
much  fatigue  which  can-  be  appreciated  only  by  those  who  endure 
them,  we  arrived  on  the  ninth  day  amongst  the  Peoaria  on  the 
river  of  the  Illinois,  twenty  leagues  from  the  Mississipi.  Sev- 
eral tribes  were  gathered  together  in  this  village,  keeping  always 
on  the  watch  and  anxious  for  news  of  the  Kikapous. 

Two  hunters  perceived  us  and,  re-assured  at  the  sight  of  the 
flags  held  up  by  my  people,  they  approached  us.  One  of  my  com- 
panions who  spoke  the  illinois  language,  told  them  that  we  came 
to  treat  for  peace ;  that  the  French  detained  amongst  his  people 
were  well;  that  the  Renards,  in  revenge  for  the  refusal  to 
deliver  up  the  French  to  them,  had  killed  two  Kikapous. 

As  soon  as  the  Peoaria  heard  of  our  arrival,  they  sent 
thirty  young  Illinois  to  meet  us.  My  two  savages  waited  for 
them,  and  after  weeping  for  their  dead,  and  having  had  their 
tears  wiped  away,  and  having  been  ceremoniously  offered  a 

iThe  Kickapoos  and  the  Illinois  had  been  at  war  since  1718.  See 
Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  377.— Ed. 

2  The  winter  of  1728-29  was  one  of  unusual  severity  throughout  all 
Canada  and  the  Northwest,  and  recalled  the  winter  of  1708-09  in 
France.    See  Ferland,  Gours  d"  Histoire  (Quebec,  1865),  ii,  p.  435.— Ed. 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

great  red  calumet  which  all  smoked,  we  were  relieved  of  our 
baggage.  We  were  conveyed  to  a  large  cabin  through  so  great 
a  crowd  of  spectators  that  we  could  hardly  make  our  way.  We 
were  seated  upon  a  fine  new  mat,  and  on  a  bear  skin.  Two 
young  Illinois,  adorned  with  many  ornaments,  came  to  remove 
our  shoes  and  grease  our  feet.  We  were  given  the  most  pal- 
atable food  to  be  had  in  the  village.  The  Kikapou  accompany- 
ing me,  who  had  lost  his  son,  wept  for  him  a  second  time;  all 
the  chiefs  arose  in  turn  to  wipe  away  his  tears,  and  after  hearing 
all  that  had  occurred,  they  said :  "  Take  courage,  my  brothers, 
we  will  help  you  to  avenge  your  dead." 

On  the  morrow  at  break  of  day  they  came  to  conduct  us  to  a 
feast;  and  throughout  the  day  we  went  without  stopping  from 
cabin  to  cabin,  from  feast  to  feast.  These  poor  people  could  not 
find  any  food  good  enough  for  me  so  pleased  were  they  at  the 
good  news  I  brought. 

It  was  my  intention  to  proceed  as  soon  as  possible  to  the 
French  village  four  days'  journey  from  the  Peoarias  ;^  but  I  had 
to  abandon  the  trip  owing  to  a  swollen  foot  caused  by  a  long 
march  through  exceedingly  cold  water.  I  therefore  sent  Rev- 
erend Father  Guignas's  letters  by  a  special  messenger.  I  wrote 
to  Monsieur  Desliettes,  the  commandant,  and  sent  him  the 
presents  from  the  Kikapous.  These  consisted  of  that  famous 
bloody  calumet,  and  of  the  two  brasses  of  bloodstained  porcelain 
which  the  Renards  had  offered  in  order  to  have  us  delivered  up 
to  them. 

Word  of  the  Kiikapous  and  Mascoutins  accompanied  by  the 
presents  above  mentioned : 

"1st,  Our  words  and  our  actions  are  guided  solely  by  the  arm 
of  Qnonthio  to  whom  we  are  attached. 

"2nd,  We  have  been  killed,  my  father,  by  the  Renards 
because  we  supported  the  French.  If  thou  wouldst  sent  us 
some  Frenchmen  to  help  us,  thou  wouldst  please  us. 

iThis  was  the  village  of  Kaskaskia,  Illinois,  founded  in  1700,  and 
erected  into  a  parish  in  1719. — Ed. 

4  [49] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections    [voi.  xvii 

"3d,  We  ask  for  peace  with  the  Illinois  and  with  thee;  and 
that  in  future  we  may  smoke  from  the  same  calumet. 

"4th,  We  have  stripped  ourselves  by  giving  what  we  had  to  the 
Renards  to  appease  them.  We  should  he  obliged  to  thee,  if  thou 
wouldst  send  us  goods  and  especially  powder. 

"  5th,  We  flatter  ourselves  that  our  flesh  has  been  preserved ; 
and  we  beg  thee  to  induce  the  Illinois  to  give  back  to  us  those  of 
our  kin  who  are  slaves  in  their  midst." 

Word  of  Monsieur  Desliettes  by  a  red  calumet  and  some  ells 
of  cloth, 

"1st,  I  am  sorry  that  the  French  chief  and  the  member  of 
your  nation  have  not  come  thus  far.  They  have  sent  me  your 
Word ;  I  have  received  it  with  joy,  because  you  assure  me  that 
you  are  attached  to  the  arm  of  Ononthio. 

"  2nd,  I  smoke  your  calumet  with  pleasure.  While  smoking 
it  I  will  think  of  all  you  say  to  me ;  and  I  shall  see  by  the  proofs 
that  you  will  give  me  of  your  sincerity  whether  I  shall  send  you 
some  Frenchmen. 

"3d,  You  already  have  some  Frenchmen  amongst  you,  and 
none  of  your  people  sit  here  on  my  mat.  If  you  wish  sincerely, 
as  you  say,  to  live  in  peace  with  us,  I  invite  you  to  bring  back 
here  the  Black  gown  and  the  other  Frenchmen.  By  this  I  shall 
know  that  you  are  children  of  Ononthio. 

"4th,  If  you  do  this,  I  answer  that  I  will  give  you  Frenchmen 
who  will  escort  you  back ;  and  you  vdll  be  well  received  by  the 
Illinois  and  the  French. 

"5th,  I  would  willingly  send  you  some  goods  at  once  but  I 
have  only  very  little ;  I  expect  a  great  quantity  in  two  moons. 

"6th,  If  the  Renards  have  killed  you  as  you  assert,  you  see 
that  they  no  longer  look  upon  you  as  their  kin.  I  exhort  you 
to  avenge  yourselves.  You  may  rest  assured  that  that  wicked 
nation  can  live  no  longer.     The  King  wishes  their  death. 

"7th,  When  you  arrive  w4th  the  Black  gown  and  the  other 
Frenchmen,  we  will  take  measures  together;  meanwhile  we^ 
the  Illinois  and  ourselves,  are  preparing  to  avenge  ourselves  for 
all  their  insults  to  us.  They  shall  not  always  escape  the 
vengeance  of  the  French  by  cowardly  flight. 

[  50_]   . 

1728-29]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


"8th,  Behold  the  Frenchmen  who  start  tomorrow  to  carry 
your  words  to  Ononthio  from  the  lower  Mississipi.  I  write  him 
that  they  are  sincere.  I  beg  you,  Masooutins  and  Kikapous^ 
not  to  make  me  tell  a  falsehood. 

"9th,  You  sent  me  your  calumet;  I  send  you  mine.  While 
smoking  it  think  of  what  I  say  to  you. 

"10th,  When  you  arrive  here  with  the  Frenchmen,  I  will 
speak  to  the  Illinois  who  will  give  you  back  your  kinsmen  whom 
they  have  had  since  last  summer ;  for  they  have  no  others  from 
an  earlier  time. 

"11th,  Ononthio  will  not  forget  what  you  have  done  for  the 
Frenchmen,  whom  you  have  refused  to  deliver  up  to  the  Ren- 
ards.  Continue  to  take  good  care  of  them ;  respect  the  Black 
gown.  When  he  is  here  we  will  not  forget  the  care  you  have 
taken  of  him,  of  the  chief,  and  of  the  Frenchmen." 

Our  couriers  returned  on  the  seventh  day  from  their  depart- 
ure and  brought  me  letters  from  Monsieur  Desliettes,  from  some 
officers,  and  from  the  Reverend  Jesuit  Fathers,  who  advised  me 
not  to  go  back  to  the  Kikapous,  where  things  had  perhaps  taken 
-a  different  aspect  on  our  behalf  since  my  departure. 

The  Illinois  had  already  begun  to  chant  their  war-song  with 
all  their  hearts ;  two  hundred  young  warriors  had  already  pre- 
pared their  arrows.  But  Monsieur  Desliettes  told  them  to  wait 
until  the  spring,  because  it  would  be  unwise  to  rely  upon  the 
Kikapous,  who  had  so  often  failed  to  keep  their  word. 

I  was  therefore  given  only  two  illinois  chiefs  and  eight  young 
men.  I  was  loaded  with  tobacco  and  other  presents  for  the 
Kikapous.  We  started  rather  late,  and  slept  at  a  spot  five  or 
six  leagues  from  the  village. 

At  night  two  courierg  brought  me  a  letter  from  Reverend 
Father  D'Outrelo,^  a  Jesuit,  who  begged  nue  tO'  wait  for  him! 
as  he  wished  to  consult  with  me  on  the  means  to  be  adopted  for 

lEtlenne  d'Outreleau  was  a  Jesuit  miissionary,  born  in  1693,  who 
came  to  Louisiana  in  1727.  He  was  assigned  to  the  Illinois  mission, 
and  was  in  the  Mississippi  valley  for  about  twenty  years.  In  1730,  he 
narrowly  escaped  massacre  at  the  hands  of  the  Yazoo,  and  in  1737 
was  chaplain  of  a  hospital  in  New  Orleans. — Ed. 

[  51  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

saving  Father  Guignas.  I  therefore  returned  to  the  village  to 
the  great  satisfaction  of  the  Illinois.  I  remained  there  eleven 
days;  but,  as  our  two  Kikapous  were  becoming  impatient,  I 
left  without  waiting  for  the  Eeverend  Jesuit  Father,  who  had 
lost  his  way  and  arrived  in  a  pitiful  condition  at  the  village  a 
few  hours  after  my  departure.  He  sent  three  couriers  after 
me,  who  unfortunately  took  a  different  road  from  ours,  and 
caught  up  with  us  only  when  we  were  20  leagues  from  the 
village.  I  gave  them  a  letter  for  the  Reverend  Father  in  which 
I  begged  him.  to  excuse  me  if  1  did  not  return  to  the  Peoaria, 
as  I  was  suffering  from  a  pain  in  one  of  my  thighs ;  and  I  told 
him  that  the  proper  way  to  save  Father  Guignas  and  us  was  to 
induce  the  Illinois  to  come  to  the  Kikapous  and  conclude  a 
lasting  peace.  I  continued  my  journey,  and  we  encountered 
thirty  Kikapous  who  were  coming  to  meet  us,  and  who  told  me 
that  all  was  well.  As  soon  as  the  news  of  our  approach  reached 
the  village,  joy  spread  everywhere,  and  the  French  who  no 
longer  hoped  for  my  return,  took  courage  once  more.  The 
chiefs  came  to  meet  us  and  were  very  attentive  to  our  Illinois, 
although  he  was  alone,  as  the  nine  others  had  postponed  their 
journey  to  another  time. 

On  the  morrow  I  gathered  the  chiefs  together  and  announced 
to  them  the  words  of  Monsieur  Desliettes  and  of  the  Illinois. 
They  seemed  to  me  well  pleased.  I  afterwards  by  means  of 
presents  induced  two  war-chiefs  to  make  up  two  bands  of  25 
men.  The  first  party,  commanded  by  a  chief  whose  son  had 
been  killed  not  long  before,  was  to  go  to  the  winter  camping 
place  of  the  Renards ;  but  he  returned  at  the  end  of  eight  days 
without  having  done  anything. 

Tlie  other  band  was  commanded  by  the  brother  of  Bceuf  noir 
(Black  Bull),  who  said  to  him:  "Do  not  return  without 
bringing  us  some  Renards,  dead  or  alive.''  After  marching 
some  days,  this  band  encountered  30  Renards,  who  asked  them 
who  they  were  and  whither  they  were  going. 

'*We  are  Kikapous,"  they  answered,  "and  our  elders  have 
sent  US  to  get  news  of  you."  The  Renards,  suspecting  nothing, 
replied:     "You  are  welcome;  we  will  take  you  to  our  cabins 



728-29]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


^ch  are  not  far  from  here."  The  Kikapous  stopped  first 
it  the  dwelling  of  Pemonssa^  who  had  married  a  Kikapou 
voman.  His  cabin  was  about  a  quarter  of  a  league  from  the 
30  others  and  there  were  about  25  persons  in  it,  namely:  eight 
men  and  several  women  and  children.  In  order  to  kill  them 
all,  our  warriors  placed  themselves  at  night  one  on  each  side  of 
every  Eenard  capable  of  defending  himself;  and  their  design 
would  infallibly  have  succeeded  if,  unfortunately,  some  other 
Kenards  had  not  come  in  during  the  night,  which  upset  all 
their  plans. 

The  chiefs  of  the  30  cabins  assembled  on  the  following  day 
and  said  to  the  Kikapous:  *'What  do  your  countrymen  think 
of  the  murder  of  your  people?"  "They  think,"  replied  our 
warriors,  "that  it  was  a  misunderstanding  or,  at  the  most,  the 
crime  of  some  individuals;  they  are  careful  not  to  hold  the 
entire  Eenard  nation  responsible  for  that  accident."  "You 
are  right,"  answered  the  Eenards,  "for  the  murderer,  the  son 
of  Eenard  noir  (Black  Fox)  has  fled  to  escape  death  with 
which  he  was  threatened.  We  are  going  to  die  in  our  village; 
we  have  not  found  an  asylum  anywhere;  the  Ayous  and  the 
Scioux  have  refused  to  give  us  a  refuge.  We  have  three  bands 
of  warriors  in  the  field  :  one  amongst  the  Sdulteux,  the  two 
others  amongst  the  FoUe-avoines,  while  a  fourth  will  soon  go 
amongst  the  Illinois.  What  has  become  of  your  Frenchmen  ?" 
"They  went  away  on  the  ice,"  replied  our  people,  "to  go 
amongst  the  Illinois."  "So  much  the  better,"  said  the  chiefs; 
"nothing  remains  to  be  done  except  to  cover  your  dead.  We 
will  send  two  chiefs  to  you."  Pemoussa  and  Chichippa,  the 
great  war-chief,  offered  to  go  and  they  were  entrusted  with  a 
calumet  and  some  other  presents. 

During  the  second  day's  march,  our  two  chiefs  said  to  one 
another :  "What !  we  came  to  avenge  our  dead  and  these  Een- 
ards who  follow  us  are  coming  to  speak  of  peace!  We  must 
give  them  food  at  our  first  stopping  place  and  fire  two  gun- 

1  Pemoussa  was  the  Fox  chief  who  led  his  tribe  in  the  battle  at 
Detroit,  in  1712.    See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  index.— Ed. 

[  53  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections    [voi.  xvu 

shots  at  them."  This  plan  was  carried  out  in  all  its  details  and 
their  scalps  were  taken  to  the  village. 

The  news  of  this  deed  gave  rise  to  many  mutterings,  cries, 
and  lamentations ;  because  Pemoussa,  who  had  married  a  Kika- 
pou  woman,  had  a  great  many  relatives  or  kindred  amongst  that 
nation.  This  led  the  thirty  Illinois  who  had  just  arrived  to 
fear  that  they  would  be  killed  to  avenge  the  death  of  Pemoussa. 
And  yet  they  had  come  with  presents;  they  had  brought  back 
a  Ejikapou  woman  and  two  children  whom  they  had  captured. 
They  left  at  night  and  were  escorted  back;  both  sides  parted 
good  friends  and  the  Kikapous  were  invited  to  go,  in  the  Spring, 
to  the  Illinois  who  were  well  disposed  to  receive  them. 

The  warriors  who  had  killed  Pemoussa  re-entered  the  village 
on  the  following  day,  but  very  quietly  and  without  ceremony  to 
avoid  reviving  the  sorrow  of  Pemoussa's  relatives. 

On  March  1  (1729)^  the  ice  disappeared  and  the  Mississipi 
became  n,avigable  to  the  great  satisfaction  of  all  the  French 
who  awaited  only  that  moment  to  withdraw.  The  Kikapous 
invited  the  Father  and  myself  to  a  great  assembly:  "Here," 
said  they,  "are  two  roads :  one  leading  to  Montreal  and  the  other 
to  the  Illinois.  Tell  us  which  one  we  should  choose."  "You 
must,"  said  I,  "go  to  the  Illinois  and  conclude  a  lasting  peace 
with  them,  so  that  the  Illinois  may  no  longer  doubt  your  sincer- 
ity ;  you  must  offer  them  the  scalps  of  the  Renards."  Our  chiefs 
approved  my  idea  and  I  was  delighted  to  have  contributed 
towards  obtaining  so  desirable  a  peace,  for  the  French  and 
Illinois  had  no  more  dangerous  foes  than  the  Kikapous  and 
Mascoutins,  who  killed  their  people  up  to  the  very  doors  of 
their  village. 

Reverend  Father  Guignas  left  some  days  before  I  did,  ac- 
companied by  two  mascoutin  chiefs;  and  he  promised  to  await 
me  on  the  road.  I  started  on  March  7,  with  two  French  canoes 
and  seven  Kikapou  pirogues.  Oto  the  twelfth  we  reached  the 
river  of  the  Illinois ;  and  three  days  afterwards,  80  Illinois 
pirogues  with  their  families  and  provisions  advanced  to  meet 
us.  Two  young  Illinois,  adorned  w^ith  many  ornaments,  came 
with  their  calumets  lighted  to  make  the  Kikapou  chiefs  smoke. 


1728-29]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

,i      so 

We  were  regaled  with  turkeys  and  buffalo  tongues.  A  thousand 
attentions  were  lavished  upon  the  Kikapous  as  soon  as  they  had 
presented  the  scalps  of  the  Renards.  By  this  unequivocal  sign 
it  was  understood  that  the  Kikapous  really  wished  for  the  peace 
so  greatly  desired  by  the  Illinois. 

I  left  on  the  fifteenth,  and  journeyed  40  leagues  to  reach  the 
rench  fort  where  Monsieur  Desliettes  and  the  officers  received 
me  courteously.  Reverend  Father  Guignas  had  arrived  seven 
days  before  with  the  two  mascoutin  chiefs,  to  whom^  Monsieur 
Itesliettes  gave  presents  to  induce  them  to  maintain  peace  and 

A  detachment  of  20  Frenchmen  was  told  off  under  an  officer 
to  escort  the  Kikapous  and  Mascoutins  to  their  village. 

It  is  estimated  that  there  are  about  200  men  amongst  the 
Kikapous  and  600  men  in  the  three  illinois  villages.  There  are 
two  French  settlements  of  very  considerable  size,  containing 
nearly  200  French  some  of  whom  are  married  to  Illinois  women 
and  others  to  French  women  from  New  Orleans.  They  sell 
flour  and  pork  on  the  sea  coast,  and  bring  back  goods  from 

Eight  days  after  my  arrival,  I  started  for  Canada  by  way  of 
the  Ouahache;^  but,  after  proceeding  20  leagues  always  against 
the  current  which  is  very  rapid,  the  hands  of  our  men  became 
so  badly  blistered  that  we  were  compelled  to  return  to  Kashas- 
hias.  In  ^oing  down  we  went  over  in  one  day  the  distance  that 
it  had  taken  us  eight  days  to  pass  over  while  ascending.  Rev- 
erend Father  Boulanger,"  the  missionary  amongs  the  Mixik- 
Illirwis,  told  me  that  ten  of  his  people  were  going  by  land  to 
the  Oilyas  [Ouiatonons].  I  decided  to  follow  them  and  prom- 
ised to  pay  them  well  if  they  took  good  care  of  me. 

I  started  from  the  Illinois  country  on  May  2,  with  a  young 
Kikapou,  a  nephew  of  the  great  chief,  and  a  little  slave  for 
Monsieur  the  governor-general  of  Canada. 

iThe  Ohio  River,  which  was,  at  the  time,  usually  called  the  Wabash 
below  the  entrance  of  the  latter  river. — Ed. 
2  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  455.— Ed. 

[  55  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vo).  xvii 

Tlie  distance  from  the  Illinois  to  the  Peanguichias'^  is  about 
120  leagnes  and  15  leagues  from  the  Peanguichias  to  the  Oiiyas ; 
60  leagues  from  the  Oiiyas  to  the  Miamis;  120  leagues  from  the 
Miamis  to  Detroit ;  and  300  leagues  from  Detroit  to  Montreal ; 
making  615  leagues  in  alh 

Observations  on  the  Scioux  hy  Monsieur  De  Boucherville ;  he- 
ing  a  continuation  of  the  B elation  of  his  adventures  in  1728 
and  29. 

The  Scioux  are  very  numerous.  They  have  ten  villages  very 
far  apart.  Their  language  is  very  difficult  to  learn,  all  the 
more  so  that  there  are  few  opportunities  of  conversing  with 
these  wandering  people,  who  are  ever  engaged  in  hunting. 

The  men  are  of  quite  fine  appearance  but  are  indolent ;  conse- 
quently they  fast  often.  The  women  are  ugly,  but  laborious. 
ITecessity  has  taught  them  the  knowledge  of  a  quantity  of  roots 
which  contribute  to  their  subsistence.  There  are  two  kinds  of 
Scioux,  namely :  the  Prairie  Scioux,  and  the  Piver  Scioux  who 
make  use  of  very  small  bark  canoes  suitable  for  the  frequent 
portages  they  have  to  make. 

They  are  greatly  addicted  to  theft ;  otherwise  they  are  rather 
mild  and  docile,  fearing  and  respecting  their  chiefs.  But  little 
reliance  is  to  be  placed  in  them  because  they  are  suspicious  and 
jealous  of  their  women,  whom  they  murder  without  scruple  on 
mere  suspicion.  They  are  never  allowed  to  enter  the  fort ;  they 
would  b©  too  importunate.  Fortunately  the  dearth  of  provi- 
sions compels  them  to  separate  from  the  French  after  seven  or 
eight  days.  They  are  very  fond  of  singing  and  dancing.  They 
are  superstitious  beyond  anything  that  can  be  said.  They  have 
a  number  of  jugglers  and  charlatans,  who  know  how  to  win  their 
confidence  and  abuse  their  stupid  credulity. 

Although  they  have  had  firearms  but  a  short  time,  they  can 
use  them  perfectly  well.     They  are  very  generous  and  when  we 

1  Called  by  the  English  Piankashaw,  a  kindred  tribe  to  the  Oulato- 
non. — Ed.  i  \ 



1728-29]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

go  to  see  them  they  often  make  their  wives  and  children  fast  so 
as  to  have  something  wherewith  to  regale  the  French. 

Polygamy  is  practised  to  such  an  extent  amongst  them  that 
they  sometimes  have  as  many  as  ten  wives,  whom  they  marry 
only  after  buying  them  from  their  fathers,  according  to  the 
custom  of  the  savages;  consequently  they  treat  them  as  slaves. 

The  young  men  are  not  obliged  to  go  hunting;  they  dance 
and  that  is  their  sole  occupation  until  they  are  married. 

The  best  road  that  can  be  taken  to  go  to  the  Scioux  country 
is  to  pass  by  la  Baie;  by  the  River  of  the  Renards;  then  the 
portage  of  the  Ouisconsins  is  made  and  then  one  enters  the 
Mississippi,  which  one  ascends  to  Lolce  Pepin,  where  we  have 
built  our  fort. 

From  Montreal  to  the  Scioux  country  the  distance  is  not 
more  than  600  leagues.  Going  down  from  the  Scioux  to  the 
Illinois  country  on  the  Mississipi  I  count  about  300  leagues,  and 
from  the  Illinois  to  the  sea  400  leagues.  The  Mississipi  can 
float  great  vessels  for  T50  leagues  without  coming  to  a  water- 
fall. In  ascending  this  great  river  from  the  mouth  of  the 
Otiisconsin  to  Sault  St.  Antoine  (which  is  a  distance  of  a  hun- 
dred leagues)  we  find  a  number  of  islands,  and  on  both  sides  are 
mountains  which  prevent  the  waters  of  the  Mississipi  from 

We,  the  undersigned,  who  have  been  witnesses  of  all  that  is 
mentioned  in  this  relation,  certify  that  it  is  accurate  and  true 
and  that  we  owe  our  lives  to  the  author  through  his  labors, 
fatigues  and  experience. 

In  testimony  whereof  we  have  signed:  Oampeau,  black' 
sndth;  Menabd^  interpreter;  Dtjmais^  captain  of  militia; 
Reaume^  interpreter;  Boiselle^  voyageur. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections    [voi. 


[The  first  is  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister.  MS. 
in  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada, 
Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  51,  c.  11,  fol.  122."  The  second  is  an  extract  from 
a  letter  of  Tlllyi  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Apr.  30,  1729.  MS.  in 
Quebec  provincial  archives,  transcribed  from  the  Paris  archives.] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  Lave  just  been  informed  by  the  Sieur  de 
Montbrun  who  arrived  in  this  Town  the  day  before  yesterday, 
of  the  nnhappy  Fate  of  twelve  Frenchmen  who  had  resolved  to 
return  to  Canada  because  they  could  not  procure  Sufficient  Food 
to  enable  them  to  pass  the  winter  in  the  fort  that  they  had  built 
in  the  Sioux  country  On  the  shores  of  Lake  Pepin.  These 
twelve  Frenchmen,  among  whom  Are  the  Reverend  Father 
Gnignas,  a  missionary  of  the  Society  of  jesus;  the  Sieur  de 
Boucherville,  an.  Einsign  in  the  King's  troops ;  And  the  Sieur  de 
^Ibntbrun,  who  Escaped  with  His  brother  and  an  employee  of 
the  Montreal  government,  were  met  in  the  Mississipy  country 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Riviere  aux  Boeufs,  by  a  band  of  Maskou- 
tins  and  Quicapoux  on  a  hunting  expedition,  who  stopped  them 
and  Took  them  to  their  Village.  There  is  reason  to  fear  that 
those  Savages  who  quarrelled  two  years  ago  with  the  Renards 
(their  former  allies),  will  Sacrifice  these  Frenchmen  in  order 
to  make  peace  with  the  Renards,  to  whom  they  sent  notice,  and 
who  had  already  come  to  their  Village  before  the  Sieur  de  Mont- 
brun's  Escape  that  they  might  take  the  French  to  the  Renards. 
But  as  they  were  only  ten  of  them  they  Went  back  [without 
the  French]  and  stated  to  a  Quicapoux, — from  whom  Those 
Gentlemen  Learned  it, — that  they  would  return  to  the  number 

1  Pierre-Noel  le  Gardeur,  Sieur  de  Tilly,  son  of  Charles  le  Gardeur. 
Sieur  de  Tilly,  belonged  to  one  of  the  most  prominent  of  the  old 
Canadian  families.  He  was  born  in  1652,  married  in  1680  Marie  Mad^ 
leine  Boucher,  aunt  of  Montbrun,  and  De  Boucherville.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  royal  Council  of  New  France,  lieutenant  of  the  ma- 
rine, and  appears  to  have  acted  as  intendant  during  the  brief  interim 
between  the  departure  of  Dupuy,  the  death  of  D'Aigremont,  and  the 
arrival  of  Hocquart.  Subsequently  he  was  comptroller  of  the  ma- 
rine.— Ed. 


1729]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

of  300  to  take  the  captives  to  Their  country.     I  shall  have  the 

honor  of  informing  Yon  of  the  Fate  of  our  Frenchmen  as  soon 

as  I  get  news.     It  may  also  be  presumed  that  the  Kenards  will 

take  advantage  of  This  opportunity  to  make  peace  with  Us. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig- 

neur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant 

Quebec,  March  24th,  1729. 

I  ought  to  inform  you,  Monseigneur,  that  eleven  Frenchmen 
and  Father  Guignas  Jesuit,  who  had  left  fort  Pepin  to  descend 
the  Mississippi  E-iver  as  Far  as  the  Illinois  country  in  order  to 
reach  Canada  by  that  route,  w^ere  stopped  by  the  Mascoutins 
and  Quicapous  and  taken  to  the  riviere  au  bceufs  with  the  pur- 
pose of  surrendering  them  to  the  Renards ;  and  that  Sieur  Mont- 
brun  and  his  brother  with  another  Frenchman  escaped  from 
their  hands  the  evening  before  they  were  to  be  delivered  to  those 
savages.  The  said  Sieur  de  Montbrun  left  his  brother  ill  among 
the  Tamaroids,^  and  has  come  to  bring  this  news  to  Monsieur 
the  General ;  having  warned  such  of  our  posts  as  were  on  his 
route  to  be  on  their  guard  against  the  said  Mascoutins  and 


[Letters  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  May  16  and 
May  19,  1T29.  MS.  of  the  first,  in  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colonies, 
Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  50,  c.  11,  fol.  130;  vol. 
51,  c.  11,  fol.  132;  vol.  50,  c.  11,  fol.  131."  The  parts  of  this  letter  were 
separated,  and  have  been  reunited  by  our  transcriber.  MS.  of  the 
second,  in  the  Quebec  provincial  archives.] 

MoNSEiGNEFE — The  SOU  of  the  Sieur  Deschaillons,  com- 
mandant at  the  fort  of  Detroit,  arrived  in  this  town  yesterday 

iThe  Tamarois  were  an  Illinois  tribe  located  near  the  village  of 
Cahokia. — -Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

About  six  o'clock  in  the  evening  with  letters  from  Reverend 
Father  Guignas  and  from  the  officer  commanding  at  the  river 
St.  Joseph,  by  means  of  which  I  have  learned  that  the  Qiiica- 
poiix  and  Mascontins  have  refused  to  deliver  the  French  (whom 
they  detained  last  autumn)  into  the  hands  of  the  Renards,  who 
Came  on  two  different  occasions  into  the  village  of  the  Quica- 
poux  and  Maskoutins  to  demand  them ;  That  the  Renards  were 
affronted  by  that  refusal  and  (on  their  way  home)  had  entered 
three  Quicapoux  cabins  and  had  killed  two  young  men,  —  one 
a  Quicapoux  and  the  other  a  Maskoutin ;  That,  after  this  attack, 
the  Quicapoux  had  sent  to  the  Ayowetz^  to  request  them  not  to 
give  shelter  to  the  Renards  in  their  territory  And  that 
they  had,  at  the  same  time,  Sent  some  Quicapoux  with  Mon- 
sieur de  Boucherville  to  the  Ilinois  in  order  to  sue  for  peace 
with  the  French  and  the  savages  of  that  quarter,  to  assure  them 
of  their  ruptxire  with  the  Renards,  and  to  take  together  the 
necessary  steps  for  Avenging  themselves  on  that  common 

It  appears,  Monseigneur,  from  the  Letters  of  Reverend  father 
Guignoss  (Extracts  wherefrom  I  have  the  honor  of  sending 
you)  that  the  Escape  of  the  Sieur  de  Montbrun  and  of  the  two 
Frenchmen  who  fled  with  him  prevented  the  Maskoutins  and 
Quicapoux  from  delivering  the  French  of  whom  they  were 
masters  intO'  the  hands  of  the  Renards,  and  led'  themi  to  give 
them  kind  treatment,  in  a  manner  which  Reverend  father 
Guignoss  and  the  French  who  remained  with  him  did  not  in 
the  least  expect.  The  Sioux  for  their  part  have  treated  the 
French  who  remained  in  their  fort  very  well  and  guarded  them 
throughout  the  entire  winter  in  the  fear  that  they  might  be 
attacked  by  the  Renards.  This  news  which  re-assures  us  as 
to  the  Fate  of  oiir  French,  leads  us  to  think  that  the  nations  in 
the  upper  country,  both  of  the  Mississipy  and  of  Canada,  are 
about  to  form  a  league  for  the  purpose  of  waging  war  in  Earnest 
against  the  Renards.    It  seems  important  to  foster  these  favor- 

iTlie  Iowa,  a  Siouan  tribe,  living  in  Minnesota  wlien  first  known 
to  the  French.  In  1736,  they  numbered  perhaps  400  to  500,  with  80 
warriors. — Ed. 


1729]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

able  dispositions  by  presents,  And  we  cannot  avoid  giving  some 
to  the  Maskoutins  and  Quicapoux  to  confirm  them  in  the  reso- 
lution that  they  have  taken  to  wage  war  against  the  Eenards. 
I  have  gathered  also  from  all  that  has  been  written  to  me  by  the 
commandants  of  the  posts  in  the  upper  country,  that  I  shall  be 
obliged  to  furnish  the  assistance  of  some  Frenchmen  to  the 
nations  who  are  about  to  go  to  war  against  the  Renards;  but 
this  I  shall  always  do  with  much  caution  on  account  of  the 
■expense  that  will  have  to  be  incurred.  The  rupture  of  the 
Maskoutins  and  Quicapoux  with  the  Renards  will  constitute 
a  strong  barrier  between  the  Ilinois  country  and  that  of  the 

Although  the  army  sent  against  the  latter  has  not  produced 
all  the  Result  expected  from  it,  it  has  nevertheless  made  a  great 
impression  on  the  Minds  of  the  tribes  who  seemed  to  Wish  to 
despise  us,  and  we  have  all  the  more  reason  to  believe  that 
the  step  now  taken  by  the  Maskoutins  and  Quicapoux  against 
the  Renards  is  due  solely  to  the  Example  of  what  has  been 
done  among  their  IsTeighbors,  and  to  the  fear  that  we  might 
wage  war  against  them. 

The  Frenchman  who  is  said  to  have  been  killed  by  the  Pu- 
ants,  is  a  young  man  thirty  two  years  old,  who  had  remained 
with  the  folles  avoines,  the  eldest  son  of  Monsieur  de  la  Noue, 
a  Captain  of  the  troops. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig- 

meur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant 

Quebec,  May  16th,  1729. 

P.  S.  I  also  append  a  copy  of  the  letter  written  to  me  by 
Reverend  father  Guignoss  previous  to  his  departure  from  the 
Sioux  country.  It  will  show  you,  Monseigneur,  what  danger 
there  would  be  in  farming  out  the  posts  of  the  upper  country 
to  merchants  for  the  purpose  of  exploiting  the  same  as  has  been 
proposed  to  you,  because  the  sole  object  of  those  persons  is  their 
own  particular  interest  (as  you  will  see  by  reading  that  Letter) 
and  the  interests  of  the  King  would  always  suffer  considerably. 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections    [voi.  xvii 

May  19,  1729. 

You  will  see,  Monsieur,  by  all  the  doeuments  Accompanying 
ihis  packet  containing  agreeable  news  for  tbe  two  colonies  wbich 
I  believe  will  give  pleasure  to  Monsieur  tbe  Comte  de  Maurepa®, 
that  the  army  of  the  King  sent  last  year  against  the  Renards 
was  not  useless.  It  made  such  an  impression  upon  all  their 
neighbors  that  the  Kikapous  and  Maseoutins  are  about  to  de- 
clare war  against  them.  They  have,  at  the  same  time,  sent  two 
of  their  people  with  Monsieur  Boucherville  among  the  Illinois 
to  make  their  peace  with  the  French  and  Savages  of  that  region, 
to  assure  them  of  their  rupture  with  the  Renards,  and  to  take 
measures  together  to  avenge  themselves  on  this  common  enemy. 
They  have  also  sent  orders  to  the  Scioux  not  to  give  the  Itenards 
any  refuge;  the  Scioux  have  promised  our  people  not  to  give 
them  any  asylum  whatever.  As  the  Eenard's  country  has  been 
laid  waste,  they  are  placed  in  a  situation  where  they  can  be  easily 
destroyed,  toward  which  end  we,  on  our  part,  should  work. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  very  completely,  Monsieur,  Your  very 
humble  and  very  obedient  servant, 


P.  S.  Elnclosed  is  a  letter  for  the  gentlemen  of  the  Com- 
pany of  the  Indies.  I  send  them  congratulations  on  the  good 
news  for  the  two  colonies.  I  shall  be  greatly  obliged  if  you 
will  forward  it  to  them. 


[Letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  July  21, 
1729,  giving  a  report  of  an  annual  gathering  of  Indians.  Source,  same 
as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  51,  c.  11,  fol.  125.] 

MoNSEiGNETTB — It  givcs  me  much  pleasure  to  have  the  honor 
of  Informing  you  concerning  all  matters  affecting  the  welfare 
of  this  Colony;  And  those  that  have  been  dealt  with  in  the 
deputations  that  most  of  the  Savage  nations  have  Sent  to  me 
Are  too  favorable  to  allow  me  to  defer  the  honor  of  giving  you 
an  Account  of  the  same. 


1729]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

I  have  never  before  seen  so  many  savages  from  different 
Places  as  have  come  do'svn  this  year  to  Montreal.  The  Outa- 
wacs  and  Saiiteux  from  Missilimakinac^  Came  here  two  dayg 
after  my  arrival  to  inform  me  of  what  had  passed  among  the 
Eenards  and  to  Know  what  I  wished  them  to  Do. 

The  Sakis  and  Ponteonatamis  of  the  river  St.  Joseph  Came 
with  the  same  object.^ 

The  Hurons,  Pouteouatmis,  and  Outawacs  of  detroit  also 
came  down  for  that  purpose. 

The  Miamis  and  Ouyatanons  [blank  space  in  MS.] 

The  nipissingiies  and  Tabitibis  of  the  post  of  Temiscamingne^ 
have  also  Come  to  offer  me  their  services^. 

The  Testes  de  bonles^  Avho  dwell  on  the  height  of  land  toward 
the  shores  of  the  northern  Sea,  have  sent  three  of  their  people 
to  assure  me  of  their  attachment  to  the  French. 

The  R-enards  who  have  attacked  the  Quicapoux,  Mascoutins, 
folles  avoines,  and  sauteux  have  So  irritated  the  nations  of  the 
upper  country  against  them  that  there  is  not  one  of  these 
who  is  not  disposed  to  wage  war  on  them.  The  Sioux  and 
ayowets  have  refused  to  give  them  shelter  in  their  lands ;  so  that 
they  have  been  obliged  to  return  to  their  former  Village  where 
they  Are  surrounded  by  all  these  nations  who  are  at  War  with 

1  These  were  the  chief  tribes  about  Mackinac,  hostile  to  the  Foxes 
and  loyal  to  the  French.     See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  index. — Ed. 

2  The  French  had  been  endeavoring  for  some  time  to  detach  bodies 
of  Wisconsin  Indians  from  too  close  neighborhood  with  the  Foxes. 
The  Potawatomi  (Pout6ouatami),  and  the  Sauk  (Sakis,  had  gone  in 
large  numbers  to  the  post  at  St.  .Joseph.  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  p.  94; 
xvi,  pp.  393,  397,  399.— Eb. 

3  This  was  a  post  on  an  upper  tributary  of  the  Ottawa  River,  estab- 
lished for  the  benefit  of  the  Nipissings  (Nipissinques),  and  Abittibis 
(Tabitibis)  of  the  river  of  the  same  name  flowing  into  Hudson  Bay. 
The  former  tribe  were  first  visited  by  Champlain  in  1613;  they  fled 
to  the  North  before  the  Iroquois.  At  present  they  occupy  a  reserva- 
tion of  64,000  acres  on  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Nipissing,  and  in  1897 
had  a  population  of  200.  See  Alexander  Henry,  Travels  and  Adven- 
tures (Bain's  ed.,  Boston,  1901),  p.  30,  note. — Ed. 

4  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  114,  115,  note  2.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

them;  The  sioux  accompanied  the  French  who  were  obliged 
to  return,  as  far  as  Sault  St.  Antoine/  and  nothing  more  favor- 
able could  be  expected  from  all  the  nations  of  the  upper  coun- 
try ;  but  it  seems  to  me  that  in  order  to  maintain  them  in  these 
good  dispositions  it  Will  be  necessary  also  to  Send  some  French 
next  Spring  with  the  !N'ations  who  are  preparing  to  wage  war 
against  the  Renards.  The  Example  of  the  French  will  animate 
them,  and  will  Prevent  them  from  having  contempt  for  the 
French  upon  whom  they  have  not  looked  favorably  since  the 
last  affair. 

Three  days  ago  there  arrived  three  chiefs  of  the  Villages  of 
the  Chawanons,^  whom  we  have  been  endeavoring  for  several 
years  to  draw  closer  to  Canada.  I  have  not  yet  been  able  to 
give  them  an  audience  because  I  am  having  a  search  made  for 
interpreters  who  know  their  language. 

I  shall  have  the  honor  of  writing  more  at  length  to  you  on 
this  subject  by  the  King's  ship. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 

seigneur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant 

Montreal,  July  21st,  1729. 

Since  my  Letter  was  written  Ten  l^omtagues^  have  just  come 
who  have  informed  me  that  the  chiefs  of  the  other  Iroquoia 
villages  will  arrive  Shortly. 

I  must  not  forget  to  Inform  You,  Monseigneur,  of  the  recon- 
ciliation that  I  have  effected  Between  the  hurons  of  Detroit  and 
the  Miamis.     The  latter  were  greatly  Irritated  Against  the 

1  This  was  a  portion  of  the  party  at  Fort  Beauharnois,  who  evidently 
went  back  hy  the  Lake  Superior  route,  the  Fox-Wisconsin  route  being 
unsafe  on  account  of  the  return  of  the  Foxes. — Ed. 

2The  Shawnee  (Fr.  Chaouanon),  "people  of  the  South,"  when  first 
known  were  living  in  Western  Kentucky;  they  made  frequent  migra^ 
tions,  and  in  the  latter  part  of  the  xvii  and  early  xviii  centuries 
were  in  western  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio.  They  intrigued  with  both 
the  English  and  French. — Ed. 

3  The  Onondaga  (Nontaes,  Nontagues)  were  one  of  the  five  nations 
of  the  Iroquois. — Ed. 


I  1729] 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

former  because  they  had  made  peace  with  the  Testes  plates, 
without  saying  anything  to  any  one.  I  Listened  to  all  their 
reasons  and  when  I  saw  that  they  were  going  too  far,  I  made 
them  put  a  stop  to  it,  And  told  them  to  Listen  to  the  word  of 
their  father.  Everything  passed  off  very  well,  and  they  de- 
parted good  friends.^ 

1729 :     THE  FOXES  -SUE  FOR  PEACE 

[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Aug.  17,  1729. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  51,  c.  11,  fol.  131.] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  have  the  honor  of  Sending  you  annexed 
to  this  the  Extract  from  a  letter  that  Monsieur  de  la  Come^ 
has  written  to  me  since  my  arrival  in  Quebec,  by  which  you 
will  see  the  steps  taken  by  the  Renards  to  sue  for  peace.  Though 
these  savages  have  not  adhered  to  that  which  was  granted  them 
in  the  past,  and  have  always  broken  the  word  that  they  have 
given,  It  is  to  be  presumed,  Monseigneur,  that  in  the  present 
position  of  their  affairs  they  would  remain  quiet  If  their  request 
were  granted.  They  formerly  had  resources  which  they  no 
longer  have  and  since  they  find  Themselves  abandoned  by  all  the 
nations  and  even  by  their  allies  (as  I  have  had  the  honor  of 
writing  to  You)  There  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  they  will 
keep  quiet.     If  they  come  down  with  the  Sieur  de  la  Jes- 

iFor  the  Huron  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  index.  The  Testes  plates 
("Flat-heads")  was  the  Iroquois  appella.  ~i  for  the  Southern  tribes, 
Cherokee,  Chickasaw,  etc.  This  arbitration  of  differences  between 
neighboring  tribes  is  a  good  illustration  of  the  functions  of  a  Cana- 
dian governor  in  relation  to  his  red  "children." — Ed. 

2  Jean  Louis  de  la  Come,  Sieur  de  Chapt,  was  a  noted  French  ofB- 
cer,  captain,  and  governor  of  the  town  of  Montreal.  He  was  thu8 
characterized  in  1732:  "an  excellent  man,  active,  vigilant,  loving  the 
servlce"-JC^.  T.  Col.  Docs.,  ix,  p.  1033).  He  died  in  1734,  leaving  sev- 
eral sons  who  were  prominent  officers  in  the  colony. — Ed. 

5  [  65  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

maraye^  as  I  Hope,  I  shall  Listen  to  the  proposals  that  they 
may  Make  to  me,  and  shall  give  them  only  such  answers  as  may 
be  suitable  to  the  good  of  the  service  and  of  the  Colony.  You 
may  honor  me,  Monseigneur,  with  Your  orders  On  this  subject 
via  new  England  for,  from  all  appearances,  those  people  will 
be  unable  to  return  before  next  year. 

To  prevent  our  !N"eighbors  from  knowing  what  You  may 
have  the  honor  of  writing  to  me  on  the  matter,  in  case  they 
should  Intercept  Your  Letters  in  order  to  read  them,  the  Ex- 
pedient that  I  have  thought  of,  Monseigneur,  would  be  for  You 
to  do  me  the  honor  of  writing  A  Letter  to  me  treating  only  of 
trivial  and  unimportant  matters,  dated  the  20th  December, 
which  would  mean  that  His  majesty  approves  of  the  peace 
asked  for  by  that  nation ;  and  In  case  his  Intention  should  be 
that  matters  are  to  remain  in  their  present  Condition,  the  Letter 
should  be  dated  the  31st  December.  These  two  different  dates 
would  have  their  meaning  for  me  and  would  enable  me  to  Carry 
out  the  Intentions  of  the  Court  in  connection  with  a  matter  so 
deserving  of  attention.  And  I  trust,  Monseigneur,  that  you 
will  be  pleased  to  have  that  Letter  sent  to  me  by  as  safe  a 
means  as  possible. 

I  shall  have  the  honor  of  writing  You  by  the  King^s  Ship 
what  the  Eenards  may  say  to  me  on  their  behalf. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 
seigneur, Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 

Quebec,  August  17th,  1729. 

iChristophe  Dufros,  Sieur  de  la  Jemerais,  was  bom  about  1708,  son 
of  a  French  officer  at  Montreal  and  Marie  Ren6e  Gaultier,  sister  of 
La  VSrendrye.  La  Jemerais  was  apparently  left  in  command  of  Fort 
Beauhamols,  when  De  Boucherville's  party  abandoned  it.  He  after- 
wards joined  his  uncle  on  his  explorations  for  the  Western  Sea,  and 
shared  all  the  hardships  and  adventures  of  that  search,  until,  worn 
out  by  fatigues,  he  died  in  the  northern  wilderness  in  1736,  only  thirty 
years  of  age. — Ed. 


1729]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 



etter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Sept.  1,  1729. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  51,  c.  11,  fol.  135.] 

MoNSEiGNEUE — The  SieuT  de  la  Jemeraye,  a  cadet  in  His 
Majesty's  troops,  one  of  the  French  who  wintered  among  the 
sioiix,  arrived  in  this  Town  yesterday  without  bringing  with 
him  the  l^enard  chiefs  who  were  expected  and  who  had  Induced 
the  Sieur  de  la  Jemeraye  to  accompany  them  from  the  Sioux 
Village  to  the  river  St.  Joseph.  When  those  Renards  arrived 
there  they  said  that  they  feared  to  fall  into  the  ambushes  of 
Enemies  who  would  lie  in  wait  for  them  everywhere  if  they 
should  go  down  to  Montreal,  and  they  returned  to  their  homes. 
I  have  the  honor,  Monseigneur,  to  Send  You  a  copy  of  the 
report  that  the  Sieur  de  la  Jemeraye  has  made  to  me  respecting 
what  occurred  on  the  part  of  the  Plants  and  Renards,  About 
sixty  cabins  of  whom  were  CamjDed  at  a  gun-shot  from  the  fort 
that  the  French  built  among  the  sioux  On  the  shore  of  Lake 
Pepin.  The  Eenards  took  advantage  of  the  absence  of  the 
sioux  (who  were  all  away  hunting)  to  speak  to  our  French 
about  their  affairs.  You  will  see,  Monseigneur,  that  they  know 
not  what  means  to  adopt  to  obtain  the  friendship  of  the  French. 
The  proposal  that  they  made  to  the  Sieur  de  la  Jemeraye  (when 
they  left  the  sioux  country)  that  he  should  accompany  them  to 
their  Village,  and  there  detach  some  of  their  Chiefs  to  go  with 
him  to  the  river  St.  Joseph  and  render  an  account  to  the  oomh 
mandant  of  their  good  behavior  toward  the  French  with  whom 
they  had  wintered;  and  The  words  sent  to  me  by  that  com- 
mandant on  behalf  of  one  of  the  Renard  chiefs  (a  copy  whereof 
I  have  the  honor  to  send  you)  ;  are  proofs  of  their  docility  and 
of  their  desire  to  be  at  peace  with  us.  But  as  they  have  not 
come  down,  and  as  the  lateness  of  the  season  does  not  permit  us 
to  send  any  word  to  them  Respecting  their  request,  I  Hope, 
Monseigneur,  to  be  in  a  Position  next  Spring  (if  you  will  have 
the  kindness  to  send  me  your  orders  Oli  this  matter  via  Kew- 
England)  to  comply  with  the  Intentions  of  the  Court,  and  with 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

what  His  Majesty  may  decide  in  Connection  with  the  peace 
that  they  ask.  The  French  who  have  remained  among  the 
Bioux  write  me  that  they  will  not  abandon  the  fort  where  they 
are  unless  they  receive  orders  to  do  so.  Thus  as  I  have  sent 
them  tidings  by  some  Frenehmen  among  those  who  made  the 
treaty  respecting  the  Establishment  of  the  post  among  the  Sioux, 
who  asked  me  this  Summer  for  permission  to  go  up  there,  I 
think  that  they  will  hold  their  fort  and  will  remain  there.  On 
the  other  hand  The  sioux  will  protect  them  still  more  when  they 
see  that  we  continue  to  Send  them  what  they  need,  notwith- 
standing the  fact  that  it  seemed  impossible  to  do  so  this  year. 
These  Frenchmen  were  met  by  the  Sieur  de  la  Jemeraye  in  the 
vicinity  of  Missilimakinac. 

I  have  received  word  from  the  Commandant  of  that  Place 
that  a  band  of  fifty  Outawacks  had  started  to  strike  a  blow  at 
the  Eenards ;  that  out  of  these  fifty,  thirteen  had  returned ;  but 
that  they  proposed  to  start  again  in  the  Spring  with  the  folle 
avoines  to  go  to  the  country  [of  the  Eenards] .  There  is  reason 
to  believe  that  that  nation  will  decrease  every  day,  for  all  its 
Neighbors  are  its  Enemies. 

The  Sieur  de  la  Jemeraye  has  told  me  that  during  His  Stay 
in  the  Benard  Village,  the  folles  avoines  came  to  strike  a  blow 
at  them,  and  killed  one  man  and  one  woman ;  That  the  Eenards 
made  up  a  band  of  thirty  men  to  fall  on  the  folles  avoines  who 
were  only  twelve  in  number;  but  they  came  back  with  three 
men  wounded  without  having  killed  or  wounded  any  of  the 
folles  avoines.  I  must  not  omit,  Monseigneur,  to  inform  you 
that  the  cries ^  are  to  start  forthwith  from  their  Village  loaded 
with  presents  to  make  peace  with  the  sauteux  of  la  pointe  de 
Chagoiiamigon,  with  whom  they  were  at  war  for  a  long  time. 
I  had  advised  the  Commandant  of  that  post  to  urge  the  Savages 
as  much  as  he  could  to  do  so  and  to  strengthen  the  peace  be- 
tween those  !N"ations. 

vCree    or    Christinaux    Indians.     See    Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  189. 
note  2.— Ed. 


■  ^^r 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

I  have  tlie  honor  to  be  with  very  profoTind  respect,  Mon- 

seigneur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant 

Quebec,  September  7th,  1729. 

The  King's  Ship  has  not  yet  arrived.     We  received  news  2 

days  ago  she  was  at  Bie.^     I  Hope  she  will  soon  arrive. 

[The  following,  evidently  the  enclosure  spoken  of  in  the  body  of 
the  document,  is  a  translation  from  a  French  transcript  in  the  library 
of  Macalester  College,  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  and  is  published  in  Macalester 
College  Contributions,  1st  series,  No.  4,  pp.  135,  136.] 

The  Sieur  de  la  Jemeraye,  cadet  in  the  forces  of  His  Majesty, 
and  who  comes  from  the  Sionx  village,  reports  that  the  Foxes 
have  arrived  to  the  number  of  sixty  lodges,  as  many  Foxes  as 
Pliants,  to  lodge  near  the  pickets  of  the  fort  which  the  French 
had  built  there.  That  the  Foxes  sent  word  to  the  French  that 
they  wished  to  lodge  near  them  in  order  to  make  friends  with 
them,  but  the  French  told  them  that  they  did  not  desire  at  all 
to  associate  with  them,  and  that  they  would  open  fire  on  them 
if  they  did  not  retire;  this  obliged  them  to  draw  off  from  the 
fort  a  gun  shot,  where  they  camped. 

Some  days  later  a  Chief  Pliant  came  to  the  fort  of  the  French 
to  see  a  man  named  Gigner  who  was  there ;  he  invited  him  to 
come  and  see  him  at  his  lodge,  which  he  did,  in  spite  of  the 
representations  of  the  other  Frenchmen,  where  he  was  hardly 
come  with  a  trap  which  he  had  with  him  when  the  Piiants  seized 
it,  when  he  would  have  run  at  the  risk  of  his  life  if  some  Foxes 
had  not  hindered  him.  Finally  he  had  to  make  a  bargain  and 
give  presents  to  get  it  back  again. 

On  the  news  that  the  Foxes  and  Piiants  had  from  a  Fox  who 
came  from  St.  Joseph's  river,  that  the  commandant  of  that 

iThis  ship,  VElepJiant,  was  shipwrecked  on  this  same  day,  but  for- 
tunately no  one  was  lost.  Hocquart,  the  new  intendant,  was  one  of 
the  passengers. —  Ed, 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

place  had  told  him  that  their  business  was  going  well,  showing 
even  some  presents  which  he  said  the  French  had  made  him,  the 
Piiants  and  Foxes  asked  from  the  French  a  man  of  the  Sionx 
fort  to  accompany  them  to  their  village,  and  from  it  they  would 
take  away  several  chiefs  with  him,  to  go  to  the  St  Joseph's 
river  to  ascertain  the  news  from  the  commandant ;  and  because 
he  thought  their  Father  has  their  respect,  and  in  order  that 
he  might  bear  witness  that  they  had  not  in  any  way  molested 
them,  Le  Sieur  de  la  Jemeraye  proposed  to  go  with  them ;  and 
left  the  Sioux  village  with  the  Foxes  and  P'iiants  in  order  to  go 
to  their  village,  where  they  had  no  sooner  arrived  than  they 
detained  himi  twenty-one  days  without  his  being  able  to  find  out 
what  would  be  his  lot ;  finally  at  the  end  of  the  time  he  left  them 
with  fourteen  Foxes  in  order  to  proceed  to  St.  Joseph's  river. 
When  they  arrived  there  they  told  the  commandant  that  they  had 
brought  the  Sieur  de  la  Jemeraye  without  doing  him  any  harm 
whatsoever,  for  they  hoped  he  would  speak  in  their  favor  to  their 
Father  and  that  he  would  obtain  pardon  for  them.  It  was  pro- 
posed to  them  to  go  as  far  as  Montreal,  but  the  fear  they  had  of 
meeting  some  of  their  enemies  decided  them  to  return  home  after 
three  days'  tarry  at  St.  Joseph's  river.  The  Sieur  de  la  Jem- 
eraye adds  that  during  his  sojourn  at  the  Foxes'  village  the  Folle 
Avoines  came  there  to  give  battle,  and  killed  a  man  and  a 
woman.  The  Foxes  sallied  from  their  village  to  the  number  of 
thirty  to  fight  the  Folle  Avoines,  who  were  only  twelve;  there 
were  three  of  their  men  wounded  and  the  others  returned  to  the 


1729]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

1729:     EXPENSES  OF  EXPEDITION  OF  1728 

[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beaiiharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French 
Minister,  dated  Oct.  25,  1729.  This  is  evidently  in  reply  to  accusa- 
tions against  Lignery  for  extravagance  in  his  expedition  of  the  pre- 
vious year.  MS.  in  archives  of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press- 
mark, "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  51,  c.  11,  fol.  41."] 


We  have  cammiunicated)  to  Sieur  de  Lignery  what  youi 
were  pleased  to  write  to  us  respecting  the  Gk)od9  that  he 
has  left  at  Missilimakinae.  For  his  justification  he  says  that 
he  had  not  charge  of  the  Goods  and  mnnitions  delivered 
from  the  King's  magazines  on  Monsieur  Dupuy's  order;  That 
there  was  a  Commissary  Appointed  to  Follow  the  arlny  who 
had  charge  of  those  things ;  That  he  Knew  that  munitions  had 
been  delivered  from  the  magazines  to  effect  Purchases  of  Food 
and  that  they  were  nearly  all  Employed  either  in  buying  pro- 
visions or  were  distributed  among  various  savage  tribes  in  order 
to  Induce  them  to  follow  the  Army ;  That  they  did  not  Suffice 
by  a  good  deal  to  purchase  the  necessary  Provisions  for  three 
hundred  savages  brought  by  the  Sieur  de  I^oyan^  to  Missili- 
makinae to  join  the  army,  who  arrived  twenty  days  before  the 
Sieur  de  Lignery ;  That  none  or  at  least  a  very  small  quantity 
of  the  goods  destined  for  the  purchase  of  Indian  com  and 
grease  went  to  Missilimakinae  as  you  may  See,  Monseigneur,  by 

1  Pierre  Jacques  Payan  de  Noyan  (Noyau),  Sieur  de  Chavois  (Cha- 
ncy), was  a  nephew  of  Longueuil  and  Iberville.  Bom  in  1695,  he 
served  with  distinction  in  both  Canada  and  Louisiana.  An  official  re- 
port of  1736  (Can.  Arch.,  1899,  p.  28)  says  of  him:  "35  to  40  j^ears. 
A  good  officer,  quick-witted  and  intelligent.  Steady.  Adopted  by  the 
Iroquois.  Ensign,  1712;  lieutenant,  1722;  captain,  1729."  He  served 
with  Bienville  in  Louisiana,  being  second  in  command  of  the  ill-fated 
expedition  against  the  Chickasaws  in  1736.  During  the  English  wars 
he  commanded  several  posts,  was  governor  of  Trois  Rivieres,  and  very 
influential  with  the  Iroquois.  In  1758  he  was  with  an  inadequate  force 
placed  in  command  of  Fort  Frontenac,  being  obliged  to  surrender  to 
the  English.  Later  he  was  exchanged  for  Col.  Peter  Schuyler,  whom 
Montcalm  had  captured  at  Oswego. —  Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

"the  two  annexed  Statements  marked  one  and  two;  That  if  he 
left  the  munitions  mentioned  in  those  Statements  at  missili- 
makinac  he  could  not  avoid  doing  so  owing  to  the  loss  of  twelve 
Oanoes  whose  Crews  were  placed  in  the  others ;  moreover  a  por- 
tion of  those  munitions  served  to  pay  the  garrison  of  Missi- 
limakinac  who  had  received  no  payment.  This  amounts  to  the 
sum  of  1384  livres,  6  sols,  and  3  deniers. 

According  to  the  annexed  Extract  which  Shall  be  taken  in 
special  account,  The  Sieur  de  Lignery  also  adds  that,  as  neither 
lie  nor  the  Officers  were  able  to  restrain  the  Savages,  nor  even 
the  habitants  on  their  return  from  the  Village  of  the  Renards, 
he  was  unable  to  have  such  order  observed  as  would  be  expected 
from  a  Body  of  disciplined  troops.  He  falls  back  upon  the 
written  order  of  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  commanding  him, 
for  fear  that  the  army  might  suffer  from  want  of  provisions,  to 
have  some  purchased  wherever  there  might  be  any,  to  be  paid 
for  at  Quebec  on  the  certificate  of  the  Sieur  du  Laurent,  the 
commissary  in  charge  of  the  Provisions,  countersigned  by  the 
Sieur  de  Lignery. 

It  seems,  Monseigneur,  that  he  took  it  literally  and  acted  ac- 
cordingly. It  is  true  that  it  was  not  Explained,  but  neither 
was  there  any  question  of  buying  Provisions  after  Fifty  days 
marching  while  he  had  enough  for  four  months,  and  these 
Purchases  were  to  be  Effected  only  on  returning  from  the 
country  of  the  Renards.  Moreover,  the  Goods  destined  for 
purchasing  provisions  for  the  Savages  (in  case  there  was  a 
dearth  of  the  same)  should  have  been  more  than  sufficient  if  not 
!N'eedlessly  consumed.  I^reither  was  there  any  order  to  Induce 
the  Savages  to  Follow  him  or  to  give  them  presents  to  Incite 
them  to  do  so.  He  should  Merely  have  received  those  who 
offered  Themselves  Willingly  without  incurring  any  expense 
therefor.  Had  he  acted  on  these  principles  the  purchase  of 
Provisions  would  not  have  exceeded  the  quantity  of  Goods 
assigned  for  that  purpose,  nor  would  he  have  found  himself 
comipelled  to  cause  goods  to  be  ^iven  him  on  the  certificates  of 
the  Sieur  du  Laurent  as  he  has  done.     But  with  respect  to  this 


■  K729] 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Item  as  well  as  to  His  entire  Statement,  there  seems  to  have 
been  great  abuse,  which  should  necessitate  Explanations  and 
Information  which  it  is  almost  Impossible  to  obtain.    The  Sieni 
de  Lignery  contents  himself  with  stating  that  everything  was 
consumed  with  the  exception  of  the  little  that  remained  at  Mis- 
;  silimakinac ;  and  establishing  this  by  the  Statement  of  the  ex- 
[penditure  reported  by  the  Commissary  accompanying  the  army,' 
[which  shows  in  Keality  many  purchases  of  Provisions,  many 
[presents  to  the  savages,  and  other  expenses,  a  considerable  por- 
[tion  whereof  he  could  have  curtailed  had  he  acted  with  all  the 
^economy  that  he  should  have  displayed,  and  had  he  Considered 
his  majesty's  Interests  alone.     Such  is  the  prudence  which  he 
should  have  observed,  and  which  the  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  could 
not  Explain  in  the  order  that  he  gave  him  for  the  purchase'  of 
Provisions,  because  it  was  impossible  to  foresee  the  various 
circumstances  that  might  arise  during  a  Campaign  of  Four  or 
five  months'  duration.     We  admit  however  that  if  every  officer 
had  been  placed  in  charge  of  the  munitions  in  His  Canoe  there 
would  have  been  less  waste.     Monsieur  Dupuy  ordered  other- 
wise and  committed  the  Goods  to  the  charge  of  the  Sieur  du 
Laurent,  a  Willing  Young  man  but  Without  Experience,  who 
Was  Unable  to  Control  the  consumption  of  the  same,  for  the 
canoes  of  the  Army  were  distributed   by   brigades    and   were 
formed  into  one  body  only  at  la  Baye. 

All  these  reasons  have  determined  us,  Monseigneur,  to  awail 
further  commands  from  you  respecting  the  Sieur  de  Lignery. 
The  Sieur  Hocquart  will  give  orders  to  sell  the  remainder  of  the 
munitions  and  Effects  left  by  the  Sieur  de  Lignery,  the  younger, 
at  Missilimakinac  with  the  Sieur  Dubuisson,^  the  present  com- 
mandant at  that  Post. 

We  shall  continue,  Monseigneur,  to  devote  all  our  attention 
to  Preventing  the  English  from  coming  to  carry  on  any  Trade 
in  the  Colony,  and  to  the  Execution  of  the  Letters  Patent  of  the 
month  of  October  1727.     And  notwithstanding  any  representa- 

iFor  biographical  sketch  of  Dubuisson,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  p. 
118;  xvi,  index.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol.  xvu 

tions  that  may  be  made  to  us  under  pretext  of  payments  of  debts 
between  the  English,  and  the  French,  we  shall  manifest  no  com- 
plaisance, and  we  shall  punish  severely  all  who  may  infringe 
his  Majesty's  orders. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 
seigneur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servants 



[Enclosure    with    the    preceding    document.     Source    the    same,    but 

foL  47.] 

The  following  effects  were  also  embarked  in  the  said  Ganoes 
for  the  purchase  of  Provisions  in  the  upper  Country  for  the 
said  party: 

108  ells  of  cloth  in  6  pieces 

124ye  ells  of  moUeton^ 

4  dozen  Morlaix^  shirts  for  men 

4  dozen  ditto  for  women 

2  dozen  ditto  for  boys 

400  Pounds  of  fine  powder 

8  barrels  for  the  powder 

600  Pounds  of  ball 

400  Pounds  of  lead 

20  double  Sacks  containing  6  and  %  ells. 

Made  out  at  Montreal  on  the  Thirtieth  June  one  thousand 
seven  Hundred  and  twenty  eight.  Signed:  Roebert.  And 
lower  down:  Examined,  daigremont. 

A  True  C^py 

Quebec,  October  25th,  1729. 

1  Gilles  Hocquart  was  intendant  of  Canada  from  Oct.  1,  1728  to 
Sept.  1,  1748.  During  his  long  term  of  office  he  acquitted  himself  with 
unusual  ability,  managed  Canadian  finances  with  integrity,  and  at- 
tempted to  develop  the  resources  of  the  colony. — Ed. 

2  A  kind  of  treble-milled  cotton  cloth. — Ed. 

sMorlaix  is  a  Breton  town,  near  the  English  Channel,  noted  for  its 
linen  manufacture. —  Ed. 


1729]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French 
Minister,  dated  Oct.  25,  1729.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document, 
but  vol.  51,  c.  11,  fol.  22.  An  abstract  of  the  same  is  given  in  N.  Y. 
Colon  Docs.,  ix,  pp.  1016,  1017;  also  in  Margry,  Decouv.  et  etahl,  vi, 
pp.  559-565.] 



It  is  true  that  tlie  fort  built  by  tlie  Frencli  among  the  Sioux 
on  the  sbore  of  Lake  Pepin  seems  to  be  in  a  bad  situation  on 
account  of  the  overflow  of  the  Waters,  but  really  in  1727  They 
rose  higher  than  they  have  ever  donei  before,  according  to  what 
the  savages  say,  and  this  may  be  relied  on,  for  this  year  They 
have  not  approached  the  fort. 

When  the  Sieur  de  la  Perriere,  placed  the  fort  at  that  Spot, 
he  had  previously  caused  the  savages  to  be  asked  whether  it 
would  be  safe  from  Inundations,  and  the  answer  received  was 
that  the  Waters  did  not  rise  to  that  height.  He  considered  at 
the  same  time  that  he  could  not  place  it  in  a  better  Spot,  both 
as  regards  the  quality  of  the  land  suitable  for  Cultivation  and 
on  accoumt  of  the  abundance  of  Game.  These  two  reasons,  one 
being  as  necessary  as  the  other  (added  to  what  the  savages  had 
told  hird  Respecting  the  Inundation  that  he  feared),  induced 
him  to  decide  upon  placing  the  Fort  at  that  Spot  after  consider- 
ing all  its  advantages.  But  as  it  may  happen  that  the  Waters 
will  rise  as  They  did  in  1727,  the  fort  might  be  placed  four  or 
five  Arpents  from  the  shore  of  the  Lake  Without  this  Removal 
being  prejudicial  to  the  Views  that  caused  it  to  be  built  at  the 
Spot  where  it  now  is. 

It  does  not  seem  probable,  Monseigneur,  that  either  the  Set- 
tlement or  the  fort  should  have  given  any  Umbrage  to  the  sioux, 
who  had  themselves  asked  for  it,  and  the  good  reception  that 
they  gave  the  French  on  their  arrival  among  them  seems  to 
contradict  what  has  been  written  to  you  on  the  subject.  It  is 
quite  true  that  shortly  after  the  arrival  of  the  French  those 
Savages  started  on  their  hunt,  as  they  are  in  the  habit  of  doing 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

for  their  Subsistence  and  that  of  their  families  who  have  no 
other  means  of  Livelihood,  since  they  sovr  nothing.  I  have  just 
been  informed  that  their  absence  was  due  solely  to  their  meeting 
(on  arriving  at  their  Hunting  grounds)  a  number  of  the  prairie 
sioux  who  Asked  them  to  join  them  in  their  war  against  the 
Mahas;^  they  agreed  to  do  so  and  that  is  the  reason  why  we 
had  no  news  of  them  by  the  Oanoe  that  the  Sieu.r  de  la  Perriere 
had  Sent  with  ten  men  to  ascertain  what  had  become  of  them, 
for  they  returned  only  in  the  month  of  July  Following. 

When  you  did  me  the  honor  of  writing  to  me  that  I  had  said 
nothing  to  you  on  the  design  that  I  had  had  of  Establishing  the 
post  among  the  sioux,  it  was  solely,  Monseigneur,  in  Execution 
of  the  article  of  the  King's  memorial  of  one  thousand  Seven 
hundred  and  twenty  six  ordering  me  to  neglect  nothing  to  carry 
out  His  Majesty's  Views  respecting  an  Establishment  at  that 
Place,  and  to  Induce  two  missionaries  to  go  with  the  com- 
mandant whom  I  sent  there.  I  Felt  the  necessity  of  this  too 
much  not  to  give  all  my  attention  to  it.  The  welfare  of  the 
service,  that  of  the  Colony,  and  of  EeligiouL,  were  at  stake,  and 
what  you  have  done  me  the  honor  of  writing  to  me  about  it 
seems  to  contain  these  three  principles.  Moreover,  it  seemed 
all  the  more  necessary  to  have  Established  that  post  since  there 
is  no  doubt  that  the  Renards  (in  their  defeat)  would  have 
found  refuge  among  the  sioux  had  not  the  French  been  estab- 
lished there.  And  at  present  we  attribute  the  docility  and  sub- 
mission manifested  by  the  Penards  solely  to  the  attentions  and 
to  the  advantageous  offers  made  by  the  Sioux  to  the  French  of 
which  the  Penards  are  fully  aware. 

The  post  would  therefore  be  necessary  in  order  to  Maintain 
the  sioux  in  these  happy  dispositions,  to  keep  the  Penards  in 
check,  and  to  frustrate  the  steps  that  they  might  take  to  win  the 
hearts  of  the  Sioux,  who  will  always  reject  their  proposals  so 
long  as  they  see  the  French  among  them,  and  so  long  as  the  post 
that  we  have  Established  there  shall  exist.  But  although  all  the 
advantages  that  I  have  just  had  the  honor  of  pointing  out  to  Yon 

iSee  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  100,  note. — Ed. 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

in  connection  with  tlie  Importance  of  maintaining  that  Estab- 
lishment seem  to  me  to  be  indispensably  necessary,  I  cannot  how- 
ever come  to  any  decision  until  I  have  received  news  of  the 
French  who  asked  me  leave  to  go  np  there  this  Summer  with  a 
Canoe  loaded  with  Goods,  and  who  expect  to  pass  by  way  of  the 
santeux  of  la  pointe ;  and  until  I  am  sure  that  the  French  who 
have  wintered  there  have  not  abandoned  the  fort,  And  that  the 
sioux  are  in  the  same  Dispositions.  Moreover  it  does  not  seem 
very  easy  in  the  present  juncture  to  maintain  that  Post  without 
having  a  lasting  peace  with  the  Renards.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  majority  of  the  Company  that  made  the  treaty  of  which  I 
have  had  the  honor  of  Sending  You  a  Copy,  have  renounced  it 
and  no  longer  Wish  to  send  there.  The  rupture  that  we  have 
had  with  the  Renards,  through  whose  country  one  must  pass  to 
go  by  Canoe  to  the  Sioux,  have  Induced  them  to  think  of  it 
no  longer.  But  in  either  case  a  remedy  might  be  applied. 
There  is  every  probability  that  the  Renards  will  come  next  year 
to  sue  for  peace,  or  that  they  will  Send  on  their  behalf.  Thus 
by  granting  it  to  them  on  fair  conditions,  there  will  bei  nothing 
tx)  fear  in  going  to  the  Sioux.  Another  Company  might  also  be 
formed  less  E'umerous  than  the  first,  with  which  a  new  treaty 
could  be  Made ;  or  it  might  be  made  with  some  good  traders  who 
could  undertake  the  advances.  These  difficulties  would  thereby 
soon  Be  removed.  There  is  but  one,  Monseigneur,  which  I 
deem  it  my  duty  to  unite  with  Monsieur  Hocquart  in  taking  the 
liberty  of  Pointing  out  to  You.  It  is  that  of  sending  up  an 
officer  as  commandant  and  another  as  second  in  command  with 
some  Soldiers,  whom  it  Would  be  absolutely  necessary  to  Send 
there  to  maintain  order  at  that  post,  and  the  Missionaries  would 
not  go  there  either  without  a  Commandant.  As  this  matter  af- 
fects the  service  and  the  Expense  thereof  would  have  to  be 
defrayed  by  His  Majesty,  this  leads  us  to  take  the  liberty,  Mon- 
seigneur, of  asking  your  orders  on  this  point.  We  shall  Induce 
as  many  traders  of  that  post  as  we  can  to  undertake  that  expense 
(which  may  amount  to  a  thousand  or  Fifteen  hundred  livres  per 
annum  for  the  commandant  and  for  the  second  in  command,  pro 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

rata).  But  inasmuch,  as  at  the  beginning  of  an  Establishment 
There  are  more  expenses  to  be  incurred  than  profits  to  be 
received,  we  do  not  believe  that  the  associated  merchants  will 
undertake  it.  And,  in  such  case,  we  beg  you  to  honor  us  with 
his  majesty's  orders  on  this  point,  and  to  let  us  know  what  he 
thinks  of  the  necessity  of  preserving  for  ourselves  so  Advan- 
tageous a  Post,  and  a  nation  that  has  already  given  us  proofs  of 
its  faithfulness  and  of  its  attachment.  You  might,  Mon- 
seigneur,  communicate  to  us  his  majesty's  Intentions  On  the 
subject  by  the  Isle  Eoyalle,  or  by  the  first  merchant  vessels  sail- 
ing for  this  Colony.  The  time  necessary  for  obtaining  news  of 
what  may  have  occurred  among  the  sioux  since  the  spring  will 
also  give  us  leisure  to  await  his  majesty's  orders  before  doing 
anything.  The  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  will  neglect  nothing  cal- 
culated to  keep  the  Sioux  favorably  disposed  toward  the  French 
as  they  are  at  present  (pending  his  Majesty's  decision)  and  he 
will  devote  his  whole  attention  to  it. 

He  Will  Inform  the  Sieur  Deschaillons  of  what  you  are 
pleased  to  notify  him  in  connection  with  tbe  Allowance  of  two 
thousand  pounds  of  powder  that  he  asked  for  his  Post  [at 

We  have  the  honor  to  be  with,  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 
seigneur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servants, 


Hoc  QUART. 
Quebec,  October  25th,  1729. 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  25,  1729. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  51,  c.  11,  fol.  164.] 

Mois-sEiGNEUR — I  bave  the  honor  to  Send  You  the  Extract 
from  a  Letter  written  to  me  by  Monsieur  de  la  Come  respecting 
the  attack  by  the  Outawacs  of  Missilimakinac,  the  f  olles  avoines 
And  the  puants  Fpon  a  Eenard  Village.     The  news  was  brought 


1729]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

to  him  by  three  nipissingiies  who  stated  that  they  had  received 

it  from  some  sauteux  of  Lake  huron  who  were  returning  from 


I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 

seigneur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 

Quebec,  October  25th,  1729. 

[Enclosure  in  the  above,  dcited  Oct.  12,  1729.     Source,  same  as  preced- 
ing document,  but  fol.  1C6.] 

I  have  just  learned  from  three  nipissingiies  who  come  from 
the  Lake  of  that  Name,  where  they  went  to  Seek  their  father, 
that  the  band  of  Outawax  that  was  formed  there  This  Summer, 
had  joined  The  folles  avoines  And  some  Sauteurs,  And  that 
after  gathering  together  a  rather  large  party,  they  went  to 
attack  The  Farthest  of  the  three  Renard  villages,  thinking  that 
they  would  be  less  on  their  guard  than  the  two  nearer  ones,  and 
that  they  killed  one  hundred  persons,  of  whom  thirty  were  men 
And  seventy  women  or  Children;  And  that  they  lost  ten  men, 
ITamely :  three  Outawax,  three  folles  avoines  And  four  puants, 
who  Were  on  our  side  (These  are  those  puants  who  came  This 
Summer  to  Michilimakina).  These  people  assure  me  that  the 
news  is  true.  And  state  that  they  received  it  from  some  Sauteurs 
of  Lake  huron  who  were  returning  from  the  war  members  of 
that  same  party.  They  assert  that  they  have  Many  -prisoners 
And  that  the  scalps  have  Been  divided  among  the  Tribes  of  the 
said  Lake. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


[Letter  and  accounts  during  captivity,  sent  the  French  Minister  by 
Beauharnois  and  Hocquart,  dated  Oct.  25,  1729.  MSS.  in  Minist&re  des 
Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g^n.,  vol.  51,  c.  11, 
fols.  88-92.'T 

MoNsiEGNEUR — We  have  the  honor  to  Send  you  herewith  a 
memorial  handed  ns  by  the  Sieur  de  Boucherville  to  be  ad- 
dressed to  you,  concerning  the  presents  he  was  obliged  to  give 
during  his  detention  amongst  the  Quicapoux  with  Reverend 
father  Guignass  and  other  Frenchmen  who  were  with  himi 
It  seems  to  us,  Monseigneur,  that  this  expense  was  all  the  more 
necessary  under  the  circumstances  in  which  he  was  placed,  that 
it  was  the  only  way  in  which  he  could  save  himself,  and  that  the 
danger  that  threatened  them  could  only  be  Evaded  by  Winning 
over  the  Savages  by  presents  as  he  did.  We  Hope,  Monseig- 
neur, that  you  will  be  pleased  to  approve  the  same  and  order 
that  he  be  reimbursed  for  this  expense  that  he  could  not  avoid 
incurring.  It  is  indeed  fortunate  that  he  should  have  had  those 
Goods  which  contributed  to  their  escape  from  the  peril  in  which 
they  Stood. 

We  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 
seigneur, Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servants 



Quebec,  October  25th,  1729. 

As  that  officer  has  incurred  such  a  heavy  expense,  We  have 
caused  Four  hundred  livres  to  be  given  him  on  Account  Pending 
your  orders. 

B.  H. 


1729]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Memorandum  of  Goods  which  Monsieur  de  Boucherville  Was 
obliged  to  give  for  the  King's  Service  from  the  time  of  his 
detention  Amongst  the  quikapoux  on  October  12,  1728,  Unr 
til  his  return  to  Detroit  in  the  month  of  June  of  The  year 

Prices  in 

Profit  at  one 
per  cent 

On  reaching  the  village  of  the  quika- 

[li 7res] 


poux    He    gave    a    present    to    all    The 


Young  men  to  Induce  Them  to  oppose 

the    designs    of    some    evil-Intentioned 

old  men 



two  Barrels  of  powder,  each  containing 

fifty    Livres,    costing    at    Montreal 

prices  The  sum  of  one  hundred  & 

Fifty  Livres 



A  Hundred  Livres  of  lead  and  Bullets 

amounting  to  The  sum  of  50  livres 



four    Livres    of    vermillion    at    Twelve 

francs  per  livre  amounting  to  The 

sum  of  48  livres 



four    Braided    Coats     at  twenty  francs 

per  Coat,  80  livres 



six    dozen    knives    at    four    francs    per 

Dozen  24  livres 



four   Hundred    gun-flints,   one   Hundred 

Ramrod-screws,    two    Hundred    fire- 

steels,  one  Hundred  and  Fifty  awls, 

The    whole    Estimated,    at    invoice 

prices,  at  ninety  Livres 



When  the  Quikapoux  Had  refused  us 

to  the  Renards,  They  wished  to  Console 

Them  by  other  civilities  and  I  was  com- 

pelled to  give  Them  the  following  which 

served    to  weep  for  and  to  cover  The 

renard   dead.                                                  i 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 

Prices  in 

Profit  at  one 
per  cent 

two    Braided    coats    at    twenty    francs 
each,  amounting  to  40  livres 

two  Cloth  Blankets  at  15  livres  each, 
making  30  livres 

Fifty  Livres  of  powder  at  30  sols,  mak- 
ing 75  livres 

Fifty  Livres  of  lead  at  10  sols,  amount- 
ing to  The  sum  of  25  livres 

two    Livres    of    vermilion    at    Twelve 

francs    per    livre,  amounting  to  24 


Also  given  to  the  renards  without  the 

knowledge  of  the  Quikapoux,  in  order  to 

Cover  Their  dead  and  request  Them  to 

remain  Quiet  in  Their  Village,  to  which 

I  added  a  few  words  leading  Them  tc 

Hope  for  peace. 

Fifty  Livres  of  powder  amounting   to 
seventy  five  Livres 

one  Hundred  Livres  of  lead  at  ten  sols 
amounting  to  fifty  francs 

two  Livres   of  vermilion   at   12   livres, 
making  24  liires 

two   Blue   Blankets   at   15   livres   each, 

two  other  White  ones  at  10  livres  each, 
making  20  livres 

four    men's    Shirts    at    6    livres    each, 
making  24  livres 

four  pairs  of  mitassesi  at  6  livres  each, 
making  24  livres 

four  dozen  knives  at  4  livres  per  dozen, 
making  16  livres 

Ramrod-screws,     fire-steels,     awls     and 
gun-flints  Estimated  at  40  livres 














150  livres 

iSee  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  124.— Ed. 



719]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

given  for  the  purpose  of  Inducing  The 
jcapoux  to  Establish  themselves  on  a 
eighboring  Island  to  secure  them  from 
18  Treachery  of  the  renards  which  we 
ad  Every  Reason  to  fear. 
)ur  Cloth  Blankets  at  15  livres  each 

making  60  livres 
)ur  pairs  of  mitasses  at  6  livres  per 

pair,  making  24  livres 
NO  Livres  of  vermilion   at   12   livres, 

making  24  livres 
mr  dozen  Butcher's  knives  at  6  livres 

per  dozen,  making  24  livres 
During  The  winter  a  large  party  was 
)t  together  for  the  purpose  of  attack- 
g  The  Illinois  and  I  did  All  1  could 
•  words  and  presents  to  stop  It,  which 
succeeded  in  doing: 
Given  at  that  time: 
1 0  Cloth   blankets   at   15    livres    each, 
I    amounting  to  The  sum  of  30  livres 
Ijir  pairs  of  mitasses  at  6  livres  per 

pair,  making  24  livres 
f|ir  shirts  at  6  livres  each  making  24 
j   livres 
Cir  dozen  knives  at  4  livres  per  dozen,  | 

making  16  livres  { 


he    renards    having    Betrayed    And! 

Kled  their  brothers  The  quikapoux   I 

k  advantage  of  this  favorable  oppor- 

ity  and  induced  the  latter  to  avenge 

llmselves.    To  that  end  I  gave  them: 

Anty  five  Livres  of  powder  at  30  sols, 

making    Thirty    seven    Livres    ten 









120  livrei 




Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


Prices  in 

Profit  at  one 
per  cent 

Twenty  five  Livres  of  lead  and  Bullets 
at  10  sols,  making  12  livres  10  sols 

2  guns  at  thirty  Livres  each,  making 
60  livres 

Half  a  Livre  of  vermilion  at  6  livres 

Gun-flints,  Ramrod-screws  and  knives 

When  the  Illinois  came  to  the  village 
of  the  quikapoux,  I  fed  them  at  my  ex- 
pense and  gave  them  presents  of  pow- 
der. Bullets  and  Shirts,  The  whole  Es- 
timated at 

And  when  I  left  The  quikapoux,  I 
gave  the  village  The  remainder  of  my 
Goods  to  thank  Them  for  Their  Good 
Treatment — Estimated  at  eighty  francs. 














[Letter  of  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  date 
October  25,  1729.  MS.  in  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris 
press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  51,  c.  11,  fol.  69."]  ! 


MoNSEiGNEUR — ^We  have  received  the  Letter  you  did  us  thj 
honor  of  writing  us  on  Maj  22,  last,  on  the  subject  of  tl! 
copper  mine  on  the  west  point  of  Lake  Superior.  The  Sieur  d' 
Gavagnial/  to  whom  the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beauharnois  hal 
ordered  a  specimen  from  the  mine  to  be  given  in  order  tha^ 
might  be  presented  to  you,  did  not  inquire  closely  into  the 
of  expressly  sending  a  Canoe  there  when  he  told  you  that 
would  amount  to  a  Thousand  Livres  only  for  the  food  and  ws 

iSee  note  on  Pierre  Frangois  Rigault,  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil,  ar 
p.  31.— Ed. 


129]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

o"  three  men;  nor  did  he  consider  the  difficulties  that  would 
b )  encountered  in  conveying  Five  thousand  livres  weight  of  the 
0*6  in  Bark  Canoes  that  would  inevitably  be  wrecked  if  struck 
by  a  squall  on  that  Lake  while  approaching  shore — as  ore  can- 
not be  landed  as  easily  as  packages  of  Furs. 

We  will  neglect  no  steps,  Monseigneur,  to  procure  information 
83  to  the  quality  and  quantity  of  the  ore  in  the  mine,  And  to 
tliat  End,  the  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  will  send  orders  next  spring 
to  the  officer  commanding  at  the  point  of  Chagoiiamigon  to  in- 
struct some  voyageurs  who  may  pass  by  that  Spot  to  bring  as 
much  ore  as  they  can  from  the  mine  with  a  detailed  Report  on 
its  situation  and  Extent,  which  we  shall  have  the  honor  to  send 
you  when  we  receive  it.  It  is  impossible  to  get  information 
about  it,  otherwise,  since  you  do  not  deem  it  advisable  to  send 
an  especial  Canoe  thither.^ 

We  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 
seigneur, Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servants 


Quebec,  October  25th,  1729. 


[Letters  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  May  6  and 
June  25,  17^0,  detailing  further  attacks  made  by  the  French  Indians 
upon  the  Foxes,  and  the  preparation  of  an  expedition  under  Dubuisson, 
commandant  at  Mackinac,  are  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  pp.  104-107. 
Transcripts  of  the  original  letters  from  the  Paris  archives  are  in  the 
collections  of  the  Society.  The  word  in  the  first  letter  translated  "flat- 
boats"  should  be  "cabins."] 

1  Marginal  note  on  MS.,  added  at  Paris:  "They  will  send  a  detailed 
report  next  year  on  the  Copper  Mine.  It  is  expected  that  they  will 
omit  no  explanations." 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Marin  to  Beauharnois,  dated  in  the  country 
of  the  Folles-Avoines,  May  11,  1730.i  MS.,  in  archives  of  MinistSre 
des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Collection  Moreau-St.  M6ry,  vol.  9, 
f.  11,  fol.  288."] 

On  my  arrival  at  the  Village  of  tlie  folles  avoines  I  was  very 
well  received  with  some  Calumets,  according  to  custom,  by  the 
old  men  who  Had  remained  in  the  fort.  They  said  to  me: 
''My  father,  we  will  let  you  rest  today  and  tomorrow  we  will 
speak  to  you." 

On  the  following  day  they  began  by  Spreading  a  mat,  and,  by 
a  Collar,  they  spoke  to  me  as  follows:  "Here  is  a  mat,  my 
father,  on  which  we  beg  you  to  rest  and  to  be  pleased  to  kindle 
your  fire  here  and  never  Extinguish  it;  for  we  are  resolved  to 
Listen  attentively  to  your  word,  which  is  that  of  our  father 
Onontio,  who  no  doubt  has  pity  on  us  since  he  has  Stent  you  to 
assist  us.  Have  pity,  therefore,  my  father  (they  said  to  me) 
and  look  upon  us  as  the  faithful  and  true  children  of  Onontio. 
We  need  your  help  in  the  sad  position  in  which  we  are  placed." 
This  I  granted  them,  assuring  them  of  your  protection.  Mon- 
sieur, and  of  mine  if  necessary. 

Afterwards,  I  attentively  considered  the  best  place  I  could 
find  whereat  to  build  a  fort  capable  of  protecting  all  my  people 
and  myself  against  the  Enemy's  assaults  in  case  of  attack,  ac- 
cording to  the  orders  which  you.  Monsieur,  did  me  the  honor  of 
giving  me,  at  my  departure.  But,  as  I  found  nothing  more  suit- 
able than  the  fort  already  built,  I  decided  to  establish  myself 
in  it,  after  repairing  it,  both  by  replacing  the  portions  of  the 
palisade  that  were  missing,  and  by  roofing  the  French  houses 
with  Bark  instead  of  with  the  straw  that  covered  them,  in  order 
to  Avert  the  danger  of  fire.     I  also  had  the  ground  cleared  of 

iThis  is  the  enclosure  referred  to  in  Beauharnois's  letter  of  June  25, 
1730,  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  p.  106.— Ed. 


1730]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

trees  and  everything  in  the  Vicinity  removed  that  might  give 
any  advantage  to  ani  assailant.^ 

On  the  tenth  of  September,  the  puants  returned  from  a  Hunt- 
ing expedition,  and  at  once  came  to  tell  me  that  they  would  again 
repeat  the  same  promise  they  had  already  given  to  their  father 
Onontio  last  year,  and  that  they  would  add  a  second  by  a  few 
words,  which  they  explained  to  me  at  the  time  by  three  Slaves, 
Baying:  "We  all  come  here,  my  father,  to  make  thee  under- 
stand clearly  that  the  blow  we  have  just  struck  at  the  renard  in 
concert  with  our  brothers,  the  foUes  avoines  and  Outaouoys,  is  a 
convincing  proof  of  the  fidelity  we  have  promised  our  father 
Onontio,  as  his  submissive  and  obedient  childi*en,  and  tliat  noth- 
ing can  change  our  Hearts." 

They  also  presented  me  at  the  same  time,  with  three  other 
Slaves  whom  they  told  me  they  had  intended  to  give  Monsieur 
The  Commandant  of  Missilimakinac,  as  one  of  their  nearest 
fathers,  that  he  might  have  pity  on  them  in  the  pressing  need 
in  which  they  were  of  ail  things  in  general  and,  in  particular, 
of  powder,  Bullets,  hatchets,  guns,  and  knives;  but,  inasmuch 
as  they  saw  in  me  a  man  Sent  by  Onontio,  their  true  father, 
to  govern  and  assist  them  in  their  necessities,  they  begged  me  to 
accept  the  slaves  from  them  and  at  the  same  time  to  Consider  the 
state  of  Extreme  penury  in  which  they  Were,  being  in  need 
of  everything.  To  this  I  replied  at  once  by  giving  them  what 
they  most  needed. 

Some  days  afterwards,  the  puants  went  to  la  Baye  with  their 
families  to  live,  and  Left  them  there  while  they  proceeded  to 
find  out  whether  the  renard  was  not  in  their  country,  and  to 
ascertain  whether  he  had  ravaged  their  Corn-fields.  They  found, 
that  everything  was  in  almost  the  same  Condition  that  they  had 
left  It,  and  that  the  Renard  had  withdrawn.  This  Induced 
them  to  come  back  to  la  Baye  for  their  families,  and  return  to 

iDe  Lignery  having  destroyed  the  fort  at  Green  Bay,  which  was 
not  rebuilt  until  1732  (see  post),  Marin  appears  to  have  repaired  a 
French  trading  post  at  the  Menominee  Indian  village  on  the  west 
side  of  Green  Bay,  near  Menominee  River. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

Settle  in  their  own  country.  They  camped  on  a  small  island  at 
a  distance  of  About  an  arpent  or  two  from  the  island  on  which 
their  former  Village  Was  situated/  being  quite  confident  that 
the  Eenards  Had  gone  away  permanently.  But  they  were  not 
left  long  in  peace,  for  the  Eenards  came  to  infest  not  only  them 
and  all  their  families,  but  also  a  number  of  Saquis  who  Were 
with  Them,  and  Camped  in  two  different  forts  below  the  island 
on  which  their  former  fort  Stood,  so  as  to  attack  them  on  all 
sides,  Being  at  a  distance  of  an  arpent  and  a  half  at  the  most, 
and  the  Biver  being  easy  to  cross  as  the  Water  was  only  knee- 
deep.  They  began  first  by  attacking  two  puants,  who  were  fish- 
ing with  spears.  These  they  killed,  and  one  of  their  own  people 
was  killed  also.  They  fought  thus  for  nearly  forty  eight  hours 
without  speaking  to  one  another.  At  the  end  of  that  time  the 
Puants,  being  the  first  to  begin  the  address,  called  out  to  the 
Eenards:  "What  does  this  mean,  my  brothers?  We  are  Sur- 
prised that  you  should  attack  us  today  without  saying  anything. 
Know  you  not  that  we  are  always  your  true  brothers,  since  we 
have  always  been  so  from  The  olden  times  of  our  forefathers. 
It  is  true  (they  added)  that  you  have  to  reproach  us  with  hav- 
ing dipped  our  hands  in  your  blood,  by  Delivering  two  of  your 
people  to  the  Otitaouoys  and  folles  avoines.  But  If  we  did,  it 
was  because  we  were  forced  to  do  so,  and  could  not  help  it. 
liTevertheless,  we  are  now  filled  with  regret  at  having  done  so, 
and  we  will  show  you  that  we  are  still  prepared  to  give  you 
proofs  of  the  Sincere  affection  we  have  always  had  for  you.  We 
have  here  four  folles  Avoines  whom  we  will  deliver  into  your 
hands  to  do  with  as  you  will  in  payment  and  compensation  for 
the  loss  of  the  two  [Eenards]  just  mentioned."  They  at  once 
led  out  two  of  them  bound ;  and,  after  cutting  off  the  heads  of 
the  two  others,  they  immediately  carried  these  to  them,  begging 
the  Eenards  to  cease  to  be  angry  with  them  and  to  have  pity  on 

iThe  island  on  which  the  Winnebago  village  had  formerly  stood, 
was  that  now  known  as  Doty  Island,  and  a  part  of  Neenah,  Wis.  A 
small  island  below  this,  in  Little  Lake  Butte  des  Morts,  would  appear 
to  have  been  the  site  of  the  fort  where  the  events  described  In  this 
document  occurred. — Ed. 


130]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

ti  em.  But  the  Renards  replied  that  they  had  not  yet  had  time 
U  taste  the  broth  they  had  given  them  to  drink;  that  there  was 
D>t  enough  to  satisfy  so  many  as  they  Were;  that  they  must 
aso  deliver  into  their  hands  the  four  of  their  number  who  had 
bsen  cowardly  enough  to  give  up  their  people  to  the  Outaouoys 
and  folles  Avoines,  their  Enemies;  and  that  when  they  had 
drunk  the  broth,  they  would  see  Whether  they  were  sufficiently 
satiated  to  be  able  to  grant  their  request.  This  proposal  seemed 
too  great  an  insult  to  the  Puants  to  allow  of  their  consenting  to 
it ;  they  therefore  prepared  to  sustain  the  siege  and  defend  them- 
selves as  well  as  they  could,  having  food  for  a  couple  of  months. 

During  the  interval  of  the  Fight  that  lasted  nearly  a  month 
and  a  half,  the  folles  avoines  became  uneasy  at  not  seeing  the 
Puants  walking  about  in  their  midst  as  usual,  or  any  of  their 
people  who  Were  with  Them,  and  six  of  their  number  went 
within  sight  of  the  Eenards'  forts  which  they  saw  distinctly,  to 
find  out  whether  their  tribesmen  Were  with  the  Puants.  Being 
unable  to. enter  their  fort  without  risking  their  lives,  they  re- 
traced their  steps,  and  hastened  to  give  information  of  what  was 
going  on  to  their  people,  who,  at  the  time,  Were  at  a  distance  of 
a  short  day's  journey  from  my  fort;  they  were  pursued  by  the 
Renards  who  Had  perceived  that  they  were  on  the  march  but 
who  were  unable  to  overtake  them. 

The  folles  avoines  at  once  deputed  one  of  their  chiefs,  to  beg 
me  to  be  good  enough  to  have  pity  on  Them,  by  placing  myself 
at  their  head  to  extricate  their  people  from  the  perilous  position 
in  which  they  were  placed,  and,  at  the  same  time,  to  bring  aid  to 
the  puants  who,  judging  from  what  they  had  seen,  were  greatly 
in  need  of  it,  as  they  were  almost  at  the  mercy  of  the  Renards, 
tmless  succor  were  brought  them.  I  replied  that  as  I  had  been 
sent  by  you.  Monsieur,  to  be  a  father  to  them  in  their  needs,  I 
Was  ready  to  help  them  in  war  as  well  as  in  other  things,  being 
convinced  that  this  could  but  be  agreeable  to  you,  and  that  I 
would  march  alone  at  their  head  because  I  could  not  make  up 
my  mind  to  leave  my  fort  undefended,  and  that  I  had  to  leave 
the  French  who  Were  Avith  me  to  guard  it.  Two  or  three  days  af- 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

terwards,  they  came  and  begged  me  to  counsel  them  as  to  what 
they  should  do :  whether  to  leave  their  women  and  Children  in  a 
fort  at  the  place  where  they  Were,  or  to  bring  them  out  on  the 
Lake  shore,  I  told  them  that  I  I^eft  the  decision  to  them  and 
had  no  advice  to  give  them.  Thereupon  they  finally  decided  to 
bring  them  to  my  fort,  after  considering  for  a  long  while 
Whether  they  would  have  sufficient  time  to  do  so,  fearing  that 
the  delay  would  be  fatal  to  the  Undertaking  they  had  in  view  of 
going  to  free  their  people  from  the  hands  of  the  Renard.  In  fact 
they  took  a  very  long  time  to  start,  and  afterwards  they  again 
begged  me  to  remember  the  promise  I  had  given  them  to  march 
at  their  head ;  and  to  be  good  enough  to  allow  their  women  and 
Children  to  remain  in  my  fort  under  the  protection  and  guid- 
ance of  the  Frenchmen  whom  I  should  Leave  there  and  of  some 
of  their  old  men  who  Were  not  in  a  Condition  for  such  a  march. 
I  answered  that,  as  I  had  given  my  word,  I  Was  not  desirous  of 
withdrawing  it,  provided  that  they  would  always  do  what  I 
wished,  and  await  my  counsels;  I  also  told  them  that,  after 
seeing  the  Renard  and  doing  what  I  Wished  to  do,  I  would  go  no 
further,  but  would  return.  When  matters  had  been  thus  ar- 
ranged and  as  I  was  about  to  start,  being  the  only  Frenchman 
with  them,  my  people  who  Were  with  me,  came  and  begged  me, 
as  a  favor,  to  allow  them  to  accompany  me,  saying  that  they 
would  be  delighted  to  benefit  by  the  advantages  they  already 
promised  themselves  to  gain  with  me  over  that  cursed  nation  of 
the  Renard,  and  that  they  positively  could  not  reconcile  them- 
selves to  the  idea  of  seeing  me  start  on  such  an  Undertaking 
without  Freely  and  heartily  offering  me  the  services  they  owed 
to  their  prince,  and  that  they  would  even  be  in  despair  were  I 
to  refuse  to  accept  them.  Although  I  had  intended  to  not  Eix- 
pose  to  danger,  a  single  one  besides  myself,  I  could  not  refuse 
young  men  who  seemed  full  of  Spirit  and  Courage,  and  I  chose 
Five  of  them  to  accompany  me,  representing  to  the  four  others 
that  I  could  not  avoid  showing  the  savages  the  interest  I  took 
in  them,  by  placing  their  women  and  Children  under  their 
guard  during  the  Campaign. 


1730]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

We  set  out  therefore,  on  the  following  day,  to  the  number  of 
forty  persons  in  all,  taking  all  the  precautions  I  considered 
necessary  to  prevent  our  approach  from  being  discovered.  On 
the  sixth  day  of  our  journey,  the  19th  of  March,  we  reached 
Coulimy,^  where  we  had  to  make  a  portage,  a  league  and  a  half 
from  the  fort  of  the  Puants,  whither  we  proceeded  somewhat 
slowly  to  avoid  being  discovered  by  anyone  as  I  feared  that.  If 
the  Puants  were  the  first  to  perceive  us,  they  might  make  some 
demonstration  that  would  bring  on  an  attack  by  the  Renards 
before  we  Had  time  to  place  ourselves  in  slight  entrenchments ; 
neither  did  I  wish  to  throw  myself  rashly  into  their  fort,  with- 
out informing  them  of  the  reason  that  had  Induced  me  to  come 
to  them,  because  they  would  be  sure  to  distrust  us  owing  to  their 
having  delivered  to  the  Eenards  the  brothers  of  those  for  whom 
I  Was  prepared  to  fight — although  they  w^ere  not  aware  of  this 
nor  was  I  myself  aware  of  the  other  fact.  Moreover,  I  was 
unable  to  reach  them  without  running  a  risk,  because  I  could 
not  do  otherwise  than  land  at  one  of  the  Places  on  the  island 
where  the  Water  was  deepest.  The  Renards  Being  camped 
where  it  was  shallowest,  and  (as  I  have  already  had  the  honor 
of  informing  you.  Monsieur)  watching  The  fort  of  the  Puants 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  allow  nobody  to  approach  it  without  oppo- 
sition. I  therefore  decided  to  have  a  slight  entrenchment 
thrown  up  at  once,  forbidding  our  people  to  use  their  axes  to 
cut  wood  lest  they  should  Be  Heard  by  the  Renards,  who  Were 
not  very  Far  from  us,  while  I  Went  a  little  to  one  side  to  observe 
their  movements.  As  we  Had  arrived  About  ten  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  I  resolved  to  wait  until  night  to  inform  the  Puants 
that  we  Had  come  to  their  assistance  and  to  ask  them  to  Send 
some  Canoes  in  case  we  should  need  them.  But  our  people,  not 
heeding  my  orders,  struck  some  blows  with  their  axes  which 
were  Heard  by  the  Renards,  who  issued  from  the  two  forts  in 
which  they  Were  posted,  and  attacked  us  with  some  violence 
before  we  had  time  to  finish  our  small  redoubt.     When  I  saw 

iThis  is  probably  a  corruption  of  the  text  for  Cacalin  (Kakalin),  the 
rapids  of  the  Fox  River,  where  Kaukauna  now  stands. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

them  approaching  I  called  out  to  our  people  to  take  courage  and 
show  the  Eenards  what  we  Were,  and  we  attacked  Them  without 
Mercy,  Forcing  them  back  to  the  gates  of  their  fort.  When 
they  reached  there,  they  stopped  fighting  for  a  while,  and  called 
out  to  me  that  they  were  surprised  that  I  should,  with  such 
Ardor,  take  the  part  of  a  nation  who,  not  Long  before,  had 
Delivered  four  of  my  Children  to  them  to  be  put  into  the  Kettle 
to  replace  those  of  their  own  people  whom  they  had  Delivered  to 
the  Outaouoys  and  f olles  Avoines  The  previous  Summer.  When 
the  latter  Heard  this  they  tried  at  Once  to  Induce  me  to  avenge 
the  treachery  of  which  the  P'uants  had  been  guilty  towards  them 
by  committing  So  foul  a  deed,  without  having  Been  forced  to 
do  so,  after  they  themselves  had  United  with  the  Outaouoys  and 
f olle  avoines  to  eat  the  Renards.  But,  foreseeing  the  regrettable 
consequences  that  might  result  from  such  a  Step,  I  said  to  them : 
"My  Children,  I  admit  that  the  treachery  of  the  puants  towards 
you  fully  deserves  your  resentment,  and  that  you  cannot  too 
deeply  regret  your  brothers.  You  must  however  remember 
that  I  consented  to  place  myself  at  your  head  to  come  and  kill 
Eenards  and  not  Puants.  Although  I  do  not  tell  you  what  is  in 
my  mind  for  the  present,  let  us  continue  what  we  have  begun 
and  be  very  careful  not  to  let  the  Puants  find  out  your  hatred 
of  Them  if  you  do  not  wish  to  excite  distrust  in  them  which  may 
take  away  the  courage  they  need  to  defend  Themselves  properly. 
On  the  contrary  I  Exhort  you  to  put  on  a  good  Face  before  them 
and  to  Encourage  them  to  sustain  what  they  have  already  so 
Vigorously  kept  up  until  our  arrival ;  for  If,  at  first,  we  behave 
otherwise  towards  them,  the  Eenards  will  not  fail  to  take 
advantage  of  such  a  division  to  win  from  us  all  the  advantages 
we  might  give  them  on  this  occasion."  It  was  not  long  before 
we  Were  attacked  a  second  time  by  the  Eenards,  who  endeavored 
to  surround,  and  capture  us,  and  when  night  came,  they  Deputed 
two  of  their  number  to  speak  to  me  in  order  to  ascertain  our 
position  in  our  slight  entrenchment.  They  stated,  as  a  pretext, 
that  they  wanted  the  night  for  rest  that  both  sides  might  sleep ; 
that,  in  order  to  do  so  without  distrust,  one  of  them  would  sleep 
with  us  while  one  of  our  people  should  go  and  sleep  with  the 


1730]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

other  at  their  fort.     They  thought  thereby  to  banish  all  sus- 
picion from  our  minds.     I  Was,  however,  informed  by  a  fol 
Avoine  who  had  Overheard  what  one  of  the  Eenards  had  said  to 
his  Comrade,  respecting  the  steps  they  were  to  take  during  our 
sleep,  telling  him  that  as  soon  as  he  found  us  Asleep,  he  would 
slip  away  and  warn  the  Eenards,  who  would  at  once  attack  us. 
Being  aware  of  their  design,  I  took  no  steps,  and  told  them  at 
once  to  withdraw  and  that  before  the  night  was  half  over,  they 
would  find  me  nearer  their  fort  than  they  expected ;  that  I  Was 
in  no  humor  to  receive  their  compliments,  after  they  had  in- 
sulted me  as  they  had  done  on  my  arrival.     It  is  true  that  those 
two  Eenards  had  chosen  that  time  solely  for  the  purpose  of 
watching  what  we  might  be  doing  during  the  night,  to  Prevent 
us  from  working  at  our  entrenchment.     We  Had  received  a  re- 
inforcement of  ten  Puant  warriors  who  Had  crossed  over  to  our 
assistance  when  they  saw  that  we  had  come  to  defend  them. 
Meanwhile,  the  Eenards  had  already  asked  beforehand  to  speak 
to  me  and  begged  me  to  Hear  them  before  going  further,  and  the 
folles  avoines,  Being  anxious  to  know  their  thoughts,  urged  me 
to  Hear  them  for  a  moment.     But  I  replied:     "What  do  you 
wish  to  Hear  from  those  evil  men  ?     They  are  capable  only  of 
betraying  you  and  me  also.     Therefore  I  refuse  positively  to 
Listen  to  their  evil  speeches."     The  folles  avoines  persisted  in 
asking  me  to  Listen  to  them  since  they  addressed  themselves 
to  me  only,  and  finally  I  consented,  making  Them  understand 
that  If  I  did  so,  it  was  solely  through  regard  for  Them,  and 
because  they  urged  me  to  it.     Then  the  Eenards  spoke  to  me 
as  follows:    "We  Know  that  thou  hast  come  here  solely  to  pro- 
tect those  dogs  whom,  without  thee,  we  should  have  eaten.     They 
are  cowards  who  have  already  sacrificed  us  not  long  ago  to  our 
own  Enemies,  and  who  have  outraged  thee  thyself  in  the  ten- 
derest  spot  thou  couldst  expect,  by  delivering  into  our  hands 
thine  own  Children  that  we  might  drink  their  blood.     And  we 
are  surprised  that  thou  shouldst  display  such  Ardor,  on  behalf 
of  people  who  are  so  little  worthy  of  thy  protection."     I  replied 
at  once  that  I  had  resolved  to  help  the  Puants,  solely  because  I 
still  believed  them  to  be  true  children  of  onontio,  their  father, 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

to  whom  they  had  promised  fealty  last  year  and  that,  having 
Been  warned  of  the  Eenards'  wickedness  and  treachery  on  all 
occasions,  I  conld  not  rely  on  their  word,  adding  that  I  could 
not  Trust  them,  after  all  the  treacherous  acts  of  which  they 
had  been  gnilty  Towards  the  French  whom  they  had  betrayed 
on  several  occasions ;  that  If  it  Were  true  that  the  puants  had 
acted  as  they  (the  Eenards)  said  they  had,  I  would  Avenge 
myself  on  Them  Without  requiring  the  Assistance  of  anybody, 
but  that,  before  doing  so,  I  wished  to  ascertain  the  whole  Truth. 
While  I  was  holding  this  Conversation  with  them,  they  were 
posting  two  parties  in  Ambush  About  an  arpent  from  my  posi- 
tion. I  noticed  this  at  the  time,  and  as  I  already  had  some 
Wounded,  I  was  somewhat  at  a  Loss  as  to  how  I  should  save 
them  because  it  was  impossible  for  them  to  walk.  I  neverthe- 
less ventured  to  Attempt  to  reach  the  fort  of  the  Puants  who,  in 
the  darkness,  had  Sent  me  three  canoes  to  facilitate  the  removal 
of  my  Wounded.  This  was  effected  with  the  gi*eatest  precau- 
tions ;  I  myself  went  to  beguile  the  Renards  with  many  threats^ 
while  my  Wounded  were  Embarked  in  the  canoes.  That  night, 
Being  the  second  from  the  day  on  which  I  arrived,  I  also  gained 
the  fort  of  the  Puants;  shortly  afterwards,  in  spite  of  all  the 
shots  fired  at  us  by  the  Renards  while  crossing,  against  which  we 
protected  ourselves  quite  easily  in  the  darkness  of  a  night  that 
seemed  given  us  to  favor  our  retreat. 

On  entering  the  fort,  I  found  only  people  mourning  and 
ashamed  at  the  Sight  of  their  Deliverers.  I  therefore  hastened 
to  call  out  in  a  loud  voice,  ^'What  are  you  thinking  of,  you 
puants  who  are  our  brothers,  and  why  are  you  in  Such  deep 
sorrow,  at  a  ,time  w'hen  you  should  rejoice  at  Seeing  one  of  the 
elders  of  onontio,  your  father,  coming  to  your  assistance,  for 
it  is  true  that  I  Am  here  solely  for  the  purpose  of  saving  your 
lives  and  of  delivering  you  from  the  hands  of  those  evil  men  who 
seem  anxious  to  destroy  you  without  sparing  a  single  one  of  you  ? 
Arm  yourselves,  therefore,  with  joy  and  courage  and  act  like 
those  whom  I  have  brought  with  me  and  who  are  your  brothers, 
thinking  of  nothing  but  defending  your  Lives  and  those  of  your 
wives  and  Children  and  of  all  your  allies." 


17  JO]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

A  fol  Avoine,  an  Old  man,  and  a  woman  wlio  Were  then  the 
01  ly  members  of  that  tribe  amongst  the  Puants,  were  the  first 
to  present  themselves  to  me  and  they  told  me  and  their  people, 
that  they  begged  me  to  take  revenge  while  it  was  in  my  power  on 
the  Puants,  whom  they  considered  their  chief  Enemies,  after 
the  cowardly  deed  they  had  committed  by  Handing  over  their 
brothers  to  the  fury  of  the  Renards,   and  they   added  that, 
without  my  assistance,  they  could  not  have  Hoped  for  four  hours 
of  life,  from  the  thorough  knowledge  they  had  of  the  evil  hearts 
of  the  Puants.     When  our  people,  the  folles  avoines.  Heard  these 
words,  they  were  On  the  point  of  forgetting  what  they  had 
promised  me,  to  keep  silent  on  the  Subject  as  I  had  requested 
them,  and  of  asking  me  almost  positively  to  Promise  to  allow 
them  to  take  their  revenge  in  the  fort  itself.     I  diverted  their 
lattention  at  the  moment  in  order  to  induce  them  to  think  that 
the  only  thing  to  be  done  then  was  to  try  and  win  a  victory  over 
the  Eenards,  Their  cruelest  Enemies,  and  I  told  them  that  I 
Iwould  afterwards  think  of  the  steps  I  would  take  with  regard  to 
the  Puants.     When  day  came  the  puants,  who  were  somewhat 
reassured  by  what  I  had  said  to  them,  thought  of  nothing  else 
but  of  fighting  together  with  us  Without  any  apprehension,  for 
the  Renards  never  ceased  firing  at  us  continually  without  inter- 
ruption.    Oil  the  third   day,   the  Renards   asked   for  speech 
with  me  and  for  a  cessation  of  hostilities  for  a  time,  that  they 
might  represent  to  me  what  they  had  already  said  to  me  con- 
peming  my  taking  the  part  of  the  Puants,  adding  that  If  I 
fvould  visit  their  fort  it  would  afford  them  a  real  pleasure;  that 
fheir  young  men  would  receive  me  with  open  arms,  in  the  Hope 
[hat  I  would  inspire  all  with  good  sense.     But,  although  they 
ieemed  sincere,  judging  by  the  manner  in  which  they  gave  me  to 
understand  this,  I  nevertheless  placed  no  reliance  on  what  they 
aid  and  considered  that  they  wanted  to  set  a  trap  for  me  in 
rder  to  take  me  easily.     But,  as  I  did  not  wish  them  to  see  at 
)nce  that  I  fathomed  their  designs,  I  Contented  myself  with 
elling  them  that  I  could  not  consent  to  their  proposal  Without 
larming  my  Children  who  would  perhaps  be  afraid  of  losing 
leir  father  through  such  an  act  of  Folly ;  that,  so  far  as  I  waa 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  svi 

concerned,  Were  I  Alone,  I  would  willingly  visit  them  withoul 
fear  of  death,  all  the  more  so  that  I  had  never  feared  it,  anc 
before  they  could  kill  me  I  should  probably  kill  several  of  theii 
number;  but  that  as  I  Was  at  the  head  of  a  small  band  of  lb 
faithful  Children  of  onontio,  The  father  of  all  the  I^ations,  ] 
must  be  careful  not  to  abandon  them  and  that,  far  from  doin^ 
so,  I  could  assure  them  that  they  would  always  Find  me  at  theii 
head  to  encourage  them;  that  I  merely  asked  them  to  resisi 
this  paltry  Attack,  as  I  myself  would,  without  fear.  It  is  true 
Monsieur,  that  in  order  to  give  the  Eenards  reason  to  Dreac 
that  we  might  in  the  future  inflict  a  disastrous  blow  on  then 
(not  knowing  when  we  might  be  able  to  get  away  from  there),  1 
added  that,  as  my  flag  Was  planted  in  their  Sight,  it  would  nevei 
be  taken  down  until  my  death,  and  that  they  might  expect  tc 
see  a  similar  one  before  long.  I  Considered  that  the  famine 
from  which  we  already  suffered  would  continue ;  the  Puants 
had  suffered  from  it  for  nearly  four  or  five  days  before  I  entered 
their  fort,  being  reduced  to  eating  bear  skins  and  similai 
things,  while  I  myself  and  all  my  people  were  obliged  to  follo^^ 
tlieir  Example  for  five  Days.  About  seven  o'clock  in  the  mom 
ing  of  the  fourth  day  of  our  Fight,  The  Eenards,  seeing  that  W6 
were  determined  to  resist  Them  for  a  long  while,  asked  me 
whether  I  had  lost  many  of  my  Children ;  they  said  they  Knev; 
very  well  that  they  had  seen  several  fall  On  the  spot  and  that  ii 
I  would  tell  them  the  Truth  they  would  do  the  same  in  this 
Respect.  I  replied  that,  although  I  had  no  Account  to  rendei 
them  in  the  matter,  I  was  willing,  in  order  to  Satisfy  them,  tc 
let  them  know  that  I  was  no  weaker  on  that  day  than  on  the  firsi 
day  of  the  fight;  that  the  fact  of  their  having  killed  five  or  sb 
of  my  people,  and  having  Wounded  as  many  more  would  no* 
Prevent  my  vanquishing  them.  In  Fact  I  had  lost  one  French 
man  who  was  killed  On  the  spot,  while  two  others  were  wounded. 
one  dangerously;  three  foUes  avoines  also  had  been  killed  anc 
seven  wounded.  They  admitted  that  fifteen  had  been  killed  anc 
wounded  on  their  Side ;  we  Were  sure  of  Seven  whose  heads  we 
had  cut  off.  I  Know  not.  Monsieur,  whether  at  that  momen^ 
terror  did  not  take  possession  of  the  hearts  of  that  wicked  ITal 

[98]  .   I 


■  I    1730] 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

tion,  for  from  that  time  they  secretly  sent  out  of  tBeir  forts,  Tho 
old  men,  the  women,  and  the  Children  that  they  might  fly  in 
advance  of  them,  the  warriors  only  remaining  to  face  us  until 
night,  of  whose  protection  it  w^as  natural  for  us  to  presume  that 
they  also  took  advantage  to  withdraw.  On  the  following  day, 
which  was  the  fifth  of  our  Comhat,  we  observed  Ravens  alighting 
in  their  forts;  this  left  us  no  doubt  that  they  Were  no  longer 
there,  and  Induced  us  at  the  sam.e  time  to  go  there  without 
distrust.  We  found  that  they  had  fled  somewhat  precipitately, 
inasmuch  as  they  had  left  behind  them  a  portion  of  their  effects 
and  all  their  apuJcois  (of  which  they  generally  make  their  Cab- 
ins).^ I  at  once  resolved  to  retire  to  my  post.  Taking  with  me 
all  the  Puants,  whom  I  left  on  the  Way  at  la  Baye,  where  they 
Established  themselves  in  a  fort. 

Some  time  after  my  return,  the  folles  avoines  came  to  speak  to 
me  with  a  Collar  and  some  branches  of  porcelain,  saying:  "My 
father,  thou  Knowest  that  we  have  always  kept  our  mouths 
closed  until  now  Regarding  the  cowardice  and  black  perfidy  dis- 
played against  us  by  the  puants  in  Delivering  our  brothers  to 
the  Renards  to  be  eaten,  because  thou  hadst  begged  us  not  to 
take  revenge  for  it  while  we  Were  in  their  country  and  in  a  posi- 
tion to  do  so ;  but  today  we  ask  thee  as  a  favor  to  permit  us  to 
destroy  them  while  they  are  here  near  us."  I  told  them  at 
once  that  I  would  willingly  consent  were  it  not  that  the  Matter 
seemed  to  me  to  demand  considerable  attention  and  that,  as  I 
was  About  to  start  for  Missilimakinac  for  the  purpose  of  dili- 
gently informing  their  father  Onontio  of  everything  that  Had 
happened  from  the  day  of  my  arrival  among  Them  to  that  of 
my  departure  which  would  shortly  take  place,  I  begged  them  to 
defer  the  destruction  of  the  Puant  until  their  father  onontio 
had  himself  decided  it;  and  that  by  doing  so  they  would  con- 
vince me  of  their  good  dispositions  and  perfect  obedience. 

They  also  told  me.  Monsieur,  that  after  the  Blow  they  had 

iThe  apaquois  were  mats  made  of  reeds,  which  most  of  the  Wis- 
consin Indians  used  in  making  cabins,  and  for  many  other  purposes. 
See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  S66,  368,  369,  374.— Ed. 

7  [99] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

struck  At  the  Eenards  with  the  Oiitaouoys  last  Summer,  they 
had  been  invited  by  the  latter  to  accompany  them  once  more 
and  that  thus  If  they  Came  to  ask  the  same  thing  of  them  this 
year  they  would  go  with  pleasure  and  requested  me  to  place 
myself  at  their  head. 

1730:     FRENCH     AND     INDIANS     GATHER     TO     ATTACK     THE 


[Letter  of  commandant  at  Detroit  (Deschaillons)  to  Beauharnois, 
dated  Aug.  22,  1730.  MS.  in  archives  of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris; 
press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  gen.,  vol.  53,  c.  11,  fol.  207-214."] 

Monsieur — I  have  the  honor  to  inform  You  that  a  Savage 
has  just  arrived  from  the  river  St.  Joseph  who  reports  that  two 
days  previous  to  His  departure  two  Mascoutin  couriers  had 
arrived  in  haste  to  ask  Monsieur  devilliers  for  Assistance  and 
for  powder;  that  they  had  taken  only  two  days  to  come  from 
their  country.  Such  is  the  news  told  me  by  the  Savage  who 
has  arrived  here  that  the  mascoutin  couriers  had  given  at  the 
river  St.  Joseph,  ^Namely,  Monsieur,  that  the  renards  were  fight- 
ing with  the  Illinois,  between  le  rocher^  and  the  ouiatanon. 
When  the  poux,^  mascoutins,  and  quiquapoux  Learned  this,  they 
marched  thither,  and  while  they  advanced  by  slow  stages  be- 
cause they  had  with  Them  a  wounded  man  whom  they  were 
obliged  to  carry,  A  couple  of  young  men  pushed  ahead;  but, 
after  marching  a  short  distance,  those  two  young  men  saw  in 
a  plain  the  renards  fighting  against  the  ilinois;  they  at  once 
came  back  to  warn  the  main  body  of  Their  troops,  who  fell 
Upon  the  renards.  Consequently  the  renards  found  themselves 
by  this  attack  hemmed  in  by  the  ilinois  on  one  side  and  on  the 

iFor  location  of  this  Illinois  landmark,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp. 
100,  373.     Also  Parkman,  La  Salle  (Boston,  1879),  p.  156.— Ed. 
2  The  Potawatomi. — Ed. 



French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

other  by  the  poux,  Quiquapoiix,  and  mascoutins.  But  hardly- 
Had  the  last  mentioned  tribes  attacked  the  renards,  trusting  that 
the  ilinois  would  keep  them  in  check  on  the  other  side,  when, 
on  the  contrary,  the  ilinois  took  to  flight.  In  this  first  attack 
Seven  poux  were  wounded,  one  of  whom  has  since  died;  two 
quiquapoux  of  the  river  St.  Joseph  who  Had  Settled  among  The 
Sasquis  [Sauk],  were  also  killed.  This  will  have  a  very  good 
Effect  because  the  Sasquis  Are  said  to  be  excited  against  the 
renards  which  was  far  from  being  the  case  before.  Several 
renards  were  wounded  also,  and  some  are  even  believed  to  have 
been  killed.  The  renards  cried  out  to  the  quiquapoux  And  to 
the  Mascoutins  that  they  would  make  their  Supper  off  them, 
but  miandiche,  the  great  chief  of  The  poux  replied  to  them  that 
it  was  they  who  would  Serve  as  food  for  all  the  tribes.  The 
renards  cried  ou^some  Time  afterward  that  they  were  not  far 
from  the  ouiatanons,  but  that  they  Would  be  dead  before  reach- 
ing there,  because  they  had  just  observed  the  approach  of  men 
on  horseback.  It  is  believed  that  these  are  Monsieur  de  Vin- 
cenne  with  His  people.  The  French  of  cahosquia  also  told  the 
Hinois  not  to  go  To  war  because  they  Knew  not  how  to  fight 
And  because  they  Were  women;  but  that  they  were  Going  to 
start  with  tJieir  negroes  to  Help  their  people  who  were  attacked 
And  to  defeat  the  renards.  They  Are  already  a  party  of  con- 
siderable numbers,  for  the  Ilinois  who  had  fled  Have  come  back 
and  Have  joined  the  poux,  quiquapoux,  and  Mascoutins.  They 
have  all  dug  pits  in  the  ground  wherein  to  shelter  Themselves, 
and  the  renards  Are  on  a  wooded  Islet;  but  If  they  remain  on 
it  there  is  every  appearance  that  they  may  be  defeated  for  the 
Savage  who  has  arrived  fromi  river  St  Joseph  says  that  Mann 
sieur  de  villiers  is  to  start  with  all  his  people,  who  this  time 
appear  to  be  fairly  Willing.  He  adds  also  that  Monsieur  de 
Villiers  has  done  me  the  honor  of  writing  to  me  to  ask  for  the 
Aid  of  Our  Savages ;  but  those  letters  have  not  yet  arrived,  and 
until  they  come  our  Savages  will  not  start  for  they  are  a  little 
Suspicious  of  the  news.  Father  Eichardy  told  me  however 
that  he  had  received  yesterday  Evening  a  letter  from  father 

[  101  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

Messager/  the  Missionary  at  the  river  St  Joseph,  giving  him 
the  same  nev^^s  that  The  Savage  has  brought  me  with  the  excep- 
tion of  a  few  details.  This  leads  ns  to  believe  that  the  thing 
Is  true.  The  poux  here  seem  very  determined  to  go,  and  so 
are  a  party  of  oiitawas;  but  only  a  few  of  the  hurons,  because 
eighty  remained  of  the  party  who  marched  in  the  Spring. 
!N"evertheless  five  of  them  arrived  eight  days  ago  who  brought 
a  scalp  from  the  Chicachias;'^  but  it  is  hoped  that  the  others 
may  rejoin  the  army  because  they  are  supposed  to  be  now  near 
the  ouiatanons  Acccording  to  the  route  by  which  they  said  they 
would  Come.  It  Would  be  a  good  And  sure  Reinforcement. 
The  renards  have  also  Said  that  they  expected  shortly  a  strong 
party  of  Iroquois,  who  were  coming  to  join  them  to  facilitate 
the  passage  and  to  enable  them  to  Withdraw  into  the  Iroquois 
country.  They  have  perhaps  said  this  to  Frighten  the  other 
tribes,  but  it  is  very  Certain,  Monsieur,  that  the  iroquois  Are 
great  scoundrels,  and  that  they  daily  Scatter  collars  among  all 
the  tribes  who  Are  Stirred  up  by  the  English  and  who  Are  very- 
much  opposed  to  us.  If  our  people  start  I  find  myself  obliged 
to  give  them  powder  and  ball  as  they  have  already  given  me  to 
Understand;  but  I  shall  do  so  with  all  the  discretion  in  my 
power.  If  the  news  turns  out  true,  and  should  any  fight  of 
any  consequence  occur,  I  shall  take  the  liberty  of  sending  a 
special  messenger  to  give  you  news  of  it,  for  I  think  that  this 
is  the  last  courier  who  will  leave  from  here  this  year. 

lArmand  de  la  Richardie,  Jesuit  missionary  to  the  Huron  at 
Detroit,  was  born  in  18S6,  came  to  Canada  in  1725,  and  in  1728  was 
assigned  to  the  Huron  mission,  where  he  remained  until  about  1753. 
He  died  at  Quebec  in  1758.  For  sketch  of  Father  Mesaiger  (Messager), 
see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  446. — Ed. 

2  The  Chickasaw,  a  Southern  tribe,  whose  villages  were  in  what 
is  now  Tennessee  and  northern  Mississippi  and  Alabama;  they  were 
hostile  to  tlie  French  and  to  the  French  Indians. — Ed. 



o  a 


a  H 

B    H 


O  S 
B  > 
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»=   o 



— •    /)«  ■/-/«<>/  n,^J 

1730]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  15,  1730, 
accompanying  a  map  designed  to  endorse  the  project  of  La  Verendrye.i 
MS.  in  archives  of  Ministere  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Can- 
ada, Corresp.  gen.,  vol.  52,  c.  11,  fol.  218."] 

MoNSEiGNEUE — I  have  the  honor  to  Send  you  a  Copy  of  a 
Map  of  the  course  of  the  river  of  the  west,  made  by  the  savage 
Ochagac  and  others. 

If  the  account  of  these  savages  is  accurate  that  river  must 
discharge  above  California.  The  Sieur  Chaussegros  has  traced, 
from  the  Sieur  de  I'lsle's^  map  on  a  flying  sheet,  the  course  of 
that  river  reduced  according  to  the  map.  He  finds  that  the 
River  discharges  tov^ard  the  Entrance  discovered  by  Martin 
Daguilar.^  He  has  also  reduced  the  Savages'  map  on  which 
there  are  three  Scales  while  his  is  drawn  to  one  only  and  shows 

1  Pierre  Gaultier  de  Varennes,  sieur  de  la  Verendrye,  was  the  son  of 
a  Canadian  colonist  and  Marie  Boucher,  sister  of  PerriSre  and  Mont- 
brun.  He  was  born  in  1685,  and  crossing  to  Europe  served  in  thenar 
of  the  Spanish  Succession,  and  was  severely  wounded  at  Malplaquet. 
In  1726  he  was  again  in  New  France,  serving  at  a  small  post  north 
of  Lake  Superior.  There  he  met  Indians,  whose  description  of  a  great 
river  to  the  west  fired  his  zeal  for  exploration.  He  sent  two  memor- 
ials to  the  governor  on  this  subject,  the  second  of  which  is  printed 
in  Suite,  Histoire  des  Canadiens  Frangais  (Montreal,  1882),  vi,  pp. 
145-150.  In  this  he  speaks  of  a  map  made  by  the  savage  Ochagac,  to 
which  Beauharnois  alludes  in  this  document,  and  which  we  here  pre- 
sent in  reduced  facsimile.  For  the  later  history  of  V6rendrye's  explor- 
ations, see  Parkman,  Half  Century  of  Conflict  (Boston,  1892),  eh.  16; 
Winsor,  Mississippi  Basin   (Boston,  1895),  ch.  10. — Ed. 

^Gaspard  Chaussegros  de  Lery  was  a  noted  engineer,  who  built  the 
walls  of  Quebec.  The  Delisles,  Claude  and  Guillaume,  father  and  son, 
were  the  most  noted  French  cartographers  of  their  day.  In  1703  they 
issued  their  first  map  of  New  France,  of  which  there  were  numerous 
re-issues,  corrected  to  date. — Ed, 

3  Martin  Aguilar  was  a  Spanish  discoverer,  who  explored  the  Cali- 
fornia coast  early  in  the  17th  century.  An  inlet  toward  the  north 
(possibly  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia)  was  called  by  his  name  in  the 
maps  of  the  period. — Ed. 

[  103  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

the  whole  course  of  the  river  from  the  height  of  land  beyond 
Lake  Superior  to  above  California.  The  savages  have  traced 
on  the  map  the  upper  portion  of  the  Mississippi  river  which 
takes  Its  rise  to  the  South  of  Lake  Ouinipigou/  and  according 
to  tbe  Sieur  de  Plsle's  map  the  river  Itio  Colorado  would  take 
it8  rise  about  the  same  Spot. 

I  observed  with  the  Sieur  Chaussegros  that  this  country  is 
traversed  by  two  great  rivers  which  take  their  rise  about  the 
middle:  one  flows  toward  the  Eiasfc  which  is  the  St.  Lawrence, 
the  other  to  the  south  which  is  the  mississipy.  There  would 
remain  to  the  west  an  Extent  of  territory  from  Seven  to  eight 
hundred  leagues  in  width,  without  any  large  river  in  it.  This 
would  be  contrary  to  all  the  knowledge  we  have  of  countries 
that  are  known  in  the  world ;  where  in  so  vast  an  Area  there  is 
always  some  great  river  that  traverses  it;  which  leads  me  to 
think  that  the  savages  may  tell  the  truth,  for  it  is  not  natural 
that  in  so  vast  an  Extent  there  should  not  be  a  great  river ;  and 
it  seems  that  the  river  of  which  the  Savages  speak  discharges 
into  the  southern  sea.  We  know  the  rivers  indicated  on  the 
Sieur  de  I'lsle's  map  and  according  to  the  course  that  the  Sav- 
ages give  to  the  river  of  tlie  west,  it  flows  tO'  the  Entrance  re- 
cently discovered  by  Martin  Daguilar,  where  we  know  of  no 
other  river  above  or  to  the  north. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig- 

neur.  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 

Quebec,  October  15th,  1730. 

iLake  Winnipeg. — Ed. 


1730]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


[The  first  is  a  letter  dated  Oct,  18,  1730,  translated  from  a  transcript 
from  the  Paris  archives,  in  Macalester  College  library,  St.  Paul,  Minn., 
and  published  in  Macalester  College  Contributions.  1st  Series,  No.  4, 
pp.  112,  113.  The  second  is  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart 
to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  22,  1730.  MS.  in  archives  of  Min- 
Istere  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g§n.,  vol.  52, 
c.  11,  fol.  103."] 

We  cannot  as  yet  write  anything  positive  as  to  tlie  situation, 
extent,  and  richness  of  the  copper  mine  in  the  neighborhood  of 
the  bay  of  Chagouamigon.  The  officer  whom  Monsieur  de 
Beauharnois  sent  to  find  out  about  it,  has  not  been  able  to  en- 
lighten us  on  the  subject,  as  has  been  desired.  He  contented 
himself  with  bringing  us  a  piece  of  copper  weighing  eighteen 
pounds,  which  has  the  odor,  color,  and  weight  of  ordinary  red 
copper.  This  ingot  was  given  him  by  a  savage  from  that  locality, 
without  his  being  able  to  learn  from  him  the  situation  of  this 
mine,  in  order  to  go  there.  The  savages  are  superstitious  about 
these  sorts  of  discoveries.  They  feel  they  would  rather  die  than 
reveal  them.  If  we  can  get  any  more  precise  knowledge  con- 
cerning this  mine,  we  will  have  the  honor  of  rendering  you  an 
account  of  it,  and  the  measures  necessary  for  transportation. 
We  will  neglect  no  means  of  ascertaining. 

MoNSEiGNETJR — We  have  received  the  letter  that  you  did 
us  the  honor  of  Writing  to  us  on  the  28th  of  March  last 
Monsieur  de  Beauharnois  sent  orders  in  the  spring  to  the 
officer  commanding  at  la  pointe  de  Chagouamigon  to  obtain  all 
the  necessary  Information  respecting  the  situation,  the  extent, 
and  also  the  quality  of  the  Copper  mine  in  the  Neighborhood  of 
that  post.  He  has  not  yet  received  news  from  him.  We  Hope 
to  be  in  a  Position  to  give  you  information  on  this  matter  next 
Year.  Monsieur  de  Beauharnois  has  recommended  the  officers 
and  Voyageurs  to  notify  him  of  all  the  discoveries  that  they  may 
make  and  which  may  affect  the  welfare  of  the  Colony. 

Monsieur  hocquart  informs  us,  Monseigneur,  by  a  private 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

Letter  of  the  Position  of  affairs  of  brother  Chrestien  with  his 


We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseignenr,  Your 

very  humble  and  very  obedient  servants 


Quebec,  October  22nd,  1730. 


[Letter  of  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  23,  1870.  MS. 
in  archives  of  Minist§re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada, 
Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  53,  c.  11,  fol.  174."] 

MoNSEiGNETJR — I  havo  received  the  Letter  that  yon  did  me 
the  honor  of  Writing  to  me  on  the  25th  of  April  last.  We  have 
had  the  honor  of  rendering  yon  an  account  jointly,  Monsieur 
the  Marquis  de  Beauhamois  and  myself,  of  what  occurred 
respecting  Monsieur  de  Lignery's  affair,  and  we  Sent  you  the 
proceedings  and  the  judgment  rendered  by  the  Court  Martial 
assembled  for  that  Object.  It  did  not  appear  to  the  officers 
composing  the  Court  that  there  was  any  proof  that  the  Sieur 
de  Lignery  had  misbehaved  either  as  regards  the  expedition 
under  his  charge  and  the  purchases  of  Provisions  that  he  caused 
to  be  effected  at  Michilimakinac,  or  the  munitions  that  he  left 
at  that  post.  He  was  acquitted  and  relieved  of  every  charge. 
For  my  part,  I  did  everything  in  my  power  to  throw 
Light  upon  the  Sieur  de  Lignery's  conduct.  I  caused  the  Sieur 
Dulaurent  and  Martel,  the  Storekeeper  or  Commissary  of  Sup- 
plies who  Followed  the  detachment,  to  be  heard.  I  Wrote  early 
in  the  spring  to  the  Sieur  Dubuisson  to  sell  the  remainder  of 
the  munitions  left  at  Michilimakinac.  That  officer  answered 
me  on  the  10th  of  July  that  he  had  offered  them  for  sale,  but 
that  there  were  so  few  articles  and  these  were  in  so  wretched  a 
Condition  that  the  voyageurs  would  barely  condescend  to  look 
at  them ;  that  the  articles  will  always  remain  in  the  Condition 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

m  which  they  were  left  with  him  with  the  exception  of  2  or  3 

pounds  of  vermilion,  a  little  black  tobacco,  and  three  pounds  of 

thread  of  which  he  has  made  use  to  give  some  presents  to  the 

savages.     Such  is  the  account  given  me  by  the  Sieur  Dubuisson. 

had  the  honor,  Monseigneur,  to  inform  you  last  year  that  of 

lese  goods,  some  to  the  amount  of  1384  livres,  6  sols,  3  deniers, 

rere  taken  and  Used  in  paying  the  garrison  during  the  year 

LT28,  the  Special  account  of  which  has  Been  established  and 

icluded  in  the  Statement  of  the  sales  made  to  the  troops. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig- 

leur,  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant. 

Quebec,  October  23rd,  1730. 

1730:     SERVICES  OP  DE  NOYAN 

[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated, 
Oct.  23,  1730.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  53,  c.  11, 
fol.  167.] 

Monseigneur — 

*  *  *  **  *  *  * 

Messieurs  de  Longueuil  and  de  ^oyon  are  going  to  France  on 

the  ship  la  Marguerite  belonging  to  the  Sieur  fleury.    The  latter 

seemed  to  me  thoroughly  well-informed  regarding  The  upper 

country  and  detroit  in  particular.    He  communicated  to  me  the 

j      project  he  sent  you  last  year.     He  is  particularly  anxious  about 

It      The  construction  of  a  bark  on  Lake  Erie  for  the  conveyance  of 

'      'furs ;  and  his  suggestion  that  the  Commandant  of  detroit  should 

not  carry  on  any  trade,  seems  to  be  in  the  interest  of  the  service. 

But  it  would  not  be  advisable  at  present  to  abandon  any  of  the 

posts  where  the  French  are  established.     That  officer  passes  for 

an  intelligent  man,  thoroughly  disinterested   and  zealous  for 

The  service.     He  spent  only  24  hours  in  Quebec  and  I  had  not 

[  107  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

time  to  obtain  from  Him  all  the  information  which  he  will 
communicate  to  You,  Monseigneur,  in  detail. 

I  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant 

Quebec,  October  23rd,  1730. 


[Letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  28, 
1730.     Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  52,  c.  11,  fol.  222.] 

MoNSEiGT^EUR — Monsieur  Dubuisson,  who  has  returned 
from  Michilimakinac,  has  given  me  no  other  news  than  that 
which  I  had  the  honor  of  writing  to  you  by  the  King's  ship  with 
this  difference,  Monseigneur,  that  the  opinion  of  all  the  nations 
is  that  it  is  impossible  for  the  Renards  not  to  die  of  hunger  for 
they  have  Been  harassed  on  all  sides,  they  are  burdened  with  a 
very  large  number  of  women  and  Children,  and  have  not  had 
time  to  Sow  anything. 

That  officer,  Monseigneur,  has  been  deeply  affected  at  not 
finding  Himself  among  the  number  of  those  who  have  been 
fortunate  enough  to  obtain  The  Cross  of  St  Louis.  He  has 
received  three  wounds  on  his  Body :  two  from  gun-shots,  and  the 
third  from  an  arrow.  He  is  one  of  the  greatest  Warriors  here. 
He  left  the  Post  of  Michilimakinac  solely  because  there  is  no 
other  food  there  but  Fish  which  entirely  disagrees  with  persons 
who  are  Subject  to  nephritis.  He  has  had  a  very  severe  attack 
of  it.  He  has  a  son  who  is  tall  and  well  formed  and  very  well 
suited  for  War. 

The  movement,  Monseigneur,  that  has  taken  place  at  all  the 
Posts  against  the  Renards  has  had  an  excellent  effect  by  putting 
a  stop  to  the  too  bold  Discourses  of  the  savages  against  the 


1730]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

I  remain  with,  very  profound  Respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 


Quebec,  October  28th,  1730. 


[A  letter  of  Nov.  2,  1730,  from  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the 
French  Minister,  giving  news  of  De  Villiers's  victory,  is  to  be  found 
in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  pp.  107,.  108. 

The  two  following  circumstantial  accounts  are  translated  from 
transcripts  of  MSS.  in  the  archives  of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris, 
Collection  Moreau-Saint  M6ry,  vol.  9,  f.  11,  1727-1731.  There  are  in 
that  volume  five  documents  describing  this  defeat;  but  on  examination 
these  prove  to  be  but  two  different  accounts.  The  first,  which  is  evi- 
dently from  an  Illinois  source,  is  found  in  folios  140  and  322.  The 
former  is  wrongly  dated  1728,  having  been  inserted  by  an  ignorant 
archivist,  who  noted  that  date  near  the  beginning  of  the  document. 
That  found  in  folio  322,  bears  date,  Sept.  9,  1730;  but  as  that  was  the 
day  after  the  Foxes'  sortie,  as  appears  by  the  document,  it  seems  prob- 
able that  tlie  latter  portion  was  written  some  days  later.  The  second 
document  is  a  letter  from  De  Villiers  to  Beauharnois,  dated  Sept. 
23d,  1730;  it  is  from  folio  314.  That  in  folio  324  is  identical,  and  that 
of  folio  312  an  extract.] 

The  Renards,  in  Conjunction  with  the  Maskoutins  and 
quikapous,  had  waged  open  war  upon  us  and  our  Savage  allies 
for  many  years ;  they  Surprised  our  detachments,  carried  off 
our  Voyageurs,  frustrated  all  our  plans  and  Harassed  us  Even 
in  our  settlements,  which  we  could  Cultivate  only  with  weapons 
at  hand.  Attempts  had  been  made  on  several  occasions  to 
destroy  them;  But  lack  of  Concert,  the  Spirit  of  self-interest, 
and  the  bad  Management  of  those  who  at  various  times  were 
Entrusted  with  That  undertaking,  always  caused  it  to  miscarry. 
Finally  an  event  occurred  that  Brought  about  their  disunion 
and  the  destruction  of  the  renards. 

In  the  month  of  October  of  The  year  1Y28,  A  band  of  Quika- 
pous  and  Maskoutins  captured  on  the  Missisipy  seventeen 
Frenchmen  who  were  going  down  from  the  Sioux  to  the  Illinois. 

[  109  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

They  deliberated  at  first  as  to  Whether  they  should  Bum  them 
or  hand  them  over  to  the  Eenards  who  demanded  them.  But 
father  Guignas,  a  Jesuit  Missionary,  who  was  among  the  pris- 
oners, won  their  Confidence,  and  finally  Succeeded  in  detaching 
them  from  the  Eenards,  and  in  inducing  them  to  sue  for  peace 
with  us.  He  himself,  after  Five  months  Captivity,  Came  with 
them  to  the  fort  Chartres  where  peace  was  concluded  According 
to  their  Wishes. 

The  Eenards,  weakened  and  disconcerted  by  This  division, 
thought  of  taking  Eefuge,  by  way  of  the  Ouyatannons,  with  the 
Iroquois,  the  friends  of  the  English.  The  quinkapous  and 
Maskoutins  found  out  their  designs  and  notified  all  The  French 
posts  of  Louisiana  and  Canada.  Their  Good  faith  was  doubted 
for  somie  time  and  Monsieur  De  St  Ange,  the  Commandant  of 
fort  Chartres,^  could  not  induce  the  French  settlers  to  take  the 

Meanwhile,  the  Illinois  of  the  Village  of  Cakokias  Came,  in 
the  month  of  July  IT 30,  to  tell  us  that  The  Eenards  had  taken 
some  of  their  people  prisoners  and  had  Burned  the  son  of  their 
great  Chief  near  le  Eocher  on  the  Eiver  of  the  Illinois.  In 
consequence  of  This  news,  added  to  the  warnings  received  from 
elsewhere,  an  expedition  set  out;  the  Savages  were  assembled; 
Monsieur  de  St  Ange  placed  himself  at  the  head  of  the  French 
and  on  the  10th  of  August  the  Latter  Joined  the  three  or  four 
Hundred  Savages  who  had  preceded  them  by  a  few  Days,  bring- 
ing up  our  army  to  a  strength  of  500  men. 

The  quikapous,  Maskoutins  and  Illinois  of  le  Eocher  had 
Made  Themselves  masters  of  the  passes  on  the  ISTorth  east  side 
and  this  probably  compelled  the  Eenards  to  build  a  fort  at  le 
Eocher,  A  league  below  them,  to  Protect  Themselves  against 
their  Attacks.  We  had  news  of  the  enemy  on  the  12th,  through 
One  of  our  scouts  who  told  us  where  their  fort  was  situated; 
that  he  had  Counted  a  Hundred  and  Eleven  Cabins,  and  that 
we  were  at  a  Distance  of  only  two  or  three  Days'  journey  from 
them.     We  therefore  continued  our  march  through  a  Wooded 

iFor  biographical  sketch,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  443. — Ed. 



French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

country,  and  on  the  I7tli  at  Daybreak  we  came  in  Sight  of  Tlie 
enemy.  We  met  a  band  of  40  men  who  were  out  Hunting  and 
whom  we  Compelled  to  Regain  their  fort. 

This  was  A  small  Grove  of  trees  surrounded  by  a  palisade 
Situated  on  a  gentle  slope  Rising  on  the  West  and  ]N'orth  west 
Side  on  the  bank  of  a  small  River,  in  such  manner  that  on  the 
East  and  South  east  Sides  they  were  exposed  to  our  fire.  Their 
Cabins  Were  very  small  and  Excavated  in  the  earth  Like  the 
Burrows  of  the  Foxes  from  which  they  take  their  name. 

At  the  sound  of  the  first  gun-Shots  the  Quikapous,  Maskou- 
tins,  and  Illinois  who  had  frequently  come  in  contact  with  their 
bands,  and  who  had  been  waiting  for  Aid  for  A  month,  Joined 
us  to  the  number  of  200.  Our  men  were  posted,  By  order  of 
Monsieur  de  St  Ange,  so  as  tO'  Blockade  the  renards,  who  made 
two  unsuccessful  sorties  that  Day.  Trenches  were  dug  the  Fol- 
lowing night  and  Every  man  worked  to  fortify  Himself  in  the 
post  assigned  to  him. 

On  the  19th,  the  enemy  demanded  a  parley ;  they  offered  to 
Riestore  the  captives  they  had  formerly  taken  from  the  Illinois, 
and  in  fact  they  Gave  up  some.  But  it  was  found  that  they 
were  Seeking  only  to  Deceive  us,  and  we  Recommenced  our  fire 
Against  them  on  the  Morrow. 

During  the  following  Days  we  were  Joined  by  60  or  60 
Frenchmen  and  500  Poiiatamis  and  Sakis  savages  brought  by 
Monsieur  De  Villiers,  the  Commandant  at  the  River  St  Joseph, 
Oiiyatannons  and  Peanguichias.^  A  fresh  Parley  took  place. 
The  Renards  begged  for  their  Lives  with  presents  in  their  hands. 
Monsier  De  Villers  seemed  inclined  to  consent  but  His  Party 
was  not  The  most  numerous,  and  he  could  not  Conclude  anything 
without  the  Cbnsent  of  the  French  and  of  the  Illinois  Savages 
who  Would  not  agree  to  any  compromise. 

Meanwhile  it  was  Found  that  the  Sakis  were  betraying  us. 
Being  the  kindred  and  allies  of  the  Renards,  they  dealt,  in  an 
underhand  manner  with  them,  supplied  them  with  munitions 

iThis  is  either  an  hiatus  in  or  a  corruption  o^  the  manuscript.     See 
De  Villiers's  account,  for  the  conduct  of  these  two  tribes. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

and  took  steps  to  favor  their  escape.  Our  Savages,  who  dis- 
covered this  on  the  1st  of  September,  rose  in  a  body  and  were 
about  to  fall  On  the  Sakis,  when  Monsieur  de  St.  Ange  at  the 
head  of  100  French  Advanced  to  close  all  avenues  leading  to 
the  fort  on  the  Side  of  the  Sakis,  and  Eestored  order. 

We  feigned  not  to  notice  This  Treachery  Until  the  arrival  of 
Monsieur  de  Noielle,^  the  Commandant  of  the  Miamis,  who 
came  to  our  Camp  the  same  Day  with  10  Frenchmen  and  200 
Savages.  He  was  the  bearer  of  an  order  from  Monsieur  The 
Governor  of  Canada  forbidding  the  making  of  any  treaty  with 
the  Eenards.  A  General  Council  w^as  held  at  which  the  Sakis 
were  put  to  shame  and  it  was  unanimously  decided  that  The 
enemy  should  be  destroyed. 

But  we,  as  well  as  the  Eenards,  had  Long  been  Suffering 
from  hunger;  our  Savages,  being  Eeduced  to  Eating  their 
dressed  hides,  became  Discouraged;  200  Illinois  deserted  on 
the  7th  of  September.  This  bad  example  had  j^o  Conse- 
quences; the  Eenards  were  pressed  more  and  more  closely; 
the  troops  under  Monsieur  de  St.  Ange  Built,  at  a  distance  of 
two  pistol-shots,  A  small  fort  destined  to  Cut  off  their  Com- 
munication with  the  Eiver  and  everything  seemed  to  presage 
A  complete  Victory  in  our  favor. 

1  Nicolas  Joseph  des  Noyelles,  Sieur  de  Fleurimont,  was  one  of  the 
best  known  officers  in  the  Canadian  service.  Born  in  France  (1694), 
he  was  ensign  in  the  colonial  troops  at  the  early  age  of  sixteen,  a 
lieutenant  in  1721,  and  captain  in  1732.  During  the  last  war  with  the 
English,  Des  Noyelles  was  lieutenant-colonel  in  command  at  Trois 
Rivieres.  His  earliest  known  service  in  the  West  was  among  the 
Miami;  his  unsuccessful  expedition  against  the  Foxes  in  1734  is  de- 
tailed in  the  present  volume.  This  did  not  prevent  his  appointment 
to  command  at  Detroit  in  1736,  where  he  served  about  two  years.  In 
1743,  Des  Noyelles  was  appointed  to  succeed  La  V6rendrye  in  pursu- 
ing Northwest  explorations,  and  for  four  years,  with  but  little  success, 
he  pushed  toward  the  Rocky  Mountains.  In  1747,  he  was  made  com- 
mandant at  Mackinac,  where,  for  two  years,  his  son  had  been  second 
in  command.  Des  Noyelles  died  before  1767,  when  his  eldest  son  was 
living  in  France,  and  the  younger  at  Quebec.  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.f 
V,  p.  121,  for  brief  biographical  note. — Ed. 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

But,  on  the  Stli  of  September,  A  Violent  storm  with  dreadful 
thunder  and  Continual  rain  Interrupted  our  work.  The  Day 
was  Followed  by  a  night  as  Eainy  as  it  was  dark  and  very  cold. 
The  renards  seized  The  opportunity  and  issued  in  Silence  from 
eir  fort.  This  was  at  once  perceived  through  the  Crying  of 
e  children.  But  what  could  be  done  and  how  was  it  possible 
Eecognize  anybody  in  Such  Obscurity  ?  There  w^as  as  much 
ear  of  killing  our  own  people  as  of  Letting  the  enemy  escape. 
Nevertheless  all  were  Under  arms  and  the  Savages  advanced 
On  both  flanks  of  the  fugitives  to  be  ready  to  attack  them  as 
soon  as  Day  broke.  Daylight  came  at  last  and  All  set  out  in 
Pursuit.  Our  Savages,  who  were  fresher  and  more  Vigorous, 
Soon  Overtook  them.  • 

The  w^omen,  children,  and  Old  men  walked  at  the  head,  and 
the  Warriors  posted  Themselves  in  the  rear  tO'  Protect  them. 
Their  ranks  were  at  once  Broken  and  defeated.  The  number  of 
those  killed  and  captured  was  about  300  Warriors,  besides  the 
women  and  children.  It  is  Agreed  on  all  sides  that  not  more 
than  50  or  60  men  Escaped  Without  guns  and  Without  any  of 
the  Implements  for  procuring  their  Subsistence.  The  Illinois 
of  le  rocher,  the  Maskoutins,  and  quikapous  Are  now  in  pursuit 
of  this  small  Remnant  of  fugitives,  and  the  first  news  we  shall 
get  will  tell  us  of  the  total  destruction  of  That  Wretched  Na- 

We  do  not  yet  Know^  How  many  Warriors  the  Nations  of 
Canada  have  killed  nor  how  many  prisoners  they  have  taken. 

Letter  of  De  Villiers 

Monsieur — I  Had  the  honor  of  sending  you  a  report  on  my 
first  journey  to  le  rocher,  with  the  nations  to  prevent  the  renards 
from  passing  over  to  The  Iroquois. 

The  first  step  I  hasten  to  take  on  my  arrival  here,  is  to  des- 
patch to  you  a  canoe,  in  which  I  send  my  son,^  in  order  that  he 

iThis  was,  doubtless,  Louis  Coulon  de  Villiers,  who  afterwards 
attacked  Washington  at  Fort  Necessity.  For  a  biographical  sketch, 
Bee  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  pp.  118,  119.— ^Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

may  have  the  honor  of  informing  you  of  the  blow  inflicted  by 
me,  at  the  head  of  the  French  and  savages,  upon  the  renards, 
who  were  going  to  join  The  Iroquois  and  who  were  stopped  by 
The  poutouatamis,  mascoutins,  quikapoux,  And  The  jllinois 
of  le  rocher. 

On  the  6th  of  August  two  mascoutins  came  to  us  here,  who 
had  been  Sent  expressly  by  their  chiefs,  to  inform  me  that  the 
renards  had  struck  The  poutouatamis,  quikapoux,  mascoutins, 
and  jllinois.  And  the  Latter,  in  revenge,  had  pursued  them  and 
found  them  marching  in  a  body  with  Their  women  and  chil- 
dren in  the  direction  of  the  jroquois;  and  had  come  to  blows 
with  them.  Our  people  then  numbered  only  About  Two  hun- 
dred men,  as  one  Hundred  had  been  allowed  to  depart-  on  the 
previous  day.  The  attack  began  at  Ten  o'clock  in  the  morning. 
They  defeated  The  renards  and  put  them  to  flight,  But  the  latter 
rallied  and  gained  renewed  vigor;  they  fought  until  nightfall. 
In  this  affair  Our  people  had  Six  men  killed,  and  three  wounded. 
One  of  our  Bravest  war-chiefs,  named  Okeia,  was  among  the 
dead,  and  Pindigache,  another  chief,  was  Wounded.  The 
renards  had  seven  men  killed  And  thirty  wounded.  During 
The  night,  The  poutouatamis  posted  themselves  on  a  hill  in 
the  prairie  and  dug  holes  in  the  earth  by  way  of  a  fort.  On 
their  side,  The  renards  with  their  families  took  possession  of  a 
small  grove  of  trees  and  fortified  themselves.  On  The  follow- 
ing day,  they  parleyed  with  one  another  to  gain  time  and  to 
obtain  assistance.  During  these  parleys,  the  Pouatouamis  sent 
Papissa,  with  a  young  man  to  the  oiiyatanons  to  ask  aid  of  the 
tribes  and  the  French  at  that  post.  The  mascoutins  sent  to 
ask  me  to  join  the  poutouatamis  and  to  likewise  come  to  their 

The  jllinois  in  the  same  manner,  sent  messages  to  the  caokias. 
As  soon  as  I  heard  the  news  I  notified  the  Sieur  Denoyelles,  and 
sent  two  Savages  to  Detroit,  but  they  did  not  reach  there  in 

I  started  from  my  post  on  the  10th  of  August,  with  the 
French  Who  were  then  in  a  condition  to  March,  and  with  all 
the  savages  here,  including  Poutouatamis,  Myamis,  and  Saquis 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

and  proceeded  to  tke  place  where  the  renards  were.  On  the 
way  I  took  with  me  The  quikapoux  and  maskoutins,  making 
about  300  men  in  all.  Monsieur  de  St.  Ange  was  already  there 
with  100  Frenchmen  and  400  savages,  including  Kaoquias, 
missouris,  and  Peorias,  and  The  200  of  our  savages  who  had 
already  fought  with  them.  The  Ouyatanons  and  peanguichias 
also  arrived  on  the  same  day  as  I  did,  so  that  in  a  short  time 
we  numbered  About  1400  men.  I  was  about  to  forget  one 
particular  circumstance.  Monsieur,  While  Papissa  was  among 
the  O'liyatanor.s,  the  renards  also  sent  two  men  there  with  a 
Collar  and  calumets  to  ask  their  aid  against  the  Poutouatamis, 
maskoutins,  and  quikapoux,  against  whom  they  had  just  fought, 
and  who  were  watching  them ;  at  the  same  time  they  asked  them 
to  leave  the  road  open  to  enable  them  to  go  in  peace  with  their 
families  to  the  jroquois.  The  ouyatanons  replied  that  they 
would  assist  them ;  that  they  would  remain  where  they  were  and 
fortify  themselves  and  that  they  would  soon  see  them. 

The  renards'  fort  was  in  a  small  Grove  of  trees,  on  the  bank 
of  a  little  river  running  through  a  vast  prairie,  more  than  four 
leagues  in  circumference,  without  a  tree,  except  Two  groves 
about  60  arpents  from  one  another.  Monsieur  de  St  Ange  had 
camped  with  His  savages  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river  and  had 
built  redoubts  to  prevent  their  obtaining  Water,  but  they  had 
excavated  underground  passages  leading  to  the  River.  I 
camped,  with  my  savages  and  the  Frenchmen  who  had  joined 
me,  on  the  right  of  their  fort,  w^here  I  erected  two  others,  with 
a  Cavalier  in  each  to  beat  them  back  into  their  own  And  prevent 
them  from  descending  into  the  ditches  they  had  outside.  I  had 
a  trench  opened  to  approach  them  more  closely,  without  risk 
to  anybody  and  had  an  attempt  made  to  set  fire  to  their  fort 
This  trench  made  them  uneasy,  and  caused  them  to  move  about 
more  than  usual.  As  soon  as  they  saw  that  the  earth  was  being 
excavated,  a  shower  of  gun-shots  fell  in  good  fashion. 

The  ouyatanons  who  apparently  were  unwilling  to  completely 

break  Their  promise  to  them,  asked  me  to  allow  them  to  call  a 

man  who  was  their  ally;  saying  that  thereby  they  might  get 

some  illinois  women  whom  they  held  in  captivity.     I  allowed 

8  [115] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvh 

them  to  do  so,  on  condition  that  I  should  see  no  other  meat 
Cbme  out  of  that  village  than  my  own.  This  they  promised,  but, 
on  the  contrary,  that  man  came  out,  with  four  Slaves  and  a 
Collar,  which  he  presented  to  me  on  behalf  of  the  renard.  I 
would  not  listen  to  him.  I  said  that  it  was  Illinois  flesh  that  I 
asked  for,  and  that  I  would  have  no  other.  He  returned  and  in 
several  trips  brought  me  wdiat  I  wanted.  The  Saquis  took 
advantage  of  this  delay,  and  approached  the  fort  in  spite  of 
the  French,  who  were  on  guard  there.  They  got  out  a  number 
of  children  and  gave  food  to  the  renards,  so  that  I  was  obliged 
to  open  fire  on  the  fort,  to  compel  them  to  retire. 

Our  tribes  were  very  anxious  to  spare  the  renards'  lives,  and 
proposed  an  act  of  treachery  to  me.  Their  design  w^as  that  I 
should  promise  Them  their  lives,  that  I  should  make  them  come 
out  And  that  they  would  fall  on  them.  It  was  in  nowise  their 
intention  to  do  so ;  their  only  object  was  to  secure  captives.  I 
opposed  this,  seeing  that  it  could  ouly  result  in  sparing  the  lives 
of  those  wretches,  who  would  undoubtedly  Continue  on  their 
way  to  The  jroquois.  Eivery  day  they  found  fresh  subjects  on 
which  to  speak  to  me.  They  came  back  twice  with  their  chil- 
dren and  with  collars,  to  move  me.  But  although  they  had 
been  pale,  I  made  them  turn  as  if  painted  red,  by  telling  them 
that  all  their  words  were  in  vain  And  that  they  were  not  to  come 
back  again.  They  addressed  themselves  to  Monsieur  de  St. 
Ange,  who  listened  to  them  no  more  than  I  did.  Nevertheless, 
We  fired  some  shots  at  them  as  they  re-entered  their  fort.  They 
suffered  much  from  hunger  because,  for  four  days  previous  to 
Their  flight,  they  lived  only  on  apichimonts.^  Monsieur  de 
l^oyelles  arrived  with  the  nations  of  His  post,  which  gave  us 
a  reinforcement  of  a  hundred  men ;  these  would  have  been  very 
Useful  to  us,  had  the  Savages  been  willing  to  mount  guard  night 
and  day,  but  as  soon  as  the  least  bad  weather  set  in,  they  would 
not  come  out  of  their  cabins  and  we  were  not  enough  French- 
men to  man  the  entire  contravallation. 

iNote   on   original   manuscript:     "these   are   Their   coverings   made 
of  Skins." 




1730]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

The  Eenards  held  out  for  twenty-tliree  days.  On  the  8th  of 
Septemher,  we  had  the  finest  weather  in  the  world  until  an 
hour  from  sunset,  when  a  Terrible  storm  of  wind  and  rain  arose 
/hich  lasted  until  the  ni^ht,  which  was  very  dark  and  Foggy, 
that,  in  spite  of  all  I  could  say  to  our  Savages,  I  was  unable 
make  tliem  guard  all  The  outlets.  The  Eenards  took  ad- 
mtage  of  this  to  come  out  of  their  fort  and  flee.  We  per- 
dved  this  at  first  from  the  crying  of  the  children  which  we 
jard,  and  we  learned  it  from  a  Sauteux  woman  who  came  into 
le  trench  to  surrender.  I  at  once  prepared  to  pursue  them  at 
lay-break.  We  followed  them  with  Our  Savages  and  routed 
lem,  and  more  than  200  warriors  were  killed.  'No  other  chief 
Escaped  except  Licaouais,  of  whom,  however,  we  have  no  in- 
formation. The  others  were  made  prisoners  and  placed  in  The 
hands  of  the  Kaoquias,  who  will  assuredly  not  spare  their  lives. 
Those  who  escaped  from  us  threw  away  all  they  had,  even  to 
their  powder-horns  in  order  that  they  might  escape;  but  few 
remain.  The  prisoners  told  us  that  they  had  fought  against 
The  Scioux  in  the  spring  and  very  likely  this  is  true.  I  Found 
^their  village  very  small,  although  I  do  not  refer  to  that  in  which 
they  were  shut  up.  But  to  two  Of  their  Camps  which  I  saw  in 
the  prairies  where  they  had  lived  during  The  summer.  Our 
Quicapoux  and  mascoutins  did"  wonders  on  this  expedition,  and 
all  did  equally  well,  vying  with  one  another.  Had  it  not  been 
for  The  desertion  of  300  Kaokias  who  had  only  just  abandoned 
Monsieur  de  St.  Ange,  and  for  the  absence  of  100  men  from 
my  camp  who  had  gone  Hunting  to  supply  us  with  food,  not 
a  single  Eenard  would  have  escaped.  I  can  assure  you,  Mon- 
sieur, that  we  made  The  renards  fast,  but  that  we  fasted  almost 
as  much  as  They.  My  son,  who  has  just  come  out  of  The 
action,  will  give  you  whatever  details  I  may  have  omitted.  I 
take  the  liberty,  Monsieur,  of  begging  your  protection  for  Him. 
I  have  had  no  more  urgent  desire,  than  to  Send  Him  to  you 
that  he  may  have  The  honor  of  bringing  you  this  Xews. 

All  our  nations  are  preparing  to  go  in  the  spring  to  pay  you 
their  homage,  and,  at  the  same  time,  to  tell  you  of  their  dead, 
Especially   Louis   Lamech ;   they   are  Oiiyenamegousy,   Pindi- 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

gache,  ouataouasego  and  Ouefigue,  who  kept  the  Renards  in 
sight  all  summer  Without  abandoning  them,  with  the  quika- 
poux  and  miascoutins. 

The  sieur  de  Villiers,  the  younger,  adds^  that  the  nations 
returned  home  well  pleased  with  the  compliments  they  had 
received  from  Monsieur  His  father,  each  one  in  particular  and 
all  in  general,  so  that  it  was  impossible  to  say  who  had  done 
best  on  that  occasion,  all  having  displayed  uncommon  ardor 
and  courage. 

That  in  order  to  thank  Monsieur  The  commandant  and  the 
officers,  all  the  chiefs  of  the  nations,  at  the  head  of  their  troops, 
had  sworn  and  protested  that  if  ever  any  Nation  were  rash 
enough  to  attack  the  French,  they  would  shed  the  last  drop  of 
their  blood  to  avenge  them;  that  they  came  to  give  them  a 
tangible  proof  of  their  friendship  and  attachment  for  Them, 
after  destroying  their  enemies ;  That  this  memory  would  never 
be  Effaced  from  their  hearts  And  that  they  would  Carefully  im- 
press it  upon  Their  descendants. 

1730:     FOXES     SEEK     ALLIES     AMONG     THE     IROQUOIS     AND 


[Letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Nov.  9, 
1730.  MS.  in  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark, 
"Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  52,  c.  11,  fol.  226."] 

MoNSEiGNEUE — I  received  yesterday  a  Letter  dated  the 
fourth  of  October  from  the  Sieur  de  Joncaire,  whom:  I  sent  to 
pass  the  winter  among  the  souontouans,^  to  watch  their  Actions 
and  to  tell  them  my  Opinion  respecting  the  rumors  in  circulation 

iWhat  follows  is  an  addendum  to  the  letter  of  De  Villiers,  set  down 
from  the  oral  account  of  his  son,  the  messenger. — Ed. 

2  For  biographical  sketch  of  Joncaire,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p. 
228.  In  1736  he  was  thus  characterized:  "Aged  60.  A  braggart,  but 
rendered  good  service  in  treating  with  the  Iroquois  by  whom  he  is 
adopted."  The  Souantouans  are  the  Seneca  Indians,  most  westerly  of 
the  five  nations  of  the  Iroquois. — Ed. 



1730]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

that  they  were  to  give  an  asylum  to  the  Eenards,  and  that  if 
they  did  so  they  would  expose  themselves  to  see  The  storm 
burst  on  their  heads.     They  have  Sent  me,  in  this  connection, 

0  hatchets  that  were  addressed  to  them  by  the  Eenards  to 
request  them  to  go  and  meet  the  latter,  and  to  strike  every- 


The  Sieur  De  Joncaire  writes  me  that  the  Eenards  had  Sent 
esents  to  the  Loups,  who  are  Settled  within  the  Governments 

pi  manhate^  and  of  Carolina  to  Induce  the  latter  to  join  them, 
is  confirms  me  in  the  opinion  that  they  did  not  wish  for 

Peace  and  that  they  sought  only  to  divert  us  until  such  time  as 

they  could  strike  their  blow.     They  are  now  well  punished  for 

their  treachery. 

1  Eemain  with  very  profound  Eespect,  Monseigneur,  Your 

very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 

Quebec,  November  9th,  1730. 


[Letter  of  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated,  Nov.  14,  1730. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  53,  c.  11,  fol.  207.] 

MoNSEiGNETJR — Mousicur  the  Marquis  de  Beauhamois  has 
the  honor  to  inform  you  of  the  defeat  of  the  Eenard  Savages, 
whereof  The  Sieur  De  Yilliers,  the  Commandant  at  river  St 
Joseph,  has  given  Him  The  particulars  in  the  letters  that  he  has 
written  to  Him,  extracts  from  which  he  sends  you,  Monseig- 
neur. That  officer  has  sent  his  son  here  with  the  Sieur 
Eeaume,  his  interpreter,  to  bring  us  The  news  and  from  The 
notes  of  the  latter  whom  I  have  questioned  On  all  the  facts,  I 

iThe  Loup  (Wolf)  Indians  were  an  Algonquian  tribe,  branch  of  the 
Mahican,  who  lived  originally  in  the  valleys  of  the  Connecticut  and 
Hudson.  By  the  18th  century  they  had  moved  to  the  West,  and  were 
wanderers  on  the  frontier  of  the  English  settlements  in  New  York 
(Manhate)    and  southward. — En. 

[  119  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

have  drawn  up  the  annexed  relation  which  contains  perhaps 
some  details  omitted  by  Monsieur  Devilliers.  I  have  even 
retained  the  expressions  of  the  Sieur  Reaume  which  are  accord- 
ing to  Canadian  usage. 

From  the  information  that  the  Sieurs  Devilliers  the  younger, 
and  Reaume  have  given  us  respecting  the  situation  of  the  Ren- 
ards'  fort  and  the  Camp  of  the  French  and  of  our  allied  Indians, 
Monsieur  Chaussegros  de  Lery  has  drawn  up  a  plan  of  the  Same 
with  a  note  accompanying  It,  which  is  addressed  to  you,  Mon- 
seigneur,  by  Monsieur  De  Beauharnois. 

-  The  Sieur  Devilliers  was  obliged  to  incur  some  expense  under 
the  circumstances  in  which  he  was  placed.  He  has  Merely 
notified  us  that  it  was  not  considerable.  This  is  a  Second  ad- 
vantage. Monsieur  The  Marquis  de  Beauharnois  has  deemed 
it  advisable  to  Despatch  the  Sieur  Coulon  de  Villiers,  the 
younger,  to  carry  you  the  News  of  the  defeat  of  the  Renards. 
He  Embarks  on  the  Ship  le  Beauharnois  which  sails  for  la 
Rochelle.  He  is  charged  with  the  duty  of  handing  over  to 
Monsieur  de  Belamy  a  Renard  Slave  who  has  been  Sent  to 
Monsieur  the  general  by  Monsieur  des  ISToyelles  on  behalf  of 
the  Miami  Nation  where  that  officer  Commands. 

The  Sieur  Belamy  will  await  your  orders  on  the  subject, 

I  remain  with  very  profound  Respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant 

Quebec,  November  14th,  1730. 



1730]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


(This  memorial  of  De  Noyan  is  endorsed  "1731,"  probably  tlie  date 
01'  its  reception  in  France.  It  was  doubtless  draughted  before  the 
news  was  received  of  the  victory  of  1730.  MS.  in  archives  of  Minis- 
,t6re  des  Colonies,  Paris;   press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.   56, 

11,  fol.  340."] 

Plan  of  ^Var  for  Canada  Against  the  Renard  Savages 

If  there  were  reason  to  believe  that  the  Eenard  l^ation  could 
Be  Kept  in  a  state  of  tranquility  and  obedience,  And  if  we 
_could  Rely  upon  their  faithful  observance  of  the  articles  of  9, 
treaty  of  peace,  I  should  enter  into  the  Considerations  that  seem 
to  call  for  gentle  means,  such  as:  the  excessive  expense  of  Such 
expeditions;  the  uncertainty  of  success  And  the  disadvantage 
"that  would  accrue  to  the  Colony  through  the  Misfortune  of  a 
war  of  That  nature  being  unsuccessful;  and  I  would  Conse- 
quently Conclude  with  This  general  axiom:  that  peace  is  the 
wisest  policy  to  be  adopted.  But  the  proofs  We  have  of  the 
little  Confidence  that  can  be  placed  in  the  deceitful  protestations 
of  These  men  who  are  independent  of  all  laws ;  and  the  danger 
that  lies  in  confidin'-  in  the  word  of  These  Savages,  who  are 
restricted  by  no  rule  of  subordination,  who  are  restrained  by 
no  government,  And  who  See  no  shame  in  unfaithfulness  and 
treachery ;  do  'Not  allow  of  our  taking  anything  into  Considera- 
tion except  the  general  interest  of  the  Colony,  in  which  I  Include 
the  shame  cast  upon  the  French  Xation  in  connection  with  the 
last  war;^  for  the  Savages  frequently  impute  to  a  mistake 
Events  which  chance  alone  renders  Unfortunate.  I  Include  the 
Necessity  of  putting  an  end  to  their  insolent  speeches  on  This 
subject,  which  are  Calculated  to  give  Rise  to  the  greatest  evils; 
the  aid  that  we  are  obliged  to  Give  our  allies;  the  obligation 
that  we  have  imposed  on  ourselves  of  putting  an  end  to  a  war 
into  which  we  have  urged  them,  and  the  Evil  that  would  result 
if  our  allies  should  succeed  in  destroying  Those  Renards  with- 

iDe  Noyan   accompanied   Llgnery   in   the   expedition   of   1728.     S-^e 
pp.  21-35,  ante. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections 

[vol.  xvii 

out  our  assistance — an  Evil  that  would  doubtless  be  still  greater 
tban  it  is  to  day. 

I  also  include  the  Good  of  the  Trade  which  the  Savages  inter- 
rupt, And  finally  the  precautions  that  must  be  taken  to  Prevent 
their  joining  the  iroquois,  who  have  offered  them  a  refuge ;  and 
as  they  would  have  common  interests,  they  would  not  fail  to 
make  use  of  one  another  to  glut  the  hatred  they  bear  us. 

To  what  would  we  then  be  reduced.  And  what  ruinous  wars 
would  we  not  be  compelled  to  wage  ? 

It  is  E"eedless  to  explain  How  These  English  would  work 
more  effectively  to  deprive  us  of  all  our  advantages,  and  How 
the  insolence  of  the  Iroquois  would  thwart  the  most  judicious 
Steps  that  we  might  take.  To  these  Considerations,  I  might 
add  the  revolt  of  the  indians  near  Mobile^  that  has  remained 
unpunished ;  the  manner  in  which  our  allies  among  the  ilinois 
are  continually  disturbed ;  the  fact  that  Those  of  lake  Erie,  lake 
huron  And  Michigan  are  weary  of  bearing  alone  the  burden  of 
the  war;  And  finally  the  disgust  that  our  settled  savages  feel 
at  our  Conduct ;  these  are  Matters  Calculated  to  make  Us  rightly 
Fear  that  we  may  be  completely  abandoned  by  all  those  IN'ations. 

Imperceptibly  Contempt  takes  the  place  of  the  esteem  we 
have  enjoyed ;  and  all  the  Nations  which  hold  men  in  Regard 
only  in  so  far  as  they  know  how  to  carry  on  war,  will  end  by 
insulting  us,  when  they  are  at  last  Convinced  that  they  can  do 
so  with  impunity. 

Since  1728  our  allies  have  been  waiting  for  orders  from  the 
Court  to  march  once  more  Against  the  Renards.  The  hurons 
and  the  Outawas  of  detroit,  whom  I  Commanded,  have  caused 
father  de  la  richardie  to  write  to  me  several  times  that  they 
Were  ready  to  follow  me.  The  Iroquois  settled  at  Montreal 
have  come  to  see  me  many  times  about  This  matter.  They  do 
not  ask  to  have  a  large  ^Number  of  French  at  their  head ;  they 
will  be  content  with  seeing  a  few.     And  it  would  be  right  to 

iThis  probably  refers  to  the  uprising  of  the  Natchez,  and  the  mas- 
sacre at  Fort  Rosalie,  in  1729.  Incidently,  also,  it  helps  to  date  this 
document,  since  it  must  have  been  written  after  Nov.  29,  1729,  and 
before  January,  1731,  when  Perier,  the  governor  of  Louisiana,  severely 

punished  these  Indians. — En. 


1730]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

take  advantage  at  this  moment  of  this  willingness  with,  which 
we  shall  not  find  them,  animated  at  another  time. 

iN'evertheless,  however  Well  established  may  be  the  ^N'ecessity 
of  destroying  the  Eenards  for  the  honor  of  the  French  And  the 
Preservation  of  the  Colony,  I  feel  that  my  plan  wonld  not  be 
supported  by  all  the  authority  that  it  iN'eeds,  if  I  did  not  indi- 
cate the  means  of  carrying  it  out  at  slight  expense,  And  with 
almost  certain  prospects  of  success. 

In  the  first  place,  we  must  bear  in  mind  that  the  savages  are 
so  firmly  Convinced  of  the  greatness  And  power  of  the  King 
that  when  the  government  Induces  them  to  go  to  war,  it  will  be 
Obliged  to  supply  them  with  arms,  with  food.  And  with  trans- 
portation. And  Consequently  that  the  expense  of  This  will 
always  be  very  great. 

This  leads  me  to  say  that  in  order  to  succeed  with  very  little 
expense,  it  will  be  necessary,  after  the  Court  has  selected  a 
competent  ofiicer,  that  such  ofiicer  should,  under  the  authority 
of  an  Order,  carry  the  Same  porcelain  Collar  that  was  used  in 
the  last  expedition  of  1Y28  to  our  settled  savages  and,  after  the 
Ceremonies  observed  Ou  such  Occasions,  he  should  speak  to 
them  In  the  following  terms : 

"My  brothers,  I  have  never  forgotten  the  chiefs  of  Your 
Villages  killed  by  the  renards.  Your  mats  are  Still  Dyed  with 
their  blood,  And  their  loss  is  ever  felt  by  me  As  much  as  it  is 
by  you.  I  know  that  you  have  long  been  seeking  an  opportunity 
of  Avenging  their  Death.  But  hitherto  we  have  been  Unfor- 
tunate enough  not  to  give  you  satisfaction.  This  does  not  dis- 
courage me.  As  you  have  often  taken  up  our  quarrel  I  now 
take  up  yours.  I  am  about  to  start  And  I  come  to  notify  you 
of  it.  I  do  not  ask  you  if  you  will  follow  me.  I  observe  from 
your  countenances  that  you  are  possessed  with  the  same  desire 
with  which  I  Bum.  This  is  to  me  a  Pledge  that  I  shall  not 
go  alone.  I  am  taking  with  me  only  a  few  soldiers  And  Cana- 
dians, picked  men,  who  have  equipped  themselves  at  their  own 
expense,  to  take  part  in  our  Expedition.  The  governor  from 
whom  I  have  asked  permission  to  undertake  this  journey,  has 
generously  made  me  a  present  of  swords,  of  powder.  And  of 
Bullets,  which  I  shall  willingly  share  with  you.    I  take  with  me 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

only  Indian  Corn  And  fat  for  provisions.  That  is  the  food  of 
warriors,  and  I  do  not  intend  to  live  differently  from  You. 
You  have  canoes  Or  you  can  Easily  make  them.  Therefore  I 
have  no  doubt,  my  brothers,  that  you  are  ready  to  follow  me. 
If  anything  could  cause  you  to  hesitate  It  would  be  the  Fear 
of  coming  back  without  wreaking  vengeance  on  the  Renards. 
But  re^  assured  on  that  point.  I  promise  you  that  we  shall 
not  see  Olar  land  again  without  being  loaded  with  the  spoils  of 
Our  Enemies." 

But  this  discourse  must  not  be  delivered  until  we  are  ready 
to  March  so  that  the  Boute  may  Be  kept  secret. 

I  am  sure  That  this  word  carried  by  an  Officer  who  is  beloved 
and  esteemed  by  the  savages,  will  have  all  the  effect  that  can 
be  desired.  And  thus  the  heaviest  item  of  expenditure  in  the 
last  Campaign  against  the  renards  will  be  reduced  to  a  trifle. 
Perhaps  we  may  have  to  incur  some  expense  in  connection  with 
certain  chiefs.  But  I  promise  that  it  cannot  be  Considerable. 

Thus  the  expense,  as  far  as  the  savages  are  concerned,  is 
reduced  almost  to  nothing.  Let  us  now  see  what  it  may  Amount 
to  for  the  Bemainder  of  the  party. 

As  it  is  advisable  to  pass  by  the  lakes,  both  for  the  purpose 
of  Inviting  the  I^ations  who  are  well  disposed  to  join  us,  and 
owing  to  the  Advantage  of  using  the  armed  Canoes  both  for 
fishing  And  hunting  and  in  order  to  Show  ourselves  In  arms 
to  the  iroquois,  it  is  also  Advisable  in  order  to  make  use  of  our 
soldiers  in  preference  to  the  settlers — who  are  not  so  well  dis- 
ciplined and  who  would  Cost  Much  more — to  take  this  easier 
Boute  on  which  all  the  men  may  be  of  use. 

One  hundred  soldiers  selected  from  among  all  the  troops  to 
whom,  if  deemed  expedient,  50  settlers  may  be  added,  would 
be  sufficient  for  That  expedition. 

But  let  us  suppose  150  soldiers  .  .  .      150 

"/  Ero'm  the  villages  of  saut  St  Louis  and  saut  des  recollets     300 

^  nepissingues  or  Algonkins,  fifty  .  .  .        50 

hurons  from  detroit,  one  Hundred  And  Fifty  .      150 

Outawas  and  poutwatamis  from  the  same  place  .      200 



1730]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

TLus  we  have  over  800  men  of  whom  I  am  sure,  without  Count- 
ing the  iroquois  of  the  Villages  And  some  Missisagues^  if 
Needed.  Even  this  number  is  excessive  in  my  opinion  And 
there  is  a  greater  Fear  of  there  being  too  many  rather  than 
too  few  owing  to  the  pleasure  that  those  IN'ations  would  have  in 
taking  part  in  the  destruction  of  the  Renards. 

I  Think  that  to  Command  that  party  five  or  six  officers  would 
be  Better  than  a  larger  number,  and  it  would  avoid  trouble  And 
expense.  There  should  also  be  a  chaplain,  a  surgeon,  and  two 
interpreters.  The  bulk  of  the  cost  of  the  armament  would 
consist  of  this. 

As  for  the  soldiers,  it  would  only  be  necessary  to  give  each 
man  an  additional  ration  of  half  a  livre  of  flour.  And  a  quarter 
of  a  livre  of  pork;  ten  livres  of  tobacco;  to  each  two  livres  of 
powder  And  lead;  four  pots  of  brandy;  with  lines  and  hooks. 
Half  a  livre  of  flour  per  diem  for  150  men  makes 

per  month  .  .  .2325  livres 

of  flour 
And  for  five  months  .  .  .11625 

A  quarter  of  a  livre  of  pork  per  diem  for  150  men 

pork  makes  per  month  .  .1162  ^S- 

And  for  five  mouths  .  .  .5812 

This  may   Amount  In   all  tO'   3   livres   more  per 

month  for  each  soldier,  making  for  150  soldiers 
And  for  five  months  .  .  .2250 

But,  inasmuch  as  provisions  of  That  kind  are  too 

bulky  And   for  the   Reasons   above   Set  forth. 

There  would  be  supplied  to  each  soldier  In  the 

place  And  stead  of  his  bread  and  pork,  the  fol- 
lowing, Namely: 
for  each  month  a  Minot'^  of  Indian  Corn         .        2  livres  10 
a  Minot  of  peas  idem  .  .        2       "      10 

1  An  Algonquian  tribe  inhabiting  the  northern  shore  of  Lake  Huron, 
and  the  peninsula  of  Upper  Canada. — iEd. 

2  For  these  measures,  "livre"  and  "minot,"  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi, 
pp.  195  and  252.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

ten  pounds  of  fat  at  6  sols  .  .  3  livres 

which  is  equal  to  the  Ordinary       .  .  8  livres 

rations  with  the  supplementary  allowance,  And 
Consequently  the  Extra  expense  will  be  only  two 
thousand  two  Hundred  and  twenty  Five  livres     2225 
for  the  Five  months  for  150  soldiers.     Add  to  this 

4  pots^  of  brandy  making  600  pots  at  1  livre       600 

Also  ten  pounds  of  tobacco  for  each  at  6  sols  per 

pound  making  for  150  men  1500  pounds  at  6 

sols        .  .  .  .450 

also  300  pounds  of  powder  at  1  livre  12  deniers       480 

also  for  lines  and  hooks  .  .50 

Making  the  sum  of       .  .  .3805 

Cost  of  Transport 

25  Canoes  will  be  needed  with  6  men  per  Canoe ; 

The  bark  Canoes  will  come  to  150  livres  each 

making  the  sum  of  .  .      3750 

which  amount  will  be  reduced    if    the    Wooden 

Boats  at  Montreal  belonging  to  the  King  are 


Cost  of  the  outfits 

20  ells  of  linen  are  needed  for  each  Canoe  for 
sails,  with  a  tarpaulin  to  Cover  the  provisions 
And  40  ells  for  sacks,  making  60  ells 
And  for  25  Canoes  fifteen  Hundred  ells  at  1  livre 

10.  per  ell,  2750   .  .  .        2750  livres 

The  surplus  will  be  given  to  the  Savages 

also  25  kettles  or  Boilers  at  15  livres  .  375  livres 

also  25  axes  at  4  livres  .  .  100 

also  150  peddles  at  10  sols  .  .75 

1  Concerning  this  measure,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  424. — Ed. 


1730]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

also  50  Barrels  at  30  sols 

also  10  Brasses  of  rope  per  Canoe 

75  livres 

Expenses  of  6  officers;  A  chaplain, 
A  surgeon  And  2  interpreters 

Five  tents  at  30  livres  each.            .                       .  150 

Five  Casks  of  wine   .                       .                       .  400 

three  Casks  of  brandy                      .                       .  300 

for  provisions,  one  thousand  livres                         .  1,000 

A  Medicine  Chest  500  livres         .                       .  500 

the  Surgeon's  pay     .                       .                       .  600 

repairing  the  arms  of  the  savages  .                       .  1,000 
thread  and  making  of  sails,  tents,  tarpaulins,  and 

sacks  at                   .                     .              *       .  300 

Other  war  expenses 

for  6000  livres  of  powder  at  1  livre  12  deniers    6,600  livres 

for  6000  livres  of  Bullets  and  4,000  livres  of  lead    3,000  livres 

400  swords  at  2  livres 

400  daggers  at  1  livre 

six  coats  laced  with  imitation  gold  with  hats  And 

Also  500  pairs  of  savage  sKoes 

twenty  suitable  guns  at  30  livres   . 

twenty  shirts  at  3  livres 

10  livres  of  vermilion,  awls,  gun-screws,  and  gun- 
flints  500  livres 

One  Hundred  and  Fifty  Collars  to  be  given  away 
at  2  livres 






500  livres 


total  expenditure 


from  which  everything  deemed  superfluous  may  be  struck  off. 
It  will  be  easy  to  repay  in  two  years  the  advances  made  of 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

That  sum  by  the  Court  both  by  means  of  the  Permits  for  the 
tipper  country  that  are  sold  and  that  sometimes  amount  to 
25,000  livres  per  annum,  and  of  the  produce  of  detroit  which 
is  not  Included.  The  poorest  families  will  be  able  to  do  with- 
out it  for  The  time  being,  and  they  will  derive  a  greater  benefit 
therefrom  through  That  derived  by  the  Colony. 

It  but  remains  for  me  to  speak  of  the  line  of  Conduct  to  be 
followed  in  order  to  ensure  success. 

The  matter  must  be  kept  secret  until  the  spring  when  we 
start,  so  that  the  renards  may  not  Know  of  it. 

It  will  be  time  to  notify  our  settled  Savages  when  they 
return  from  hunting,  and  to  start  at  the  end  of  the  Month  of 
May;  But  we  shall  send  a  Canoe  when  the  ice  breaks  up  to 
detain  the  savages  of  detroit  Until  the  arrival  of  the  army. 

When  the  junction  is  effected  at  the  post,  We  shall  leave  it 
by  land  and  the  army  will  be  posted,  in  accordance  with  the 
information  we  may  have  of  the  renards'  retreat,  Between  river 
St  Joseph  And  them  so  as  to  cut  off  all  Communication  between 
them  and  the  savages  of  That  post,  all  of  whom  are  their  friends 
and  allies,  And  aho  with  the  French  traders  who  sell  them 

We  shall  refuse  the  seorvices  of  the  said  savages  of  river  St 
Joseph  if  they  should  wish  to  join  Us,  Convinced  as  we  must  be 
that  their  sole  design  is  to  save  the  Renards  By  betraying  our 

When  we  shall  have  carefully  approached  the  enemy  to  within 
a  distance  of  a  few  day's  march,  they  laden  ^vith  the  old  men, 
the  women,  and  the  Children,  will  no  longer  be  In  a  position  to 
fly,  before  light  and  fresh  troops;  besides  which  they  cannot 
fly  and  live  on  their  hunting  at  the  Same  time. 

We  shall  find  the  Benards  unprovided  with  arms  and  Muni- 
tions And  food.  And  no  Nation  will  dare  to  give  them  refuge 
when  they  see  at  their  heels  a  party  determined  to  destroy  them. 

Thus  when  it  shall  be  decided.  As  it  Should  be,  to  spend  the 
winter  in  their  country  Where  they  will  not  dare  to  Scatter 
because  they  will  have  to  keep  their  wives  And  Children,  they 


1731]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

must  perish  by  hunger,  or  come  and  cast  themselves  imder  the 
Blows  of  their  Enemies. 

Particular  care  must  he  taken  In  the  selection  of  Officers 
suitable  for  this  expedition  who  should  be  Young,  Vigorous, 
And  Willing;  on  whom  reliance  can  be  placed  in  unforeseen 
Events ;  And  who  have  had  Experience  in  Managing  savages. 

We  should  be  able  to  leave  the  other  Measures  that  may  have 
to  be  taken  To  Him  who  will  be  honored  by  the  choice  of  the 
Court,  for  it  is  impossible  to  foresee  or  to  enumerate  in  a 
Memorial  all  the  Circumstances  that  may  call  into  play  the 
skill,  the  Vigilance,  And  the  wisdom  of  an  Officer,  especially 
with  Nations  to  whose  character  One  is  often  Obliged  to  Con- 



[Extract  of  a  letter  of  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister.     Source, 
same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  55,  c.  11,  fol.  5.] 


I  have  no  doubt,  Monseigneur,  that  you  have  learned,  by 
way  of  the  Mississipi  of  the  defeat  of  the  Renard  savages  that 
happened  on  September  9th  last,  in  a  Plain  situated  between 
the  River  Wabache  and  the  River  of  the  Illinois,  About  60 
Leagues  to  the  south  of  The  Extremity  or  foot  of  Lake  Michi- 
gan, to  The  East  South  East  of  le  Rocher  in  the  Illinois  Coun- 

^     150  French  both  from  Louisiana  and  from  Canada,  and 

1  J.  F.  steward,  of  Chicago,  in  an  address  delivered  before  the  Illinois 
Historical  Society,  Jan.  24,  1902,  endeavors  to  identify  this  fort  of 
the  Foxes  with  a  place  on  Fox  River,  in  Kendall  County,  111.,  and 
has  erected  there  an  inscription  to  that  effect.  This  place,  however, 
is  north  of  '^Le  Rocher"  (a  well  known  appellation  of  a  place  on  the 
Illinois  River,  see  ante,  p.  3),  while  according  to  this  document,  the 
battle  ground  was  "East  South  East."  Mr.  Steward's  identification  pos- 
sibly corresponds  to  the  Fox  fort  on  "Lake  Marameek,"  which  was 
attacked  in  1732.     See  post,  p.  173. — Ed. 

[  129  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

many  savage  Tribes,  to  the  number  of  8  or  900  men,  stopped 
them,  blockaded  them  in  their  fort  and  compelled  them  to 
issue  from  it  through  press  of  hunger ;  And  they  pursued  them, 
killing  200  warriors;  200  women  or  Children  met  the  same 
fate,  and  the  remainder  to  the  number  of  4  or  500,  also  women 
and  Children,  were  made  Slaves  and  scattered  among  all  the 
Nations.  Messieurs  de  Villiers,  the  Commandant  at  the  River 
St  Joseph;  des  Noyelles,  the  commandant  among  the  Miamis; 
and  Messieurs  de  St.  Ange,  Officers  in  Louisiana,  behaved  with 
all  the  bravery  and  Prudence  that  could  be  expected  of  Them. 
Monsieur  de  Yilliers,  Lieutenant  of  the  Troops,  who  was  the 
senior  officer,  had  the  Command  of  this  Expedition.  We  Were 
greatly  mortified,  Monseigneur,  at  not  being  the  first  to  convey 
Information  of  this  happy  success  to  you.  Monsieur  the  gen- 
eral had  despatched  the  Sieur  Villiers,  the  younger,  who  was 
present  in  The  action,  to  convey  The  news  to  you ;  But  The  ac- 
cident that  happened  to  the  Ship,  le  BeatiJiamois,  Prevented  ffis 
doing  so. 

I  have  the  honor  to  send  you  by  this  ship,  Duplicates  of 
several  of  my  Letters,  the  first  whereof  relates  to  Monsieur  de 

Lignery's  affair. 


I  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 


Quebec,  January  15th,  1731. 


1731]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

1731:     RIVALRY    OF    THE    ENGLISH;    CONDITIONS    AT    UPPER 


[Memorandum,  dated  Feb.  13,  1731,  on  projects  for  checking  the 
English  trade  with  the  Indians,  submitted  to  Beauharnois  and  Hoc- 
quart,  with  their  replies  thereon.  Source,  same  as  preceding  docu- 
ment, but  vol,  56,  c.  11,  fol.  294.] 

A  letter^  was  written  to  Messieurs  de  Beauharnois  and  Hoc- 
quart,  on  May  2,  1730,  respecting  the  importance  of  break- 
ing off  the  Trade  relations  between  the  savages  and  the  English, 
as  it  was  to  be  feared  that  frequent  intercourse  between  them 
might  detach  the  savages  from  us  through  their  taking  their  furs 
to  the  English.  [It  was  suggested]  That  the  post  of  Detroit 
was  Established  partly  with  that  purpose.  That,  nevertheless, 
the  Miamis  and  Ouyatanons,  amongst  whom  we  maintain  gar- 
risons,^ take  the  greater  portion  of  their  furs  to  the  English. 
This  is  due  to  the  difficulty  experienced  by  the  French  Voya- 
geurs  in  going  to  those  illations  on  account  of  the  various 

iThis  letter,  of  which  a  summary  follows,  would  seem  to  have  been 
due  to  the  instigation  of  De  Noyan,  and  his'  plan  for  the  Detroit  post. 
See  ante.  p.  107. — Eu. 

2  The  French  post  among  the  Miamis  was  erected  about  1712,  when 
these  Indians  migrated  eastward  and  settled  on  the  river  that  bears 
their  name  (Maumee).  The  fort  was  on  the  right  bank,  at  the  site 
of  the  present  city  of  Fort  Wayne,  Ind.  In  the  Indian  revolt  of  1748, 
the  post  was  partially  burned.  After  its  surrender  to  the  English 
(1760-61),  Fort  Miami  was  garrisoned  by  a  small  detachment,  whose 
commander,  Ensign  Holmes,  was  massacred  at  the  beginning  of 
Pontiac's  Conspiracy  (1763),  by  being  decoyed  without  the  walls. 
The  fort  was  not  rebuilt  until  the  Americans  placed  a  garrison  here, 
after  the  battle  of  Fallen  Timbers  (1794),  named  in  honor  of  the 
victor.  Fort  Wayne. 

The  Ouiatanon  post  was  on  the  site  of  an  earlier  trading-house  at 
the  mouth  of  Wea  River.  It  was  established  as  a  military  garrison 
between  171^  and  1718,  being  located  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Wabash, 
about  four  miles  below  the  present  city  of  Lafayette,  Ind.  No  English 
garrison  was  maintained  here,  after  its  capture  by  Pontiac's  warriors 
(1763).  Relics  of  the  old  French  fort  have  been  found  at  this  place. 
See  Craig,  "Ouiatanon,"  Indiana  Historical  Society  Publications,  ii. 
No.  8.— Ed. 

9  [131] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvn 

portages/  That  therefore  it  might  be  advisable  not  to  continue 
those  two  posts,  That  of  Detroit  being  sufficient,  since  the  sav- 
ages, to  whom  the  trouble  of  transportation  costs  nothing,  could 
go  thither. 

That,  in  order  to  derive  from  the  post  of  detroit  all  the  ad- 
vantages that  were  expected  therefrom,  it  might  be  expedient 
to  take  away  the  trade  of  that  post  from  the  Commandant,  so  as 
to  make  his  authority  respected.  To  order  him  very  expressly 
to  prevent  all  Frenchmen  from  ranging  the  forests  under  the 
pretext  of  trading  or  Hunting  as  this  makes  the  savages  despise 
them  and  leads  to  quarrels  between  them  and  the  voyageurs. 

That,  to  compensate  the  Commandant  for  the  loss  he  may  suf- 
fer through  Trade  being  made  free,  it  would  be  necessary  that 
every  Canoe  be  required  to  bring  him  without  charge  a  certain 
weight  of  goods  for  his  subsistence ;  that  he  be  also  granted  some- 
thing by  License,  a  portion  whereof  might  be  set  apart  for  the 
expenses  of  the  almoner,  and  of  the  Interpreter,  and  for  pres- 
ents to  be  given  the  savages.  This  could  not  fail  to  be  productive 
of  good  results,  since,  instead  of  giving  Permits  for  the  posts 
amongst  the  Miamis  And  Ouyatanons,  they  would  be  given 
solely  for  detroit,  and  a  certain  reduction  should  also  be  made  in 
order  that  the  Voyageurs  may  be  able  to  give  these  goods  to  the 
savages  at  better  prices. 

That  it  appears  that  the  same  might  be  done  for  the  post  of 
Missilimakinac.  That  they  were  to  communicate  their  ob- 
servations thereon. 

They  reply.  That,  in  order  to  break  off  that  Trade  completely, 
it  would  be  necessary  that  the  posts  of  Magara  and  fort  de 
frontenac  be  always  well  supplied  with  trading  Goods,  which 


iThe  route  from  Detroit  followed  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Maumee.  On  that  river  was  a  long  portage  at  the  rapids, 
near  the  entrance  of  the  Au  Glaize  River.  The  length  of  the  portage 
from  the  headwaters  of  the  Maumee  to  those  of  the  Wabash  depended 
upon  the  season;  in  dry  times  it  was  nine  miles  long,  in  wet  seasons 
being  sometimes  reduced  to  two  miles.  See  "Journals  of  George 
Croghan"  in  Thwaites,  Early  Western  Travels  reprints  (Cleveland, 
1904),  vol.  i.— Ed. 


1731]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

would  be  very  easy  when  the  King's  Ship  arrives  early  as  it 
did  this  year.^ 

That,  as  regards  the  post  of  detroit  and  in  order  also  to  prevent 
the  English  from  Trading  with  the  savages,  it  would  be  impor- 
tant to  carry  out  the  views  that  prevailed  when  the  fort  was  first 
Established,  beginning  by  putting  a  strong  garrison  there  to 
enable  the  Commandant  to  maintain  order  and  make  himself 
respected  by  the  French  and  by  the  savages. 

That  the  proper  way  to  prevent  intercourse  between  the  sav- 
ages and  the  English  would  be  to  compel  the  Miamis  and  Ouya- 
tanons  to  go  to  detroit  for  what  they  need  by  not  allowing  the 
Voyageurs  to  take  the  same  to  them.  But,  they  think,  it  is  to  be 
feared  that  the  English  may  go  to  the  savages,  who  would  receive 
them,  in  the  belief  that  the  French  had  abandoned  them ;  and  it 
is  beyond  a  doubt  that  if  we  abandon  a  single  one  of  our  posts, 
the  English  will  at  once  establish  themselves  there.  Thus,  they 
think  it  more  expedient  to  strengthen  those  we  have  than  to 
weaken  them  by  compelling  one  iN'ation  to  go  to  another  for  what 
it  needs,  all  the  more  so  that  it  seems  to  them  dangerous  to  gather 
the  various  savage  nations  together  in  one  spot  lest  they  might 

The  Ouyatanons  were  brought  into  the  Government  of  Louisi- 
ana by  the  Sieur  de  Vincennes  who  has  completely  removed 
himself  from  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Government  of  Canada.  In 
order  to  force  that  l^ation  to  return  to  the  Miamis  to  obtain 
what  it  needs,  Monsieur  de  Beauharnois  had  at  first  proposed  to 
allow  no  Yoyageur  to  go  in  that  Direction.  This  would  have 
been  carried  out  had  he  not  been  compelled  to  grant  such  permis- 
sion to  certain  Frenchmen  to  induce  them  to  convey  Missionaries 
to  the  Tamarois  who  took  a  quantity  of  Goods  which  they  will 
trade  at  the  old  post  in  the  usual  way.^ 

The  Sieur  de  Boishebert,  who  went  up  to  Detroit  last  Sum- 
mer to  take  command,  carries  on  no  Trade  whatever  there  and 

1  iMarginal  notes  on  MS.  :   "What  is  asked  for  is  being  sent  regularly.' 
"Monsieur  Hocquart  can  well  supply  these  two  posts." 
2 Marginal  note  on  MS.:     "Approved." 
3 Marginal  note  on  MS.:     "Approved." 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

would  not  enter  into  partnership  witli  anybody  by  means  of  the 
permits  he  sells  for  that  post/  He  has  assumed  all  the  expense, 
both  of  the  almoner,  of  the  interpreter,  of  the  presents  to  be 
given  the  savages,  and  of  the  garrison.  This  has  pleased  all  the 
iVoyageurs,  of  whom  a  greater  number  than  usual  have  gone  up 
this  year;  thus  goods  will  be  cheaper.  This  is  one  of  the  best 
means  of  attracting  the  savages  there,  and  making  the  place 

Monsieur  de  Beauharnois  will  make  no  change  without  receiv- 
ing fresh  orders,  all  the  more  so  that,  inasmuch  as  the  Sieur  de 
Boishebert  carries  on  no  Trade,  this  seems  in  accordance  with 
Monseigneur's  intentions. 

Another  way  to  make  detroit  flourish  would  be  to  maintain  a 
garrison  of  50  or  60  men  there."  The  Commandant  would  then 
be  in  a  position  to  make  himself  respected  by  the  French  and  by 
the  savages.  This  would  make  it  an  important  establishment  at 
the  head  of  the  country  which  would  keep  the  nations  in  awe 
and  frustrate  the  plans  of  the  English.  The  same  might  be 
done  for  Missilimakinac  which,  nevertheless,  would  not  possess 
the  same  advantages  as  Detroit,  and  which  would  be  on  a  firm 
footing  only  when  the  latter  is  thus  established. 

1  Marginal  note  on  MS.:  "Good  that  he  has  been  placed  there."  Louis 
Henri  (or  Charles)  Dechamps,  Sieur  de  Boish6bert,  was  born  in  1679. 
In  1721,  he  married  Louise  Genevieve  de  Ramezay,  daughter  of  the 
Canadian  governor.  His  term  of  service  at  Detroit,  beginning  in  1730, 
redounded  to  his  credit,  and  he  was  later  placed  in  charge  of  Indian 
affairs  for  the  entire  colony.  In  1754,  he  was  in  command  in  Acadia, 
and  served  there  throughout  the  French  and  Indian  War  (1754-63). 
A  contemporary  account  thus  characterizes  him  (1761):  "Very  rich. 
Reported  to  have  abused  his  commandership  in  Acadia." — Ed. 

2 Marginal  note  on  MS.:     "Cannot  be  done." 

[  134  ] 

1731]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


[Document  in  Margry,  Decouv.  et  Etabl.,  vi,  pp.  563-567.] 

Quebec,  June  6th,  1731. 

Charles,  Marquis  de  Beauharnms,  Knight  of  the  military 
order  of  Saint  Louis,  governor  and  lieutenant  general  of  the 
King  in  the  ivhole  of  New  France. 

In  virtue  of  the  orders  addressed  to  us  by  the  King's  Memorial 
of  May  14th,  1726,  respecting  the  establishment  of  a  com- 
mandant and  of  two  missionaries  in  the  Sioux  country,  to  com- 
ply with  His  Majesty's  intentions,  We,  in  the  presence  of  Mon- 
sieur La  Chassaigne,^  governor  of  this  town  of  Montreal,  of 
Monsieur  Michel  de  La  Rouvilliere,  commissary  general  of  the 
Marine  in  the  said  town,  and  of  Monsieur  de  La  Come,  King's 
lieutenant  in  the  said  government,  have  settled  and  determined 
the  articles  of  engagement,  and  the  demands  of  the  undersigned 
interested  in  the  Sioux  company  as  follows : 

First  Article. — That  the  entire  trade  of  the  Sioux  country 
shall  be  granted  and  permitted  to  the  persons  hereinafter  named 
towit:  one  canoe  to  the  sieur  de  Portneuf,^  the  officer  second  in 
command  at  the  said  post;  another  to  one  Campeau,  working 
for  the  Reverend  Jesuit  Father,  the  missionary  at  the  said  post ; 
anotlier  to  the  sieurs  Mouet,^  Linctot  the  younger,  and  Cou- 
longe ;  another  to  Giguieres  and  Toussaint ;  another  to  Eiichard 

1  Jean  Bouillet,  Sieur  de  la  Chassaigne,  was  born  in  1659,  and  entered 
the  service  in  Canada.  In  1690,  he  was  in  command  at  Lachine;  in 
1698,  was  the  governor  of  Montreal.  He  married  a  sister  of  Longueuil, 
Iberville,  and  Bienville,  and  died  at  Montreal  in  January,  1733. — Ed. 

2  This  was  probably  Pierre,  son  of  Ren§  Robineau,  Sieur  de  Portneuf. 
The  latter  was  a  French  officer  of  distinction  in  King  William's  War 
(1689-97),  being  second  in  command  in  the  attack  on  Salmon  Falls, 
N.  H.  (169(7).  Since  he  died  in  1726,  this  must  be  his  son,  Pierre,  born 
in  1708.  In  1740,  Pierre  was  engaged  in  the  Chicasaw  expedition,  and 
in  1760,  was  sent  on  a  mission  to  the  Shawnee. — >Ed. 

3  The  Sieurs  Mouet  were  Didace  Mouet,  Sieur  de  Moras,  born  in 
1701,  died  in  1763;  and  Augustin,  Sieur  de  Langlade,  famous  as  Ihe 
first  settler  of  Wisconsin.  For  biographical  notice  of  the  latter,  see 
Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  viii,  p.  124.- -Ed. 

[  135  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

and  Dubau ;  another  to  Pierre  and  Charles  Le  Due ;  another  to 
Gujon  Desprez  and  Saint  Michel  du  Chesne;  and  the  last  to 
Antoine  Lanoiiette  and  Joseph  Joliette  ;^  for  three  full  and  con- 
secutive yearsi,  to  the  exclusion  of  all  others  so  that  nobody 
shall  be  permitted  to  go  there  or  to  send  one  or  more  canoes 
without  the  consent  of  the  said  Company;  and  if  anybody  of 
whatsoever  quality  and  condition  he  may  be  should  go  there  to 
trade,  that  the  officer  commanding  shall  be  at  liberty  and  he  is 
even  ordered  to  have  the  goods  confiscated,  one  half  thereof  shall 
belong  to  the  King,  and  the  other  half  to  the  said  Company. 

That  the  said  interested  parties  shall  not  trade  nor  hunt  in 
the  direction  of  Point  Chagouamigon  nor  anywhere  else  except 
in  the  hunting  grounds  whither  the  Sioux  go,  and  that  on  the 
side  of  la  Baye  they  shall  likewise  go  only  into  the  Sioux  hunt- 
ing grounds  without  their  being  permitted  to  trade  on  the  Ouis- 
consin  or  at  the  portage  by  which  they  must  pass  to  reach  the 
Sioux,  which  shall  serve  as  the  boundary  for  both  parties. 

Second  Article, — That  they  shall  not  build  forts  nor  houses 
equivalent  to  the  same  in  the  hunting  grounds,  but  only  in.  the 
place  where  the  commanding  officer  shall  establish  his  post. 

Third  Article. — That  the  said  interested  parties  shall  have 
permission  to  send  up  to  the  Sioux  country  during  the  next  two 
years  such  number  of  canoes  as  they  may  deem  advisable. 
Should  the  prospects  of  the  profit  to  be  gained  in  the  trade  be^ 
come  greater,  in  order  to  induce  them  to  increase  the  quantity 
of  goods  and  the  number  of  canoes  to  be  sent  thither,  the  share  at 
present  owned  by  each  of  the  associates  shall  be  increased  in  the 
sajne  proportion  as  tlie  whole  trade  generally;  and  the  prefer- 
ence as  regards  such  post  shall  be  granted  them  at  the  expiration 
of  the  said  three  years  at  such  price  as  we  may  deem  proper  to 

Fourth  Article. — ^Should  they  be  stopped  on  the  way  in  tEe 

lOf  these  Canadian  traders  but  little  is  known;  Guyon  dit  Desprez 
belonged  to  the  family  of  Dubuisson;  Antonie  Rivard  diif  Lanouette  was 
born  in  1693,  and  died  in  1762;  Joseph  Jolliet,  born  in  1710,  was  a 
grandson  of  the  famous  explorer,  being  the  son  of  his  son,  Jean  Bap- 
tiste.— Ed. 

[  136  ] 


1731]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

country  of  the  Eenards  or  beyond,  or  should  they,  when  they 
reach  the  Sionx  country,  he  compelled  by  superior  force  to  return 
this  year,  they  shall  be  permitted  to  trade  their  goods  wherever 
they  think  proper,  under  the  orders  of  the  commanding  officer, 
who  shall  have  power  to  decide  the  destination  of  each  one  in 
such  a  manner  as  he  may  deem  most  expedient  for  the  welfare 
of  the  King's  service  and  that  of  the  Colony. 

Fifth  Article. — That  all  of  tlie  said  interested  parties  who 
may  be  compelled  thereto .  through  illness  or  domestic  reasons, 
shall  be  at  liberty  to  abandon  the  trade  and  to  return  to  it  before 
the  expiration  of  the  three  years,  in  such  manner  nevertheless 
that  no  one  shall  leave  the  Sioux  country  without  the  express  per- 
mission in  writing  of  the  commanding  officer. 

Sixth  Ar^ticle. — That  no  associate  shall  transfer  his  sk3»to 
either  wholly  or  partially  except  to  persons  of  good  character, 
free  from  scandal  of  every  kind  and  who  will  not  interpose  any 
obstacle  to  the  establishment  of  Religion  amongst  that  great  num- 
ber of  barbarous  peoples,  so  that  God's  blessing  may  rest  on  their 
persons  and  trade.  The  associates  must  obtain  the  written  per^ 
mission  of  the  commandant  to  transfer  their  shares. 

Seventh  Article. — That  all  the  associates  and  all  persons  in 
their  employ  are  forbidden  to  absent  themselves  from  the  fort  to 
be  built  there,  for  the  purpose  of  returning  to  Montreal  or  of 
going  anywhere  else,  or  even  for  the  purpose  of  hunting,  when  it 
is  necessary  to  sleep  away  from  the  post,  without  the  express 
permission  of  Monsieur  the  commandant. 

Eighth  Article. — That  the  said  associates  bind  themselves  to 
leave  as  a  guard  for  the  fort  two  men  per  canoe,  not  including 
the  servants  of  messieurs  the  officers  and  missionaries,  and  that 
they  may  employ  the  others  in  conveying  their  furs  to  Montreal 
and  in  bringing  back  goods  therefrom,  and  that  at  all  times 
twelve  men  shall  remain  in  the  fort  and  shall  not  go  out  of  it 
under  any  pretext  whatsoever. 

Ninth  Article. — That  when  they  shall  leave  the  said  post  they 
shall  be  at  liberty  to  sell  the  houses  they  may  have  built  fof 
themselves  and  on  their  private  account,  as  well  as  the  grain  that 
may  be  growing  on  the  lands  they  may  have  cultivated. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

And  in  return  for  tlie  above  concessions  tlie  said  interested 
parties  undertake : 

First  Article. — To  build  a  fort  of  stakes,  properly  strength- 
ened, one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  square  with  four  bastions,  and 
they  shall  supply  1032  stakes  and  more  if  needed ;  a  chapel,  a 
house  for  the  commanding  officer,  and  one  for  the  missionaries, — 
the  whole  in  such  place  and  in  such  manner  as  may  be  decided 
upon  by  the  commanding  officer,  whom  they  promise  to  obey 
and  listen  to  in  everything  he  may  command  them  for  the  King's 
service,  the  discipline  of  the  post,  and  the  welfare  of  the  colony. 

Second  Article. — They  imdertake  to  have  conveyed  free  of 
cost  from  this  town  whatever  may  be  given  them  as  provisions 
for  the  commanding  officer  and  the  presents  for  the  Savages 
which  His  Majesty  shall  send  to  the  said  place,  and  in  addition 
the  said  sieurs  Mouet^  Linctot  the  younger,  -and  'Coulongle^ 
Giguieres,  and  Toussaint,  Richard,  and  Dubeau,  Pierre  and 
Charles  Le  Due,  Guyon  Desprez,  and  Saint  Michel  du  Chesne, 
with  Antoine  Lanouette  and  Joseph  Joliette  promise  and  bind 
themselves  to  pay  the  sum  of  2,400  [livres]  in  each  of  the  said 
three  years  when  the  canoes  reach  the  sieur  Linctot,^  the  com- 
mandant of  the  post  in  the  Sioux  country,  on  condition  that  the 
said  sieur  Linctot  shall  not  carry  on  any  trade  at  the  said  posi^ 
either  directly  or  indirectly.  Done  with  the  agreement  and 
consent  of  Monsieur  the  Governor  general  and  in  the  presence  of 
the  said  messieurs  de  La  Ohassaigne,  Michel  de  La  Rouvilliere 
and  de  La  Come. 

Third  and  last  Article. — And,  in  addition,  the  said  interested 
parties  bind  themselves  to  leave  in  the  said  post  when  they  shall 
start  from  it  in  the  spring  at  least  four  good  canoes,  to  avoid 
accidents  that  might  arise  in  case  of  necessity,  and  for  such  pur- 
pose they  shall  be  bound  to  buy  a  sufficient  number  of  the  same 
in  passing  by  Missilimakinak. 

The  said  associates  have  agreed  to  everything  above  set  forth 
and  have  consented  that  if  any  of  them  should  infringe  any  of 

iFor  biographical  notice  of  Ren6  Godefroy,  Sieur  de  Linctot,  who 
was  born  in  1675  and  married  to  Madeleine  Lemoyne,  see  Wis.  Hist, 
Colls.,  xvi,  p.  380. — Ed. 


1731]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

the  above  articles  he  shall  be  severely  punished  and  shall  forfeit 
all  his  rights. 

And  after  reading  the  articles  of  demands  and  undertakings 

bove  set  forth,  the  said  interested  parties  have  consented  to 

out  everything  therein  contained,  and  have  accepted  all 

■the  charges,  clauses,  and  conditions  above  stipulated;  and  for 

e  fulfilment  thereof  they  have  signed  with  us,  with  the  excep- 

on  of  Giguieres  and  Toussaint,  Pierre  and  Charles  Duchesne 

,nd  Dubau — who  declared  that  they  were  unable  to  write  and 

ign  their  names — and  the  sieur  Linctot,  the  commandant,  has 

"with  our  consent  signed  on  behalf  of  the  sieur  Coulonge  who  is 


Done  at  Montreal  the  6th  of  June,  1731. 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  1,  1731. 
MS.  in  archives  of  Ministere  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Can- 
ada, Corresp.  gen.,  vol.  54,  c.  11,  fol.  360."] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  havc  the  honor  to  Send  you  herewith  the 
words  brought  me  by  the  two  new  chiefs  of  the  Eenards,  who 
came  down  this  Summer  to  Montreal,  on  behalf  of  the  remnant 
of  that  nation.  I  have  kept  one  and  sent  back  the  other  to 
bring  me  next  year  four  of  the  principal  men  and  to  tell  the 
others  what  is  set  forth  in  the  answer  I  gave  to  those  two  chiefs. 
This  is  annexed  to  the  words  of  those  savages,  who  are  at  Last 
reduced  to  begging  for  the  lives  of  those  who  remain ;  this  I  have 
granted  them  on  the  condition  that  they  Carry  out  what  is  set 
forth  in  that  answer. 

The  joy  the  defeat  of  that  nation  has  caused  to  all  the  others 
has  been  so  great  that  this  Summer  savages  from  all  parts  came 
to  Montreal  to  express  the  satisfaction  they  felt,  and  to  assure 
me  of  their  fidelity  to  the  French.     In  fact  they  gave  proof  of 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

it  by  their  conduct  Toward  the  Eenards  against  whom  they  Had 
all  declared  themselves ;  and  the  majority  of  them  took  part  in 
the  Blow  struck  them;  by  the  Sieur  de  Villiers.  l"ranquillity, 
for  so  many  years  disturbed  in  the  upper  country,  will  now 
reign,  and  Enable  us  to  continue  our  Establishments  there.  I 
thought  first  of  all  of  that  amongst  the  Sioux,  that  had  to  be 
abandoned  owing  to  the  proximity  of  that  nation  (the  Renards) 
through  whose  territory  it  was  necessary  to  pass  to  reach  the 
former ;  and  I  sent  back  a  party  there  this  year  under  the  same 
conditions  of  the  arrangement  I  had  made  when  the  post  was 
first  Established  amongst  those  savages  (as  you  will  see,  Mon- 
seigneur,  by  the  Copy  we  have  the  honor  to  append  to  the  answer 
to  the  King's  memorandum^ . 

It  seemed  to  me  no  less  important  to  think  of  the  post  of  la 
Baye  which  we  had  been  compelled  to  abandon  for  the  same 
reasons  as  in  the  case  of  that  amongst  the  Sioux.  To  that  End  I 
sent  Monsieur  de  Villiers,  on  his  return  from  his  Expedition, 
to  restore  that  Post  as  it  had  been  prior  to  its  Evacuation,  in  the 
event  of  his  finding  the  Sakis  likewise  disposed  to  rebuild  their 
Village.  I  deemed  it  advisable  to  provide  at  first  for  the  re- 
establishment  of  those  two  posts,  all  the  more  so  that,  inasmuch 
as  the  Obstacles  caused  by  the  Eenards  to  that  amongst  the  Sioux 
no  longer  existed,  we  should  be  in  a  Position  to  derive  therefrom 
all  the  advantages  we  expected.  On  the  other  hand,  this  was 
needed  for  the  success  of  the  Undertaking  of  the  Sieur  de  La 
Veranderie,  in  so  far  that  it  is  absolutely  necessary  that  that 
nation  be  in  our  interest,  to  allow  of  our  trading  with  the  Assini- 
boils  and  Cristinaux,  through  whose  country  one  must  pass  to 
proceed  to  the  discovery  of  the  western  sea.  The  latter 
[Cristinaux]  have  had  an  affray  with  the  Sauteux  of  the  point  of 
Chagoiiamigon,  and  killed  some  of  their  men.  But  I  consider 
the  affair  settled  and  will  see  that  those  savages  live  in  peace 
in  future.  Quarrels  between  those  nations  would  greatly  preju- 
dice all  our  Enterprises,  for  the  success  whereof  it  is  necessary 
to  have  tranquillity,  which,  I  am  pleased  to  see,  reigns  through- 
out the  upper  country,  and  which  I  will  maintain  as  far  aa 
lies  in  my  power. 

r  140 1 


1731]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

I  have  the  honor  to  he  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig* 

neur,  Your  very  hnmble  and  very  obedient  servant 

Quebec,  October  1st,  1731. 

P.  S.  Although  I  have  had  the  honor  to  Send  you  the  de- 
tails of  the  defeat  of  the  Renards,  I  append  a  Copy  to  this 

1731:     POST  OF  DETROIT 

[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated, 
Oct.  1,  1730.  MS.  in  archives  of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press- 
mark, "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  57,  c.  11,  fol.  227."] 

Monsieur  de  Beauharnois  Sends  the  Plans  of  Detroit  drawn 
up  by  the  Sieur  de  Boishebert,  the  Commandant  of  that  Post 
They  are  annexed  hereto. 

That  officer  reached  his  post  about  the  end  of  the  month  of 
October,  1Y30.  He  found  the  Establishment  but  little  ad- 
vanced considering  that  it  was  commenced  over  30  years  ago. 
He  made  a  Map  of  it  from  Lake  Erie  to  Sainte  Claire.  He 
also  made  a  plan  of  the  settlements  and  by  means  of  that  Map 
and  of  that  Plan  we  are  in  a  position  to  know  that  quarter  and 
what  can  be  Done  there.^  The  Climate  is  fine^  the  Lands  are 
very  good  and  can  produce  everything  that  grows  in  France 
in  the  province  of  Guienne.  After  his  arrival  he  had  nothing 
more  at  heart  than  to  induce  the  French  to  till  the  Soil.  They 
have  sowed  much  more  seed  than  usual  and  the  harvest  will  be  at 
least  double  what  it  has  been  in  former  years. 

Those  who  had  charge  of  this  Establishment  at  the  beginning 
reserved,  in  the  locality  where  they  placed  it,  only  a  small 
piece  of  Land  for  the  French  and  even  that  is  the  worst  part, 
and  they  ceded  the  best  land  to  the  Savages;  so  that  if  this 

1  Marginal  note  on  MS. :  "Good  we  are  convinced  that  this  officer  will 
do  his  best  to  place  this  Establishment  on  the  footing  on  which  It 
should  and  must  be." 

[  141  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

Colony  increases,  it  will  be  necessary  for  the  settlers  to  divide 
up  in  various  places. 

As  soon  as  the  Savages  have  gone  to  the  Woods  for  their 
winter  hunting  he  will  Make  a  voyage  in  Lake  Sainte  Clair 
and  in  Lake  Huron  and  will  draw  up  a  Map  of  the  same  which 
he  will  send  next  year/ 


[The  following  extracts  from  the  yearly  oflacial  report  of  Beau- 
harnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated,  Oct.  12,  1731» 
are  those  portions  that  relate  to  the  upper  country.  Source,  same  as 
preceding  document,  hut  fol.  136-176.] 


**  -X-  ^  *  *  *  * 

The  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  has  observed  with  pleasure  the 
satisfaction  that  his  Majesty  has  had  at  the  defeat  of  the  E^n- 
ards.  He  has  had  the  honor  of  sending  him  the  particulars  of 
this  affair"  via  isle  Royale  and  new  england.  As  the  Sieur 
Lefevre's  ship  by  which  he  had  at  first  sent  them,  was  com- 
pelled to  put  back,  although  he  is  convinced  that  his  Majesty 
is  at  present  informed  of  the  matter,  he  appends  a  Cbpy^  to 
which  I  take  the  Liberty  of  adding  the  news  written  to  Him 
by  The  Sieur  De  Boishebert,*  the  Commandant  at  Detroit 
respecting  the  blow  inflicted  by  the  Illinois  on  the  remainder 
of  the  Renard  nation,  since  the  attack  made  by  the  Sieur 

The  Sieur  De  Beauhamois  has  the  honor  to  write  you  in  a 
private  letter  what  has  occurred  since  that  affair,  and  the  steps 
that  he  has  taken  to  restore  tranquillity  in  the  Upper  Couutiy* 
He  has  seen  what  is  written  to  Him  with  respect  to  the  action 

1  Marginal  note  on  MS.:     "Approved." 

2 Marginal  note  on  MS.:     "Extract  with  the  memorial  annexed  to  the 
private  letter." 
3 Marginal  note  on  MS.:     "Annexed  to  a  private  letter." 
4  See  preceding  document. — Ed. 

[  142  ] 


1731]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

taken  by  the  Sieur  du  Buisson  against  That  nation,  of  which 
his  Majesty  seems  to  disapprove  by  recommending  him  to 
expressly  forbid  the  Commandants  of  Posts  to  take  such  steps 
in  any  Case.  His  majesty's  intention  will  be  observed  in 
future,  but  he  ventures  to  take  The  liberty  of  remarking  to  him, 
that  after  the  failure  of  the  expedition  against  the  Kenards  in 
1728,  there  seeanied  to  Him  no  better  way  of  destroying  them 
than  to  give  orders  as  he  did  to  the  officers  at  the  posts  to 
watch  their  actions,  and  to  take  advantage  of  the  dispositions 
in  which  they  might  find  the  nations  with  regard  to  attacking 
the  E/cnards;  while  he  nevertheless  explained  to  those  officers 
that  they  were  not  to  attempt  anything  unless  there  was  some 
prospect  of  success,  and  that  they  were  not  to  cause  his  Majesty 
to  incur  any  great  expense.  It  was  in  obedience  to  these  orders 
that  the  Sieur  de  Villiers  acted,  and  that  we  have  succeeded  in 
almost  totally  destroying  that  nation.  Moreover,  This  affair 
that  his  Majesty  entrusted  to  the  Sieur  De  Beauhamois  had  to 
be  carried  out  as  he  has  done  in  order  to  comply  with  his 
Majesty's  Designs  of  utterly  destroying  those  savages,  and  to 
neglect  nothing  to  attain  that  end.  There  seems  to  be  no  more 
suitable  or  less  costly  methods  than  those  adopted  by  the  Sieur 
de  Beauhamois  and  he  ventures  to  hope  that  his  Majesty  would 
always  approve  Him'  in  such  cases.^ 

The  Sieur  De  Beauhamois  has  deemed  advisable  not  to 
await  his  Majesty's  orders  to  have  the  Post  re-established  among 
the  Scioux,  which  we  had  been  obliged  to  abandon  owing  to  its 
proximity  to  the  Eenards,  through  whose  country  we  had  to 
pass.  The  necessity  of  preserving  the  friendship  of  a  nation 
which  has  given  us  proofs  of  its  attachment  by  its  conduct 
Toward  the  Eenards,  has  led  Him  to  forestall  his  Majesty's 
intentions  in  the  Matter  And  to  benefit  by  the  advantages  offered 
Him  by  the  defeat  of  the  Eenards. 

The  Sieur  De  Beauhamois  has  the  honor  to  submit  to  you, 
Monseigneur,  the  reasons  that  determined  his  action  by  a  private 
letter  to  which  he  appends  a  note  respecting  the  joumey  of  the 

1  Marginal  note  on  MS.:     "Extract  with  private  letter.' 

I  143  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

Sieur  La  Veranderie  who  also  asked  for  tlie  re-establisliment  of 
that  Post,  in  order  to  place  us  in  a  position  to  Establish  a. 
Trade  with  the  assiniboels  and  the  Christinanx^  through  whose 
country  we  must  pass  to  discover  the  Western  sea.  Moreover, 
Afl  this  Post  occasions  no  fresh  expense  to  his  Majesty,  The 
Sieur  De  Beauharnois  came  more  readily  to  the  determination 
of  re-establishing  it  and  the  reasons  that  led  Him  to  hasten  this 
re-establishment  are  in  accordance  with  what  You  do  him  The 
honor  of  writing  tO'  him  on  the  subject. 

We  append  to  this  a  copy  of  the  agreement  made  by  the 
Sieur  De  Beauharnois  with  the  Voyageurs  who  have  undertaken 
to  convey  the  Commandant  and  The  missionary  there,  and 
whichi  is  similar  to  that  entered  into  when  the  post  was  first 

[In  a  document  (Archives  of  Ministere  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press- 
mark, "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  57,  c.  11,  fol,  231")  which  is  a  copy 
of  this  year's  report  for  the  use  of  the  government,  with  answers 
annexed,  this  additional  matter  is  found:  "Of  the  first  October,  1731. 
Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Beauharnois  writes  that  those  voyageurs 
represented  to  him  that  as  the  trade  of  that  Post  is  given  to  them  only 
for  3  years,  they  cannot  indemnify  themselves  for  the  expenses  they 
are  obliged  to  Incur  in  connection  with  that  Establishment,  if  they  are 
not  allowed  the  privilege  for  a  Jfth  year.  As  he  did  not  wish  to  change 
anything  in  the  first  agreement,  he  contented  himself  with  telling 
them  that  he  would  ask  for  orders  On  the  subject.  He  observes  that 
those  traders  Are  about  the  same  as  those  who  commenced  this  Estab- 
lishment and  that  the  compulsory  evacuation  of  that  post  caused  +hem 
great  loss,  for  which  they  might  be  indemnified  by  granting  their 
request."  On  the  margin  of  both  portions  relating  to  the  Sioux,  ia 
written :  "Approved."] 

*  «  *  *  *  *  -5^* 

The  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  has  also  the  honor  to  assure  his 
Majesty  that  the  latter  will  Continue  to  be  satisfied  with  hia 
efforts  in  keeping  savages  who  are  allies  of  France  in  his  inter- 
ests and  in  Tnaintaining  peace  and  tranquillity  between  tho'Se 
Nations.     He  observes  with  pleasure  that  both  now  reign  in 

iFor  the  origin  and  location  of  these  tribes,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls., 
xvi,  p.  189. — Ed. 

[  144  ] 

1731]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

ihe  upper  Countries  anci  that  the  care  that  lie  has  taken  to 
obtain  this  result  since  he  has  been  in  The  Colony  has  had  the 
success  that  he  hoped.  Tranquillity  at  the  Posts  could  be 
secured  only  by  reducing  The  Eenards  to  the  extremity  in 
which  they  now  are.  Their  defeat  not  only  procures  peace  for 
all  the  other  N^ations  but  it  will  also  serve  to  restrain  the  latter 
and  cause  the  French  name  to  be  respected  among  them. 

The  Sieur  De  Beauharnois  has  ascertained  this  year,  from 
the  submission  and  resignation  of  all  the  savages  to  the  King's 
will,  the  impression  produced  upon  their  minds  by  That  war. 
The  Change  that  he  has  found  in  their  thoughts  has  confirmed 
his  opinion  as  to  the  necessity  that  existed  of  destroying  a 
nation  as  wicked  as  it  was  pernicious  to  the  Colony.  He  will 
always  make  it  his  Duty  to  second  his  Majesty's  intentions  and 
to  watch  over  everything  that  may  tend  to  secure  The  welfare 
and  the  tranquillity  of  the  Colony. 

It  is  not  at  Niagara  alone  that  the  retrenchment  of  brandy 
has  caused  The  falling  off  in  the  Trade ;  it  has  also  diminished 
at  detroit.  Many  savages  of  the  upper  Country  are  in  the 
hal)it  of  coming  down  in  The  hope  of  getting  brandy  there. 
The  Voyageurs  fearing  the  penalties  set  forth  in  the  order  of 
Monsieur  The  Coadjutor,  have  ceased  to  sell  any,  although  it 
was  distributed  with  the  discretion  that  we  recommended  to 
the  Sieur  De  Boishebert  who  Commands  at  that  post.  With 
regard  to  the  more  remote  posts  the  Sieur  De  Beauharnois  has 
allowed  the  Voyageurs  to  take  only  the  quantity  that  they  need 
for  their  Journey :  four  pots  per  man. 

While  the  Savages  were  at  Montreal  we  caused  The  prohi- 
bitions hitherto  enacted  to  be  renewed.  But  we  venture  to 
admit  to  his  Majesty  that  if  we  had  acted  too  severely  in  en- 
forcing them,  all  the  savages  would  have  gone  away  without 
buying  anything,  and  would  have  taken  The  greater  portion 
of  their  furs  to  the  English. 


The  Sieurs  De  Beauharnois  and  hocquart  have  seen  what  is 
written  to  them  with  respect  to  the  retrocession  to  his  Majesty 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

by  tlie  Companj  of  the  Indies  of  the  Province  of  Louisiana  and 
of  the  Illinois  Country/  We  consider,  Monseignenr,  that  it  is 
right  that  the  Illinois  savages  should  he  subject  to  this  Govern- 
ment, because  the  Governor-general  is  in  a  better  position  than 
the  Governor  of  Louisiana  to  give  his  orders  there,  and  to  be 
informed  of  what  is  going  on  in  connection  with  the  nations. 
Moreover  those  savages  who  came  down  to  Montreal  this  Sum- 
mer have  asked  it  of  the  Sieur  De  Beauhamois  as  you  will  be 
pleased  to  see  by  the  copy  of  the  words  "^  that  we  have  the  honor 
to  append  hereto  and  to  which  we  take  the  liberty  of  adding 
that,  by  means  of  our  establishments  among  the  Miamis  and 
Wiatanons,  it  is  easier  for  The  Illinois  to  procure  what  they 
need  from  those  Posts  than  from  Mississipi  owing  to  the  dif- 
ficulty that  the  voyageurs  of  that  place  encounter  and  The  time 
that  they  take  in  going  five  or  six  hundred  Leagues  up  a  rapid 
Hiver  to  reach  those  savages,  who  ask  The  Governor-general  to 
be  Their  father  as  he  is  to  the  other  nations,  because  they  hope 
in  future  to  obtain  from  this  quarter  the  aid  that  they  cannot 
easily  receive  from  the  Mississipi.  The  Pianguichias  have 
brought  words  to  detroit  to  be  sent  to  the  Sieur  De  Beauhamois 
which  you  will  receive  by  a  private  despatch. 

The  Islinois  went  back  very  well  satisfied  with  the  promise 
given  them  by  the  Sieur  De  Beauhamois  to  look  upon  them  as 
upon  his  other  children;  and  we  hope  that  his  Majesty  will 
change  nothing  in  this  respect.  The  Sieurs  de  Beauhamois  and 
hocquart  will,  moreover,  act  in  concert,  as  much  as  the  dis- 

1  Marginal  note  on  MS. :  "Extract  with  private  letter  of  Monsieur 
de  Beauhamois."  For  the  memoir  of  the  king  announcing  this  trans- 
fer, requesting  information  about  the  location  of  the  Illinois  country, 
whether  it  should  be  annexed  to  Canada  or  Louisiana;  and  requesting 
co-operation  with  the  governor  and  intendant  of  the  latter  colony,  see 
Hi.  Y.  Colon.  Docs.,  ix,  p.  1025.— Ed. 

2 Marginal  note  on  MS.:  "Monsieur  de  Beauhamois  appends  it  to 
one  of  his  despatches."  On  the  copy  of  this  document,  prepared  for 
the  use  of  the  government  (Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  58,  c.  11,  fol. 
229),  is  written:  "There  is  reason  to  believe  that  when  the  Savages 
took  this  step  they  were  not  aware  that  the  King  had  taken  back  Louisi- 

[  146  ] 

L731]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

tance  will  permit,  with  tlie  Sieurs  Perrier^  and  Salmon  in 
everything  ttat  may  procure  the  mutual  advantage  of  botli 
Colonies.  The  former  have  already  begun  to  place  themselves 
in  communication  with  the  latter,  and  the  Sieur  De  Beauhamois 
has  accordingly  written  to  the  Sieur  De  Vincennes,  who  com- 
miands  among  the  Wiatanons,  and  has  recommended  him  to 
devote  all  his  attention  to  frustrating  the  attempts  that  the 
English  might  make  to  prevent  communication  between  that 
Province  and  Canada,  and  to  prepare  those  Savages  to  second 
Monsieur  Perrier  in  case  he  should  take  any  action  against  the 
Chicachas,  whom  he  points  out  to  the  Sieur  De  Beauhamois  as 
being  the  instigators  of  the  attack  by  the  'Nach.ez  upon  the 
French  of  the  Mississipi.  The  Wiatanons  are  in  a  better 
position  to  harass  The  Chicachas  and  to  give  the  Sieur  Poirier 
The  aid  that  he  asks  in  this  quarter  in  case  his  Majesty  should 
order  Him  to  punish  that  nation.^ 

We  are  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your  very 
humble  and  very  obedient  Servants, 



Quebec,  October  12th,  1731. 

iPerier  was  governor  of  Louisiana  from  1726-33.  He  was  an  officer 
of  the  marine,  and  knight  of  the  order  of  St.  Louis.  When  he  waa 
relieved  of  the  governorship  by  Bienville,  he  returned  to  France,  being 
promoted  to  a  lieutenant-generalship.  Later,  he  served  in  a  campaign 
in  St.  Domingo. — 'Ed. 

2  On  the  question  of  the  Illinois  country,  and  whether  it  should 
be  joined  to  Canada  or  Louisiana,  on  a  copy  prepared  for  the  use  of 
the  government  (Canada,  Corresp.  gen.,  vol.  58,  c.  11,  fol.  228),  is 
endorsed:  "Await  the  reply  of  Messrs.  Perrier  and  Salmon."  This 
proved  convincing  enough  to  retain  the  Illinois  under  the  Louisiana 
government. — Ed, 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister.  MS.  in  the  archives 
of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n., 
vol.  54,  c.  II,  fol.  419."] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  have  the  honor  to  Send  you  hereunto  an- 
nexed an  Extract  from  a  letter  addressed  to  me  by  the  Sienr  de 
Boishebert  to  whom  It  was  written,  respecting  the  Attack 
recently  made  by  the  Ilinois  Upon  the  remnant  of  the  Henards. 
Although  I  have  granted  them  their  lives  on  the  conditions  that 
I  had  the  honor  of  mentioning  to  you,  The  savages  appear  to 
me  to  be  inclined  to  wipe  out  the  race,  and  I  shall  Maintain 
them  in  that  disposition  If  the  Renards  fail  to  do  what  they 
promised  me. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig- 

neur,  your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant 

Quebec,  October  10th,  1731. 


[Extract  from  an  account  sent  by  Boish6bert  to  Beauharnois,  dated 
Feb.  28,  1732.  MS.  in  archives  of  Ministere  des  Colonies,  Paris; 
press-mark,  "Canada,  corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  57,  c.  11,  fol.  298."] 

Forty  Seven  Iroquois  from  the  Lake  of  two  Mountains^  who 
were  Invited  by  laforest,  the  first  Chief  of  the  hurons,  came 
here  last  autumn  for  the  purpose  of  going  to  war  with  the 
hurons  against  the  Renards.  When  they  reached  this  Post 
nearly  all  the  young  men  of  the  Outaouacs  and  Poutouatamis 
had  started  for  their  winter  hunt.  Some  Chiefs  gave  Collars 
to  the  hurons  to  detain  them  until  the  Spring,  promising  them 
that  all  their  young  men  would  Follow  them.     The  hurons  re- 

1  These  were  the  mission  Iroquois,  settled  in  Canada,  at  the  Lake 
of  Two  Mountains  (a  widening  of  the  Ottawa  River  near  its  mouth). 
This  mission  was  founded  in  1717,  and  had  drawn  together  a  village 
of  converted  Iroquois. —  Ed. 


1732]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

plied  that  it  was  impossible  for  the  Iroquois  to  wait  so  long 
and  to  return  to  their  Village  Without  first  going  to  seek  their 
common  Enemy.     As  the  Iroquois  were  unprovided  with  Muni- 
tions of  war,  they  asked  me  for  some ;  these  I  deemed  advisable 
to  supply,  as  well  as  the  instructions  which  they  begged  me  to 
give  them  Respecting  the  Eoute  they  should  Follow,  so  as  not 
to  be  mistaken  with  regard  to  the  N'ation  they  were  to  attack. 
They  started  on  the  17th  of  October  to  the  number  of  124, 
IN'amely :  Y4  hurons,  46  Iroquois,  and  4  Outaouacs.     This  small 
army  reached  the  River  St.  Joseph  after  a  few  days'  march  and 
found  that  the  Poutouatamis  had  left  for  their  winter  Hunt. 
They  passed  on  and  went  to  Chicagou,  and  as  they  had  some 
sick  men  with  them,  they  built  a  fort  there,  and  left  some  of 
their  people  in  it  to  guard  them.     Some  Poutouatami  Chiefs 
came  to  them  during  their  Stay  there  to  beg  them  to  wait  until 
the  Spring  when  they  would  march  with  them ;  but  they  would 
not  listen  to  their  proposal  and  Continued  their  Route  as  far 
as  the  Kicapoiis,  who  were  frightened  at  first  on  their  arrival, 
and  made  the  same  proposal  to  them  that  the  Poutouatamis  had 
made.     They  would  not  agree  to  it  and  pushed  on  to  the  Mas- 
eoutins  who  were  pretty  badly  frightened.     The  hurons  reas- 
sured them  and  tried  to  Induce  them  to  join  their  party;  But 
they  replied  that  it  Would  be  too  risky  and  that  even  if  they 
joined  together  they  Would  not  be  able  to  destroy  the  Renards 
who  were  very  numerous.     The  hurons  and  Iroquois,  who  found 
themselves  at  a  distance  of  more  than  250  Leagues  from  home 
and  almost  In  the  Enemy's  country,  asked  the  Maskoutins  for 
10  men  to  guide  them  to  the  Boundaries  that  enclosed  the  Chil- 
dren of  Onontio.^     This  was  granted  to  them  and  they  pro- 
ceeded toward  the  Ouisconsin.     The  guides  told  our  savages 
that    they    were    On    the    Enemy's    Soil ;    that    they    had 
only     to     march     straight     before     them     Without     Devi- 
ating, that  they  would  meet  nothing  but  Renards;  and  then 
these  guides  returned  to  their  Village.     The  hurons  and  Iro- 
quois marched  some  days  more,  when,  as  many  among  them  and 

iThat  is,  the  tribes  friendly  to  the  French. — Ed. 

[  149  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

especially  the  Old  men  suffered  from  hunger  and  fatigue 
caused  by  the  deep  Snow  which  compelled  them  to  Use  Snow- 
shoes,  they  held  a  council  and  several  of  the  Old  men  thought 
that  they  should  turn  back.  The  young  men  were  not  of  the 
same  Opinion,  and  stated  that  they  had  not  come  So  far  for 
the  purpose  of  returning  Without  striking  a  blow  and  one  of 
them  added  that  he  would  perish  rather  than  go  back  to  BCis 
Village  Without  having  killed  some  men.  Two  of  the  most 
notable  among  the  huron  Chiefs  said  that  they  were  in  good 
health  and  that,  although  they  were  Old  men,  they  Felt  strong 
enough  not  to  give  up  the  undertaking.  The  little  army  Broke 
up ;  the  Old  men,  both  hurons  and  Iroquois,  went  back  toward 
Chicagou ;  while  the  others,  I^amely  40  hurons  and  30  Iroquois, 
Followed  the  Eoute  that  led  to  the  Ouisconsin.  After  several 
days'  march.  About  11  o'clock  in  the  morning,  they  perceived 
in  a  prairie  three  men  who  were  coming  to  meet  them.  These 
were  three  Eenards  who  took  to  flight  as  soon  as  they  saw 
them.     Our  people  pursued  them  thinking  that  they  Came  from 

4  or  5  Cabins  of  which  they  had  been  told;  but  they  were 
greatly  surprised  when  they  reached  the  top  of  a  Hill  to  see  46 
Cabins  in  a  -f alley  on  the  bank  of  the  Ouisconsin  (This  was  the 
principal  village  of  the  Eenards).  fThe  Chiefs  Encouraged  the 
young  men,  telling  them  that  they  had  nothing  to  fear;  that 
they  had  to  deal  with  dogs  who  did  not  acknowledge  the  master 
ofjifej  The  Eenards  who  had  been  warned  by  the  three  men 
and  had  had  time  to  seize  their  Weapons,  came  out  to  the  num- 
ber of  90  to  attack  our  people  who  Eeceived  their  volley  and 
replied  to  it  by  two  volleys  in  succession.  The  Chiefs  told  the 
Young  men  not  to  amuse  themselves  by  shooting;  they  made 
them  lay  down  their  guns,  and  with  a  tomahawk  in  one  hand 
and  a  Dagger  in  the  other  they  forced  the  Eenards  back  into 
their  Village;  they  Pursued  them  so  closely  and  so  great  was 
the  Carnage  that  YO  of  the  Eenards  were  killed  On  the  spot, 
and  14  were  made  prisoners ;  80  women  and  Children  were  also 
killed,  and  140  of  them  were  captured.  Besides  10  Eenards  who 
Escaped  quite  naked  and  who  died  of  cold.     The  hurons  had 

5  men  killed  and  several  wounded.     Finally,  after  this  Attack 


|a732]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

they  "unbound  a  Renard  Chief  who  was  wounded  in  the  thigh  and 
after  dressing  his  wound,  they  Sent  him  with  ,6  women  to  tell 
the  remainder  of  His  l^ation  that  the  hurons  and  Iroquois  had 
just  eaten  up  their  chief  Village  where  they  would  remain  for 
two  days;  that  if  the  Renards  wished  to  Follow  them  they 
were  free  to  do  so  but  that  as  soon  as  they  would  see  them  they 
would  begin  by  breaking  the  heads  of  all  their  women  and 
Children  ;  that  they  would  make  a  Rampart  of  their  dead  bodies 
and  aftenvard  would  endeavor  to  pile  the  remainder  of  the 
Kation  on  top  of  them.  The  Renard  Chief  proceeded  to  a 
small  fort  of  nine  Cabins  On  the  bank  of  the  Mississipy.  As 
soon  as  he  arrived  there  those  who  were  in  the  fort  Sent  word 
to  three  Cabins  that  had  detached  Themselves  from  it  some 
time  before  to  warn  them  of  the  blow  that  had  been  struck. 
The  Sieur  Dorval  and  two  other  Frenchmen  who  had  left 
Montreal  with  Monsieur  De  Linctot  for  the  post  among  the 
Scioux,  were  at  those  three  Cabins  at  the  time.  Monsieur  de 
Linctot  who  had  been  unable  to  reach  His  destination  the 
previous  autumn,  had  built  a  fort  On  the  Mississipy  at  a  Place 
called  the  Mountain  whose  foot  is  bathed  by  the  Water  (la 
Montague  qui  trempe  dans  V  Eau),^  About  30  Leagues  above 
the  Mouth  of  the  Ouisconsin,  where  finding  Himself  short  of 
Provisions  he  had  been  compelled  to  disperse  a  portion  of  His 
people  to  live  among  the  savages.  A  Renard  chief  of  these 
three  Cabins  told  the  said  Sieur  Dorval  that  it  was  their  Father 
Onontio  who  caused  them  to  be  killed,  because  the  hurons  and 
Iroquois  never  rose  from  their  Mats  except  upon  His  command. 
He  replied  that  the  hurons  belonged  to  Detroit  and  that  N'o 
doubt  they  had  started  from  there  Without  their  Father  being 
informed  of  their  expedition.  ^'Well,"  said  the  Renard,  "since 
thou  assurest  me  that  the  French  have  nothing  to  do  with  it, 
make  them  give  me  back  three  of  my  Children  whom  they  are 
taking  away."  The  Renards  disarmed  the  Frenchman  and 
Led  him  to  their  fort,  and  thence  to  the  Place  where  their 
people  had  been  killed.     The  Chief  proposed  to  him  to  Follow 

1  Mount  Trempealeau,  near  the  village  of  Trempealeau,  ^Vis. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

our  warriors  to  redeem  His  three  Children,  and  lie  gave  him 
a  Robe  and  17  Beaver  skins  for  their  Ransom.  The  French- 
man accepted  the  errand  and  was  led  by  that  chief  to  the  place 
where  our  Warriors  had  kindled  their  last  fire  and  whither  he 
was  told  to  return  when  he  had  ransomed  the  Children.  The 
Sieur  Dorval  started  and  overtook  the  hurons  with  whom  he 
came  to  Detroit,  well  pleased  with  the  Errand  with  which  he 
had  been  entrusted.  It  is  estimated  that  the  Renards  have 
lost  300  persons,  both  killed  and  prisoners.  The  Warriors 
brought  100  and  some  Slaves  to  Detroit  and  they  have  assured 
me  that  the  number  of  the  killed  and  of  the  prisoners  was  300, 
besides  13  women  and  2  men  whom  they  state  to  have  been 
killed  while  endeavoring  to  Escape  on  the  Road.  From  the 
report  of  these  Slaves  there  would  remain  of  this  nation,  at 
the  most,  30  True  Renards,  some  women  and  Children,  who 
Would  be  very  happy,  they  say,  to  take  refuge  among  other 
!N"ations.  They  added  that  they  were  going  down  to  place  them- 
selves at  their  Father's  mercy. 

[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  enclosing  the  pre- 
ceding document.     Source,  the  same,  but  fol.  296.] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — Monsicur  de  Boishebert  has  just  Sent  me 
news  which  I  have  the  honor  to  communicate  to  you  and  which 
is  all  the  more  welcome  that  it  tells  us  of  the  almost  entire  rout 
of  the  Renards  who  had  Escaped  from  the  attack  Made  on  them 
by  Monsieur  de  Villiers.  Although  I  had  the  honor  of  inform- 
ing you  last  year  that  I  had  granted  the  remnant  of  that  nation 
their  lives  on  the  conditions  that  I  mentioned  to  you,  I  also 
had  the  honor  of  observing  to  you  that  the  huron  Savages  of 
Detroit  had  asked  me  for  permission  to  raise  A  party  for  the 
purpose  of  Attacking  them,  and  of  exterminating  their  race; 
and  they  stated  that  they  would  carry  out  that  undertaking  on 
their  own  account.  My  answer  Was,  Monseigneur,  as  you  may 
have  seen,  that  I  could  not  give  them  such  permission  because 
I  had  granted  the  Renards  their  lives ;  but  that  I  would,  never- 
theless, remain  neutral  in  the  disputes  that  might  arise  between 



17321         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

them — for  I  fully  believed  that  if  I  did  not  Expressly  forbid 
them,  they  would  Carry  out  their  design.  This  they  did  on 
their  arrival  at  their  village,  as  you  will  See,  Monseigneur,  by 
the  Extract  from  the  report  on  the  matter  sent  me  by  Monsieur 
de  Boishebert  which  I  have  the  honor  to  append. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig- 
neur, Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant 


Montreal,  May  23rd,  1732. 

[The  following  document,  «ontaining  additional  details,  is  endorsed: 
"Appendix  to  the  Relation  of  the  defeat  of  the  Renards,  Respecting 
what  gave  the  advantage  to  the  Hurons  and  Iroquois."  Source,  same 
as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  320.] 

The  Snow  being  very  deep  at  the  Spot  where  the  hurons  and 
Iroquois  attacked  the  Eenards  and  put  them  to  flight,  it  was 
Easier  to  destroy  them,  because  the  latter  are  not  in  the  habit 
of  wearing  snow-shoes  and  are  not  as  skillful  in  their  Use  as  the 
hurons  and  Iroquois.  This  gave  our  warriors  a  great  advantage 
Over  them,  and  greatly  contributed  to  the  success  of  the  Expe- 

It  has  already  been  stated  in  the  relation  that  there  were  45 
Cabins  of  Renards  T'ogether,  which  our  savages  attacked,  but 
it  would  be  Surprising  that  there  should  have  been  so  many 
after  the  blow  inflicted  by  Monsieur  de  Villiers,  and  the  others 
that  had  previously  been  struck  at  them,  were  not  this  Explained 
by  the  fact  that  they  had  found  the  secret  of  withdrawing  their 
Slaves  from  all  the  other  l^ations  ^Except  the  Ilinois  who  have 
given  no  quarter  to  any  who  were  among  Them. 

We  must  relate  here  a  circumstance  which  is  as  singular  to 
some  as  it  is  a  matter  of  faith  to  others  and  especially  to  the 
Savages.  } Shortly  before  the  action,  the  hurons  made  medicine/ 
This  was  disapproved  of  by  the  Iroquois,  who  added  that  they 

1  Marginal  note  on  MS.:  "The  warriors  are  in  the  habit  of  rubbing 
themselves  with  a  kind  of  grease  which  they  claim,  preserves  them 
from  the  Effects  of  Bullets  and  of  Arrows." 

[  153  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

should  place  all  their  reliance  in  the  master  of  Life.  The 
hurons  retorted  that  the  others  had  too  much.  But  at  the  first 
volley  the  chief  medicine-man  was  killed  with  4  or  5  of  his 
nation  who  had  like  him  made  use  of  the  medicine.  The 
Iroquois  did  not  lose  a  man  in  the  whole  battle.  They  were 
all  very  assiduous  in  saying  their  prayers  night  and  morning 
throughout  the  journey.  \^ 

The  Iroquois  came  to  see  their  Father  Onontio  on  their 
return  from  the  Expedition,  on  June  5th.  They  told  him 
that  out  of  the  148  prisoners  mentioned  in  the  relation,  The 
hurons  had  killed  56  on  the  way  back,  owing  to  the  difficulty 
they  experienced  in  leading  so  great  a  number,  and  through 
fear  that  they  might  Escape;  And  that  there  might  remain 
About  thirty  True  Kenards  whom  they  would  have  destroyed 
had  they  been  in  the  Village  that  they  attacked;  but  they  were 
in  the  nine  cabins  that  we  have  mentioned.  It  is  presumed 
that  the  Puants  or  other  nations  which  are  Their  Enemies, 
have  destroyed  them;  they  have  been  informed  of  the  Blow 
inflicted  by  our  settled  savages. 

1732:     THE  KING'S  MEMOIR 

[Extract  of  the  yearly  instructions  of  the  King  and  Minister  to  the 

Governor  and  Intendant  of  New  France.    MS.  in  archives  of  Ministers 

des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Collection  Moreau-St.  M6ry,  vol.  10, 

f.  12,  fol.  33."],  April  22nd,  1732. 

His  Majesty,  having  obtained  information  respecting  the 
matters  whereof  the  Sieurs  de  Beauhamois  and  Hocquart  Wrote 
last  year  in  regard  to  the  affairs  of  the  Colony,  has  decided  to 
explain  to  them  His  intentions  Concerning  certain  portions  of 
that  administration. 

Defeat  of  the         l^othing  can  add  to  the  Satisfaction  felt  by 

Renards.         His  Majesty  on  receiving  the  confirmation  of 

the  news  of  the  almost  Total  defeat  of  the 

Renards  in  the  battle  fought  against  that  nation  by  the  detach- 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

ment  Under  the  Command  of  tlie  Sienr  de  Villiers  and  of  the 

Sienr  de  St.  Ange.     This  defeat,  added  to  the  losses  previously 

Inflicted  on  those  Savages  by  the  allied  Savages,  and  to  those 

since  Inflicted  on  them  by  the  illinois,  must  have  reduced  them 

to  such  a  Condition  as  to  remove  all  fears  of  their  rising  again. 

Approves  what  has         His  Majesty  approves  of  the  Sieur  de 

been  done  with        Beauhamois's  having  kept  near  him  one 

regard   to  them.       of  the  two  chiefs   who   came   down   to 

Montreal  to  ask  pardon  for  the  remnant 

of  the  nation,  and  of  his  having  sent  back  the  other  to  get  four 

of  the  principal  warriors  of  the  IsTation  and  bring  them  down 

to  Montreal  next  Summer.     He  likewise  approves  of  his  having 

told  them  that  Otherwise  they  could  not  Hope  for  mercy.     The 

Sieur  de  Beauharnois  will  be  Careful  to  report  everything  that 

occurs  in  connection  with  this.     His  Majesty  is  convinced  that 

he  has  taken  the  proper  measures  to  reduce  that  l^ation  to  such 

a  condition  that  it  no  longer  will  be  able  to  trouble  the  Colony. 

!N'evertheless,  as  the  allied  Savages  seem 

Have  the  remainder     disposed  to  destroy  the  remainder,   he 

of  the  Renards  de-     must  Encourage  them  in  this  disposi- 

stroyed  by  the  allies,     tion,  in  order  that  he  may  be  able  to 

make  use  of  them  when  occasion  offers. 

It  must  not  be  imagined  that  that  !N"ation  will  restrain  itseK 

when  it  Shall  be  in  a  Condition  to  rise;  and  the  best  way  to 

prevent  its  causing  the  same  trouble  to  the  Colony  in  the  Future 

that  it  has  done  in  the  past,  is  to  disperse  those  who  remain 

among  the  other  Nations.     His  Majesty  has  no  doubt  that  he 

has  acted  in  that  Spirit. 

Scioux  —  Approves         His  Majesty  approves  of  the  Sieur  de 
the  re-establishment     Beauhamois's  having,  with  the  view  of 
of  the  post,  profiting  by  the  advantages  of  that  de- 

feat, Taken  steps  to  re-establish  the  post 
of  the  Scioux  which  had  to  be  abandoned  on  account  of  the  war 
with  the  Eenards.  He  also  approves  the  Contract  made  with 
the  Yoyageurs  who  Have  undertaken  to  convey  the  Comman- 
dant and  Missionary  there,  and  would  consider  it  advisable 
that,  in  addition  to  the  three  years  enjoyment  of  that  post  al- 

[  155  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

lowed  those  Voyagenrs  by  the  Contract,  they  Be  allowed  a  fourth 
year  to  compensate  them  for  the  loss  they  suffered  by  being 
compelled  to  Evacuate  the  post  when  first  Established. 
Reasons  for  Moreover,  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  is  aware 

maintaining  of  the  importance  of  that  post,  Both  with  the 
the  said  post,  view  of  fostering  the  friendly  feeling  so  often 
manifested  by  the  Scioux,  And  of  establishing 
trade  with  the  assiniboels  and  the  Christinaux/  His  Majesty 
is  therefore  convinced  that  he  will  devote  all  the  Attention  in 
his    power   to   the   furtherance    of   that   Establishment.     His 

Majesty  also  approves  of  his  having  Sent  the  Sieur 
La  Baye     de  Villiers  to  re-establish  the  post  of  la  Baye  which 

had  to  be  abandoned  owing  to  the  proximity  of  the 
Kenards ;  He  is  convinced  that  that  officer  will  have  found  the 
Sakis  disposed  to  rebuild  their  former  village  there  also.  The 
Sieur  de  Beauharnois  will  report  Later. 

**  *  *  *  *  4f  * 

Ohaouanons.  His  Majesty  has  learned  with  pleasure  that 
the  Chaoiianons  came  down  to  Montreal  last 
Summer  to  ask  the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beauharnois  to  indicate 
the  place  where  he  wished  to  place  them.  He  also  approves  of 
his  having,  with  the  view  of  bringing  them  nearer  to  the  Colony 
and  of  detaching  them  from  the  English,  Sent  the  Sieur  Jon- 
caire  with  them  to  place  them  on  the  ISTorth  bank  of  the  Biver 
Oyo.  He  recommends  him  to  foster  carefully  the  favorable 
disposition  of  that  nation  so  as  to  derive  all  the  advantages  that 
were  expected  in  the  event  of  a  rupture  with  the  iroquois.  It 
is  to  be  hoped  that  they  will  persist  in  the  resolution,  to  which 
they  appeared  to  have  come,  not  to  Endure  the  English;  the 
Sieur  de  Beauharnois  must  be  Careful  to  see  to  this. 

iThe  solicitude  for  the  trade  of  these  two  tribes  was  due  to  the 
pressure  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company.  For  their  location  and  affini- 
ties, see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvl  pp.  189,  190,  408.— Ed. 



1732]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Illinois,  His  Majesty  has  taken  cognizance  of  the  reasons 

IN'atchez  for  which  the  Sieurs  de  Beanharnois  and  Hocquart 
Choctas  consider  it  advisable  that  the  country  of  the  illinois 
Chicachas.  Savages  Should  Be  a  dependency  of  the  general 
Government  of  new  France.  When  he  shall  have 
considered  those  expressed  on  the  Subject  by  the  Sienrs  Perrier 
and  Salmon,  Governor  and  commissary-general  of  Loiiisiana, 
He  will  decide  what  is  most  expedient,  and  Signify  His  inten- 
tions. But,  in  any  case,  whether  that  post  be  retained  or  de- 
tached from  the  Government  of  Louisiana,  it  Will  be  Equally 
a  dependency  of  the  general  Government,  and  the  Sieur 
Marquis  de  Beauhamois  must  devote  the  same  attention  to  it. 
The  Sieur  Perrier,  Governor,  must  have  informed  him  that 
the  E"atchez  ITation  has  not  been  so  thoroughly  destroyed  as  was 
believed,  and  that  there  still  remained  two  or  three  hundred 
warriors  who.  Supported  by  the  Chicachas,  Endeavored  to  in- 
duce the  islinois  to  rise ;  that  the  latter  sent  their  three  ambassa- 
dors to  the  Sieur  Perrier  at  new  Orleans  where  the  Choctas, 
whom  he  induced  to  declare  against  the  Chicachas  went  and 
Burned  them ;  that  the  English  are  making  every  effort  to  con- 
ciliate those  two  ]^ations  and  that  it  is  most  important  to  prevent 
this  for  the  peace  and  preservation  of  that  Colony.  His 
Majesty  recommends  the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beauharnois  to  Con- 
sider what  measures  he  may  adopt  to  further  this.  If  he  could 
succeed  in  getting  some  l^ations  to  join  the  illinois  and  the 
French  in  that  quarter  and  induce,  them  to  strike  the  Chicachas, 
the  latter  would  be  destroyed  or  at  least  compelled  to  keep  quiet 
and  Eeniove  to  a  distance  from  the  Colony.  But,  ini  order  that 
this  may  be  more  Surely  effected,  it  Should  be  done  in  concert 
with  the  Governor  of  Louisiana  who  might  cause  them  to  be 
attacked  at  the  same  Time.  His  Majesty  leaves  everything  to 
the  discretion  of  the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beauharnois,  convinced 
as  He  is  that  he  will  devote  the  same  attention  to  Louisiana  as 
to  Canada.  He  recommends  him  not  to  lose  sight  of  this  object, 
being  careful  nevertheless  to  see  that  it  does  not  entail  too  great 
an  expense. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

With  regard  to  the  Trade  in  Brandy  with  the  Savages,  His 
Majesty  has  approved  of  the  act  of  the  Sieurs  de  Beauharnois 
and  Hocqnart,  last  Summer,  in  repeating 
Giving  Brandy  the  prohibitions  on  the  Subject  and  in  giv- 
to  the  Savages.  ing  orders  to  the  posts  that  liquor  Be 
given  to  the  Savages  only  with  great  Cir- 
cumspection, and  by  making  them  Understand  that,  in  such 
distribution,  the  French  are  actuated  more  by  a  desire  to  please 
than  by  their  own  inclinations.  By  acting  in  this  Spirit,  it  will 
be  possible  to  avoid  the  abuses  that  might  occur  In  such  Trade, 
and  would  lead  His  Majesty  to  prohibit  it,  were  He  not  con- 
vinced that  the  Sieurs  de  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  are  devot- 
ing to  this  matter  all  the  attention  he  has  recommended  them  to 

Moreover,  His  Majesty  has  had  the  Order  Examined  that  tha 
Sieur  Co-adjutor  of  Quebec^  has  issued  on  the  Subject,  and, 
from  the  report  made  to  him  thereon,  He  has 
Mandement  found  that  that  Order  contains  nothing  contrary 
concerning  to  Royal  authority  nor  to  public  order.  He 
brandy.  nevertheless  wishes  him  to  observe  that,  in  addi- 

tion to  the  difficulty  that  will  be  experienced 
by  those  who  are  Far  away  in  having  recourse  to  the  Bishop  in 
the  case  he  has  reserved"  for  himself,  the  provisions  of  such  an 
order  may  cause  alarm  to  those  who  have  charge  of  the  Work^ 
ing  of  the  posts  on  His  Majesty's  account,  and  who  by  His 
orders  distribute  Brandy  to  the  Savages  with  all  the  discretion 
and  circumspection  that  can  be  desired; 
Drawbacks  in  and  it  Is  to  be  feared  that,  inasmuch  as 

connection  with  the  reserved  case  prevents  their  approach- 

the  reserved  case         ing  the  Sacraments,  it  would  degenerate 

1  Pierre  Armand  Dosquet,  Sulpitian  priest,  first  came  to  Canada  in 
1721,  returned  to  Europe,  and  was  consecrated  at  Rome,  being  there- 
upon appointed  coadjutor  of  Monseigneur  Mornay,  the  old  bishop  of 
Quebec.  On  the  resignation  of  the  latter,  Dosquet  became  bishop  in 
1734.— Ed. 

2  Cos  reserve  =  Certain  cases  where  the  bishop  alone  or  somebody 
specially  deputed  by  him  can  grant  absolution. —  Crawford  Lindsay. 



■  I     1732] 

1 1 .. . 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

found  by  Monsieur  into  a  habit,  which  would  be  productive 
Dosquet.  Means  of  a  greater  evil.  His  Majesty  is  con- 
of  avoiding  it.  vinced  that  he  will  find  a  middle  course 

by  which  this  drawback  may  be  avoided. 
The  Sieurs  de  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  will  report  what  may 
happen  in  this  respect. 

On  the  request  made  by  the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beauharnois 
for  some  Medals  for  distribution  to  the  Savage  chiefs  who  may 
deserve  the  same  by  their  good  conduct,  His 
Medals  for  Majesty  has  given  orders  to  send  him  twelve  of 
Savages.  those  struck  on  the  occasion  of  the  birth  of  Mon- 
sieur le  dauphin;  and  he  recommends  him  to  dis- 
tribute them  only  with  full  cognizance  of  the  facts,  to  those 
who,  when  the  opportunity  offers,  may  give  proofs  of  their  at- 
tachment to  the  interests  of  the  ligation.  This  is  the  best  way  to 
maintain  them  in  this  Disposition  and  to  make  them  look  upon 
this  mark  of  honor  as  a  reward. 

*-x-  *  *  *  *  *  * 

Done  at  Versailles  the  12th  of  April  1732 


1732:     SALE  AT  MACKINAC  IN  1728 

[Report  of  Hocquart,  dated  Sept.  1,  1732.  MS.  in  archives  of  Min- 
Istdre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol. 
58,  c.  11,  fol.  27."] 

Statement  of  the  sale  made  by  Monsieur  Demontigny,  Com- 
mandant of  Michilimakinac,^  of  certain  munitions  and  goods 
remaining  there,  in  1728. 

iJean  Fr6d6ric  Phelypeaux,  Comte  de  Maurepas,  was  minister  of  the 
marine  (including  the  colonies),  1723-49. — Ed. 

2 Jacques  Testard,  Sieur  de  Montigny  (called  La  Marque),  was  one 
of  the  most  noted  Canadian  ofRcers  during  the  forty  years  following 
1690.  He  was  born  in  1663,  and  while  an  ensign  took  part  in  the 
attack  upon  Schenectady  (1690),  where  he  was  wounded,  and  there- 
upon  was   promoted   to    a   lieutenancy.    In    1695    he   commanded    in 

1. 159  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 

To  wit: 

rive  guns 

19  livres 

Three  mattocks 


One  plane 

4.     15 

One  coat  and  two  Capotes 


ISJine  shirts  at  40  sols 


Four  ropes  %  (inch)  at  3  livres 

10  sols 

14.       8. 


94.       3     9 
Deduct  for  costs  4.     14 

Total  89.       9.     9 


Made  out  at  Quebec,  September  1st,  1732. 

[Accompanying  this  document  in  the  archives  are  the  followiiig: 

Letter  from  Monsieur  Hocquart  to  the  minister — Quebec,  October  8, 
1732  —  respecting  the  sale  of  munitions  left  at  Michilimakinac. 

Extract  from  a  letter  of  Monsieur  de  Montigny  to  Monsieur  Hocquart, 
—April  2,  1731,  on  the  same  subject. 

Roll  of  those  whom  I  paid  for  the  year  1728  at  Michilimakinac. 

Statement  of  what  I  did  with  the  King's  Goods  remaining  at  Michili- 
makinak  from  the  Campaign  against  the  Renards.i] 

Acadia,  and  the  following  year  distinguished  himself  in  Iberville's 
expedition  to  Newfoundland.  In  this  latter  place  he  led  the  Abenaki 
allies  in  17TTo-06,  making  his  name  a  terror  to  the  English  inhabitants. 
Montigny  surrendered  at  Port  Royal  in  1710,  and  was  sent  to  France, 
soon  after  receiving  the  cross  of  St.  Louis.  When  Charlevoix  journeyed 
to  the  West,  he  accompanied  this  officer  as  far  as  Green  Bay,  where 
he  was  commandant,  1721-23;  promoted  to  the  command  at  Mackinac, 
he  served  from  1730-33  at  this  post,  and  died  in  battle  in  1737.  His 
son,  Jean  Baptiste,  was  a  noted  officer  in  the  French  and  Indian  War 
(1754-63),  and  their  descendants  are  still  prominent  in  Canada. — Ed. 
iThe  two  last  documents  are  signed  by  Lignery. — Ed. 



1732J         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French 
Minister,  dated,  Oct.  1,  1732.  MS.  in  archives  of  Minist6re  des  Col- 
onies, Paris;  press-mark,  "Collection,  Moreau-St.  M6ry,  vol.  10,  f.  12, 
fol.  5."] 


The  Sieur  de  Beaulianiois  has  the  honor  to  inform  you,  Mon- 
seigneur,  by  a  private  letter,  of  the  condition  to  which  the 
Renards  are  reduced,  and  of  the  attack  made  upon  that  nation 
by  the  hurons  and  the  iroquois  of  the  Lake  of  two  Mountains, 
since  That  of  the  sieur  de  Villiers.  He  ventures  to  hope  that 
his  Majesty  will  be  satisfied  with  his  action  on  this  occasion, 
and  with  the  line  of  conduct  that  he  followed  in  making  the 
savages  act  without  leading  the  other  l^ations  to  think  that  It 
was  through  his  orders,  or,  at  least,  that  he  had  any  knowledge 
of  the  action  of  the  hurons  and  Iroquois.  This  policy  seemed 
to  him  to  be  all  the  more  necessary  that  after  granting  the  rem- 
nant of  the  Renards  their  lives  on  the  Condition  that  they  should 
send  him  this  Summer  four  of  the  most  notable  persons  among 
them,  he  was  very  well  pleased  to  show  that  he  kept  his  word 
while  waiting  for  them  to  keep  Theirs.  They  failed  to  do  so  and 
this  induced  The  Sieur  De  Beauharnois  to  send  back  to  them 
The  hostage  in  his  hands,  whom  he  ordered  to  tell  the  remainder 
of  his  nation  that  as  they  had  not  kept  their  word,  he  left  them 
to  the  mercy  of  the  savages  who  are  in  the  Field,  and  resolved 
to  exterminate  their  race. 

*  -X-  *  -X-  *  7f  *  * 

The  Sieur  De  Beauharnois  wrote  this  year  to  the  Command- 
antsi  of  fort  de  Chartres  in  the  Islinois  country,  of  the  Ouia- 
tanons,  of  the  Miamis,  to  urge  their  savages  to  attack  the  Chica- 
chas  whom  they  were  to  consider  as  the  common  enemy  of  all 
the  nations.  He  also,  through  the  sieur  De  Boishebert,  gave 
the  same  notice  to  The  hurons  of  Detroit  who  raised  a  band  to 
attack  the  remnant  of  the  Renards — as  he  did  not  wiph  a  single 
one  to  be  left  alive — that  they  might  also  turn  their  arms 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

against  the  Chicachas.  Althougli  the  Sieur  De  Beauhamoia 
was  not  informed  of  his  Majesty's  intentions  with  respect  to  the 
steps  that  had  to  be  taken  to  destroy  that  nation  and  to  obtain 
tranqnillity  for  that  Quarter,  he  considered  that  one  of  the 
necessary  means  to  be  employed  was  to  canse  a  diversion  among 
The  nations  as  he  has  done. 

It  is  certain  that  the  small  parties  that  from  time  to  time  will 
attack  the  Chicachas  will  greatly  harass  them,  and  reduce  them 
to  such  a  Condition  that  they  will  be  compelled  to  remain  quiet. 
Moreover,  as  they  will  be  harassed  on  the  other  Side  by  the  peo- 
ple under  Monsieur  Perrier,  to  whom  the  Sieur  De  Beauharnois 
has  communicated  the  steps  that  he  was  taking  on  this  side, 
they  mil  be  more  easily  subdued  ;  and  there  seems  to  be  no  better 
expedient  for  succeeding  in  this.  That  of  causing  The  savages 
to  march  and  attack  at  the  same  time  as  Those  who  would  be 
sent  by  Monsieur  Perrier,  would  be  a  good  one,  did  not  the  diffi- 
culty of  assembling  these  nations  in  one  Spot  prevent  its  being 
carried  out.  Another  Reason  is  that  the  savages  do  not  behave 
like  disciplined  Troops,  and  moreover  if  it  were  possible  to 
adopt  this  plan,  it  would  entail  great  expense  upon  his  Majesty, 
and  it  would  probably  have  no  better  effect  than  if  the  Savages 
were  allowed  to  act. 

The  sieur  Perrier  wrote  this  year  to  the  sieur  de  Beauharnois 
that  there  remained  only  about  one  Hundred  men  of  the  [N'atchez 
nation  who  had  sought  refuge  among  the  Chicachas.  It  would 
appear,  Monseigneur,  that  he  is  mistaken;  but  though  there 
may  be  a  larger  number,  we  may  succeed  in  subduing  them  if 
the  assistance  which  he  informed  the  sieur  de  Beauharnois  that 
he  expected,  be  sent  to  Him,  and  if  the  orders  despatched  by  the 
sieur  De  Beauharnois  to  the  Posts  be  executed.  lie  will,  how- 
ever, devote  all  his  attention  to  this  matter  and  will  carry  it  out 
in  The  least  expensive  and  most  suitable  way  for  the  object  we 
have  in  view — the  subjugation  of  that  nation. 

We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 

very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servants, 

Quebec,  October  1st,  1732.  HoCQUAET 

[  162  ] 


1732]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


[Extract   from   a  statement   of   Beauharnois   and   Hocquart   to   the 
French  Minister.     Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  76.] 


We  have  received  the  statements  of  the  funds  appropriated 
this  year  both  for  the  marine  and  for  the  Domain  Which  will  be 
expended  in  accordance  with  their  destination. 

With  reference  to  the  snm  of  21,749  livres,  12  sols,  6  deniers, 
it  is  true  that  The  Statement  that  was  sent  you  concerning  the 
same  last  year  was  very  summary.  Monsieur  hocquart  was 
imable  to  make  it  any  more  complete  as  The  last  Ship  was 
about  to  sail. 

We  have  the  honor  to  forward  you  a  more  detailed  statement. 
This  expenditure  has  not  been  effected  out  of  the  Magazines. 
The  munitions  of  which  it  consists  were  delivered  to  the  Sav- 
ages by  the  French  Voyageurs  by  command  and  on  The  written 
orders  of  the  Officers  commanding  the  various  posts,  which 
orders  were  countersigned  by  the  missionary,  When  one  hap- 
pened to  be  there. 

It  has  always  been  the  custom — And  it  is  unavoidable — to 
give  provisions  and  other  miunitions  to  the  Savages, "When  we 
ask  Them  to  go  to  war.  When  they  are  at  Montreal  or  in  the 
other  places  where  the  King  has  Magazines,  then  this  expendi- 
ture is  included  with  that  incurred  for  presents.  But  every- 
where else,  as  at  detroit,  at  Missilimakinac,  at  River  St  Joseph, 
and  at  the  other  places,  it  is  just  that  the  Voyageurs  should,  on 
their  return,  be  repaid  The  price  of  the  munitions  that  they  have 
taken  to  the  upper  country  for  their  Trade,  and  that  they  de- 
liver on  The  orders  of  the  Commandants  for  exceptional  oc- 
casions, such  as  those  connected  with  war.  Otherwise  the  Offi- 
<jers  commanding  in  the  upper  Country  could  not  carry  out  The 
commands  sent  them  by  the  General. 

When  our  savages  go  on  the  war-path  of  their  own  accord 
without  the  GeneraFs  participation,  such  as  Those  who  are  set- 
ting out  against  the  teste.=i  plates,  that  is  their  affair  and  it  costs 
11  [ 163  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

the  King  nothing.  But  in  The  matter  of  The  Renards,  they  were 
urged  and  solicited  by  us,  and  at  Last  when  Monsieur  The  Mar- 
quis De  Beauhamois  gave  orders  to  the  Commandants  of  the 
various  posts  to  execute  his  Majesty's  commands;  to  urge  The 
savages  to  march  and  to  raise  bands  against  the  Chicachas,  they 
could  not  he  induced  to-  do  so  without  giving  Themi  ou  the  spot 
some  munitions  and  provisions  to  enable  them  to  take  the  field. 
This  is  the  sole  expense  that  these  wars  Entail. 

"We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servants, 



Quebec,  October  9th,  1732. 

P.  S.  The  statement  of  the  expenditure  in  connection  with 
the  last  expeditions  against  the  Renards  which  we  had  The 
honor  to  send  you  last  year,  amounted  to  21,Y49  livres,  12  sols. 
Those  we  send  you  this  year,  to  the  number  of  three,  hereunto 
aimexed,  exceed  that  sum  by  234  livres,  8  sols  owing  to  the 
omission  therein  of  a  receipt  for  an  expenditure  of  like  amount. 

The  first  and  second  of  these  Statements  form  part  of  the 
expenditure  set  forth  in  the  account  of  1730,  to  which  The 
vouchers  are  annexed ;  and  As  there  is  a  surplus  for  the  said 
year,  we  do  not  ask  you  for  the  money  for  the  same  which 
would  amount  to  Y,391  livres  5  sols.  You  will  Observe,  Mon- 
seigneur, in  The  third  statement  how  the  various  items  of 
expenditure  composing  it  are  vouched  for.  This  cannot  be  done 
any  better  in  connection  with  expenses  of  that  nature.  We 
could  not  at  The  time  avoid  paying  The  voyageurs  and  others 
who  are  mentioned  therein^  after,  however,  examining  and  even 
reducing  Their  bills  according  to  the  value  of  the  goods  at  the 
posts  where  they  were  supplied. 

You  are  moreover  aware,  Monseigneur,  that  The  only  way  to 
get  The  savages  to  act  is  to  give  them  food  and  to  equip  them. 


1732]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 



[Letter  from   Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister, 
dated,  Oct.  11,  1732.     Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  95.] 

MoNSEiGNETjE — Yoli  Rsked  US  in  one  of  yonr  despatches  this 
year  for  information  respecting  the  copper  mine  in  Lake  Su- 
perior, a  specimen  of  the  ore  from  which  was  sent  you  by 
Monsietir  De  Beanhamois  in  1728.  All  the  Information  that 
we  have  hitherto  been  able  to  obtain  consists  in  the  continued 
assurance  of  The  sava^-es  that  the  mine  is  in  The  Tonagaun 
River  and  in  the  Eiviere  Noire/  and  there  is  a  constant  tradi- 
tion among  them  that  one  of  the  islands  in  the  Lake  25  Leagues 
from  land,  is  full  of  this  metal ;  That  the  block  of  this  mineral 
lying  on  the  shore  of  the  Lake  to  The  AVest  comes  fromi  one  of 
those  islands,  and  was  carried  there  by  the  ice.^  To  venture  on 
the  discovery  of  those  islands  in  bark  Canoes  is  too  dangerous. 
Lake  Superior  is  a  sea  and  stronger  vessels  with  decks  would  be 
needed  to  go  from  the  main  land  to  the  said  islands.  Some 
savage  Canoes  attempted  to  cross  over  and  were  lost;  probably 
only  one  succeeded  in  reaching  there  and  in  coming  back,  and 
this  has  given  Eise  to  the  tradition  that  is  preserved  among  the 
savages  that  one  or  more  of  those  Islands  are  full  of  a  sub- 
stance suitable  for  making  kettles  (this  is  their  expression) 
which  has  been  reported  to  us  both  by  Monsieur  de  la  ronde^ 
who  spoke  to  the  savages  at  The  time  when  he  commanded  at 
Ohagouamigon,  and  by  The  sieur  De  saint  Pierre,  an  ensign, 
who  lived  9  years  in  that  quarter,  and  who  Knows  the  savage 
Language  better  than  the  savages,  as  they  themselves  admit.* 

iThe  Ontonagon  River  and  the  Black  River  of  the  upper  peninsula 
of  Michigan,  both  of  which  are  indicated  by  these  names  on  Bellin's 
map  of  1T45. — Ed. 

2For  details  of  this  tradition,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  72-76. — Ed. 

3  For  biography  of  Louis  Denys,  Sieur  de  la  Ronde,  see  his  own 
account  written  in  1739,  post.    He  died  in  1741. — Ed. 

4  Jacques  le  Gardeur,  ISieur  de  St.  Pierre  (born  in  1701),  was  the 
grandson  of  Jean  Nicolet,  and  son  of  Paul  le  Gardeur,  Sieur  de  St. 

1 165  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

On  this  Information  which  is  more  than  mere  conjecture, 
Monsieur  De  la  ronde  proposes,  in  the  memorial  which  we  have 
The  honor  to  annex  hereto ;  to  build  two  barks  at  his  own  ex- 
pense: one  on  Lake  Superior  and  the  other  on  Lake  huron  or 
Mchigan ;  in  order  that,  by  means  of  these  barks,  he  may  dia- 
oover  the  islands  in  question,  load  them  with  copper  from  the 
mine  and  transport  the  same  to  Kiagara,  whence  it  can  easily 
be  taken  to  Quebec. 

We  consider  The  Sieur  La  Ronde's  project  a  bo\.a  fide  one, 
all  the  more  so  that  if  he  does  not  set  to  work  The  same  year  to 
build  a  bark  on  Lake  Superior,  he  will  be  deprived  of  the  Com- 
mand and  trade  of  the  post  of  Chagoumigan,  which  he  asks  for  9 
years  to  indemnify  Him  for  the  expense  of  his  undertaking  in 
which  he  associates  with  himself  The  sieur  De  St  Pierre  an 
equally  prudent  and  intelligent  Officer. 

There  is  no  doubt  of  his  good,  faith  nor  of  that  of  Monsieur 
Die  la  ronde,  for  they  will  be  obliged  at  an  early  date  in  the 
Spring  following  the  receipt  of  your  orders,  to  fit  out  at  Mon- 
treal 3  or  4  Canoes  loaded  with  the  rigging  and  the  appliances 
most  needed  for  building  and  navigating  the  vessels  in  ques- 

Plerre,  who  commanded  at  Chequamegon  in  1718.  Jacques  doubtless 
remained  as  a  trader  in  this  region,  and  thus  acquired  his  great  famil- 
iarity with  Indian  languages.  He  became  one  of  the  most  noted 
officers  in  the  service  of  New  France.  He  was  with  Lignery  in  his 
expedition  of  1728,  and  the  next  year  made  a  peace  between  the  Sioux 
and  the  Cree;  from  1734-37  he  commanded  at  Fort  Beauharnois.  In 
1739-40,  he  commanded  against  the  Chickasaw,  and  built  a  small 
fort  in  their  territory.  In  1745,  he  was  in  command  at  Niagara,  and 
the  same  year  relieved  the  French  garrison  on  Lake  Champlain.  In 
1746,  he  campaigned  in  Acadia,  and  in  1747,  was  sent  to  command  at 
Mackinac  during  an  uprising  of  the  Indians,  which  he  skillfully 
allayed,  and  made  peace  in  the  upper  country.  In  1750,  he  was  pro- 
moted to  a  captaincy,  and  being  sent  to  continue  the  explorations  of 
the  Verendryes,  penetrated  as  far  as  the  Saskatchewan  River.  He 
arrived  in  Canada  late  in  1753,  and  was  at  once  sent  to  the  post  in 
Western  Pennsylvania,  where  he  was  encountered  by  Major  Washing- 
ton, messenger  from  Governor  Dinwiddie  of  Virginia.  He  joined 
Dieskau's  expedition  to  Lake  George  in  1755,  and  was  slain  in  the  first 
battle. — Ed. 



1732]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

tion — an  Expense  wliicli  they  would  he  careful  not  to  incur  if 
they  were  not  sure  of  the  Success  of  this  undertaking  in  which 
his  Majesty  runs  no  risk. 

We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur  Your 
very  huinMe  and  very  obedient  Servants, 


Quebec,  October  11th,  1732.  HoCQUABT 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  15,  1732. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  hut  fol.  328.] 

Monseigneur — I  have  received  the  Letter  that  you  did  me 
the  honor  of  writing  to  me  on  The  22nd  of  April  last ;  and  I  am 
greatly  flattered  at  the  Satisfaction  given  to  His  Majesty  by  the 
Blow  that  the  Sieur  de  Villiers  has  inflicted  Upon  the  Renards. 
Although  it  was  a  heavy  one,  and  caused  the  destruction  of  the 
majority  of  that  nation,  The  Slaves  whom  those  savages  had 
succeeded  in  withdrawing  from  the  Nations  with  whom  they 
Were,  had  enabled  them  to  make  up  a  Village  of  45  Cabins  near 
Ouisconsin  in  which  were  ninety  men,  besides  nine  other  Cabins 
at  a  Distance  from  the  former.  It  is  upon  these  45  Cabins, 
Monseigneur,  that  the  last  blow  was  struck  by  our  Iroquois  from 
the  Lake  of  the  two  Mountains  and  by  the  hurons  of  Detroit, 
who  have  won  Over  the  Eenards  a  victory  as  brilliant  as  the 
prudence  and  bravery  they  had  displayed  in  everything  that 
preceded  it.  You  will  Judge  of  it,  Monseigneur,  from  the 
relation  that  I  have  already  had  the  honor  of  Sending  You  via  1' 
Isle  Royalle,  and  which  I  have  the  honor  of  forwarding  you  on 
the  return  of  the  King's  Ship  with  an  appendix  respecting  that 
which  gave  our  Savages  the  advantage.  We  may  now  hope  for 
the  Total  destruction  of  that  nation;  for,  according  to  all  the 
Letters  sent  me  from  the  upper  country  and  from  the  Places 
where  they  are  in  a  position  to  be  thoroughly  informed,  the 
remnant  of  that  tril'O  are  said  to  consist  merely  of  Fifty  or  sixty 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

men  who  beg  for  mercy  on  all  sides,  and  who  make  up,  Say  ten 
Cabins,  which  have  come  to  la  baye  to  cast  themselves  into  the 
arms  of  Monsieur  de  Villiers  and  in  which  were  20  men  and 
80  or  40  women  and  Children;  4  other  Cabins,  two  of  which 
have  gone  to  the  Kikapoux  and  Maskoutins  who  would  not 
receive  them  lest  they  might  break  their  word  given  to  their 
Father,  and  the  two  others  to  the  river  St  Joseph  where  they 
were  told  the  same  thing;  while  Six  others  are  Wandering 
about.  These  are  all  that  remain  I  think,  Monseigneur. 
Moreover  if  there  were  any  others,  besides  the  fact  that  they  are 
no  longer  in  a  Condition  to  cause  us  any  Anxiety,  there  will  be 
no  question  of  them  before  very  long  because  All  the  other 
nations  are  actually  in  the  Field  to  exterminate  the  race  as  they 
have  been  Informed  that  the  E-enards  had  failed  to  keep  the 
promise  that  they  had  given  me  to  send  down  four  of  the  most 
notable  Among  them  this  year.  I  sent  back  the  Chief  whom 
they  had  left  me  as  a  hostage,  and  through  him  I  informed  them 
that  I  had  relied  on  the  word  that  they  had  given  me,  I  had  not 
Requested  the  IsTations  to  destroy  them;  That  the  attack  just 
made  Upon  them  by  the  hurons  and  the  Iroquois  was  apparently 
the  sequel  of  the  old  quarrel  that  they  had  had  Together ;  that  I 
had  not  been  informed  of  their  expedition ;  but  that  as  they  had 
failed  to  observe  the  conditions  that  had  Induced  me  to  grant 
them  their  Lives,  I  left  their  fate  to  the  discretion  of  the  sav- 
ages. We  may  consider  that  it  is  in  good  hands  judging  from 
the  ardor  they  display,  and  I  do  not  think  there  will  be  a  ques- 
tion of  any  Renard  next  year. 

The  Sieur  de  Linctot  who  has  been  charged  with  the  Re- 
establishment  of  the  post  among  the  scioux,  wrote  to  me  that 
he  was  unable  to  reach  there  before  last  spring,  and  that  he 
was  compelled  to  pass  the  winter  at  a  Place  called  La  Mon- 
tague qui  tremp©  dans  I'Eau,  thirty  leagues  from  that  post. 
Through  that  officer  I  learned  that  fourteen  Eenards  (who 
had  Escaped  from  the  attack  of  our  hurons  and  Iroquois) 
had  come  to  his  Camp  to  beg  for  their  lives.  But  that  through 
fear  of  the  Puants  (who  were  Camped  near  the  Sieur  de 
Linctot)    they  had  not  long  remained   there,    and   I   suspect 



1732]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

they  must  be  among  those  who  came  to  throw  themselves 
into  the  arms  of  the  Sieur  de  Yilliers.  The  Sieur  de  Linctot 
adds  that  there  were  sixty-two  Cabins  of  Scioux  at  the  Place 
where  he  Established  His  post,  And  that  he  expects  a  still 
greater  number  when  these  savages  (most  of  whom  were  away 
hunting)  are  Informed  of  his  arrival;  That  those  whom  he 
met  there  had  expressed  great  Satisfaction  at  seeing  the  French 
again;  And  that  the  chiefs  of  that  nation  were  to  come  down 
next  year  to  see  me. 

I  shall  Inform  the  traders  of  that  post  that  his  majesty  has 
granted  them  the  fourth  year's  Privilege,  that  I  had  taken  the 
liberty  of  asking  from  you  for  them ;  but  at  the  same  time  I  beg 
you,  Monseigneur,  to  permit  me  to  allow  them  to  enjoy  it  only 
so  long  as  they  fulfil  the  conditions  of  their  Agreement  (as  they 
have  Pledged  themselves).  This  will  also  induce  them  to  pay 
more  particular  attention. 

The  Sieur  de  Villiers,  whom  I  had  Sent  to  re-establish  the 
post  at  la  Baye,  has  written  to  me  that  the  Sakis  had  rebuilt 
their  old  Village  at  that  Spot  and  that  they  were  there  with  their 
families.  I  have  permitted  the  Voyageurs  to  go  to  that  place 
this  year  to  supply  their  wants,  and  I  shall  continue  this  post 
when  it  is  Established,  as  it  was  before  being  Evacuated. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Mon- 
seigneur Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant, 


Quebec,  October  15th,  1732. 


[Enclosure  in  Beauharnois's  annual  report  to  the  French  Minister; 
no  date  on  document,  but  probably  Oct.  15,  1732.  Speeches  of  other 
Indians  and  the  governors'  replies  accompanied  this.  Source,  same 
as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  57,  c.  11,  fol.  354.] 

Words  of  the  Ilinois. 

My  Father,  I  have  come  to  see  you  with  my  Brothers,  The 
Quicapoux  and  Maskoutins  and  to  Fan  you  with  this  Calumet. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

I  find  that  the  weather  is  Clear  since  I  see  you.     This  is  our 
manner  of  presenting  a  Calumet  which  means  peace. 

I  open  mj  heart  to  my  Father,  and  it  will  be  glad  when  I 
shall  go  away  after  hearing  his  word.  You  know  that  we  were 
The  first  to  attack  the  Kenards  who  killed  us,  which  reduces  us 
to  a  pitiahle  Condition.  Therefore,  My  Father,  we  ask  You  to 
have  the  same  Consideration  for  us,  as  You  have  for  your  other 
Children  and  that  You  will  take  care  of  us  who  wish  to  Listen 
to  no  other  word  hut  yours. 

Reply  to  the  Words  of  the  Ilinois 

It  affords  me  much  pleasure,  Ouabichagana,  to  See  thee 
united  with  the  Quicapoux  and  Maskoutins  and  that  you  Live 
together  as  good  brothers.  The  weather  is  always  fair  when  I 
See  my  Children  well-disposed  as  thou  seemest  to  me  to  be. 

I  am  convinced  that  thou  openest  thy  heart  to  me,  and  that 
thou  answerest  to  me  for  that  of  thy  young  men  who  are  but 
one  with  the©.  Thou  assnrest  me  that  thou  wilt  be  glad  when 
thou  wilt  have  heard  my  word.  Here  it  is :  Thou  and  all  thy 
village  may  rely  upon  my  kindness  and  protection,  so  long  as 
you  behave  as  you  have  hitherto  done.  In  future  I  will  show 
You  the  same  consideration  as  I  have  to  your  Brothers  with 
whom  I  Exhort  you  to  be  united  and  to  have  but  one  heart  a? 
you  have  but  one  Father  who  will  take  care  of  You. 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Oct.  15,  1752,  with  endorsements  of  the  government,  Jan.  20,  1733. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  58,  c.  11,  fol.  237.] 

The  Sieur  de  Boishebert's  occupations  in  connection  with  the 
action  of  the  Hurons  and  Iroquois  against  the  Eenards  have  not 
allowed  him  to  send  the  maps  that  he  was  to  Make  of  Lake 
Sainte  Claire  and  Lake  Huron. ^ 

1  Endorsement  of  the  Minister:     "It  is  hoped  that  they  will  be  sent 
this  year." 

[  170  ] 

1732]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

He  has  always  recommended  that  officer,  as  he  has  Done  in 
the  case  of  his  predecessors,  to  devote  every  attention  to  the  set- 
tlement of  Detroit  and  to  the  general  welfare  of  the  post/  But 
thongh  they  have  not  been  deficient  in.  care  On  these  two  Points, 
it  is  impossible  for  this  Settlement  to  become  at  all  considerable 
so  long  as  we  do  not  send  a  sufficient  number  of  troops  there  to 
whom  lands  would  be  conceded,  whose  value  they  might  im- 
prove. And  they  would  Afterward  Become  good  settlers.^ 
About  one  hundred  salt-Smugglers  might  also  be  sent  there  to 
whom  advances  would  be  made  at  first. 

By  these  means  the  post  would  soon  become  a  considerable 
one,  and  by  its  Strength  it  would  restrain  all  the  nations  of  the 
upper  country. 

He  will,  however,  continue  to  recommend  the  officers  com- 
manding there  to  induce  the  settlers  to  till  their  Farms  and  to 
maintain  order.^ 

He  will  distribute  the  12  Medals  that  have  been  sent  to  him 
only  to  the  Chiefs  whose  attachment  and  Services  Are  known  to 
him.  As  there  are  many  in  this  position  and  as  the  expedition 
of  our  Iroquois  and  Hurons  against  the  Renards  places  him 
under  the  necessity  of  giving  some  to  the  principal  Chiefs  of  the 
band,  he  Asks  that  others  be  sent  to  him.* 

He  asserts  that  he  will  be  careful  In  the  selection  of  the 
officers  whom  he  will  send  to  the  posts.  He  adds  that  his 
attention  in  this  respect  excites  jealousy  but  that  he  considers 
solely  the  capability  of  those  whom  he  employs,  the  good  of  the 
Service  and  of  the  Colony.^ 

1  Endorsement  of  the  Minister:     "To  continue." 

2 Endorsement  of  the  Minister:  "This  can  be  done  only  in  the  event 
of  the  number  of  the  troops  being  increased.  What  can  be  done  will 
be  decided  hereafter." 

3 Endorsement  of  the  Minister:     "Good." 

4 Endorsement  of  the  Minister:  "Good.  Write  to  Monsieur  de  Cotte 
to  send  12  other  similar  to  those  he  sent  last  year." 

5 Endorsement  of  Minister:     "He  cannot  be  too  careful." 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

He  intends  to  send  the  Sieur  de  !N'ojan  this  year  to  command 
at  Missilimakinac/ 

For  the  past  two  years  he  has  been  recommended  to  Avail 
himself  of  that  officer's  services. 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
May  1,  1733,  enclosing  letters  from  commandants  in  the  Upper  Country. 
MS.  in  archives  of  Ministdre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada, 
corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  59,  c.  11,  fol.  4."]  , 

MoNSEiGNEUB — I  had  the  honor  to  write  to  yon  last  autumn 
that,  owing  to  the  Renards  having  found  Means  to  withdraw 
some  Slaves  from  the  l^ations,  they  were  able  to  make  up  the 
Village  which  was  Attacked  by  our  Iroquois  of  the  Lake  of  two 
Mountains  and  the  Hurons  of  Detroit,  as  You  may  have  seen, 
Monseigneur,  by  the  relation  that  I  had  the  honor  of  Sending 
Ton,  which  was  annexed  to  my  Letter,  and  in  Which  I  added 
that  ^N'otwithstanding  the  Blow  that  our  Warriors  had  struck 
At  Them,  it  was  asserted  that  there  still  remained  fifty  or  sixty 
Men  of  that  tribe  who  were  Wandering  about  and  whom  the 
iN'ations  wished  to  destroy  utterly;  And  that  Among  others  the 
tribes  at  Detroit  had  raised  a  band  to  kill  them  wherever  they 
might  find  them  assembled. 

I  received  Letters  last  Winter  from  the  Commandants  in  the 
upper  Country  and  from  the  Sieur  de  Boishebert  who  wrote  to 
me  that  the  Hurons,  Oxitaouacs  and  Poutouatamis  of  Detroit 
started  at  the  end  of  last  autumn  to  carry  out  their  design.  I 
append  hereto,  Monseigneur,  the  relation  of  what  happened  on 
that  Occasion,  which  has  been  sent  me  by  the  Sieur  de  Boishe- 
bert and  by  the  Commandants  of  the  River  St  Joseph  and  of  the 

I  had  the  honor  of  informing  you,  Monsieur,  of  the  ravages 
caused  by  small  pox  among  the  Villages  of  the  Five  iroquois 

1  Endorsement  of  Minister:     "Good.    He  is  a  person  to  be  employed." 

1733]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Kations.  From  the  'News  I  have  received  I  learn  that  It  is 
decreasing  there  But  that  It  has  spread  among  all  the  nations, 
and  that  the  Miamis  and  Pontouatamis  Among  others  have  lost 
many  Persons.  Brandy  which  they  went  to  get  from  the  Eng- 
lish, has  also  contributed  to  their  ruin.  And  I  must,  Mon- 
seigneur.  Communicate  to  You  what  the  Commandant  of  the 
Miamis  has  written  me  Eespecting  the  extraordinary  Effects 
>f  that  liquor. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseig- 
leur.  Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant. 

Quebec,  May  1st,  1733. 

[Enclosure  in  the  above:   extract  of  a  letter  from  Boish^bert,  com- 
landant  at  Detroit,  to  Beauharnois,  dated  Nov.  7,  1732.    Source,  same 
as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  57,  c.  11,  fol.  345.] 

After  our  warriors  had  marched  22  days,  they  came  upon 
the  Eenards  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Marameek^  in  a  stockade 
fort  with  an  earthen  rampart  inside  to  the  height  of  a  man, 
with  a  watch-tower  or  block-house  above  it.  This  fort  is  situ- 
ated between  the  lake  and  an  Impassable  swamp  so  that  it  can 
be  approached  only  by  means  of  a  tongue  of  land.  This  is  the 
description  given  by  all  the  huron,  Outaoiiac  and  Poutoiiatami 

The  Savages  who  had  divided  into  two  bands,  did  not  reach 
the  fort  together.  All  the  hurons  and  eight  or  ten  Outaoiiacs 
arrived  there  three  days  before  the  others.  After  carefully 
Reconnoitering  the  fort  and  its  position,  they  made  an  attempt 
to  Induce  the  Renards  to  come  out  and  they  succeeded ;  for 
when  they  sent  five  or  six  men  close  to  the  palisade  at  day- 
break, a  woman  came  out  whom  they  killed.     As  soon  as  the 

1  The  location  of  this  lake  is  a  vexed  question.  It  probably  has  some 
relation  to  the  "Maramech"  of  Franquelin's  map  of  1684,  and  the  river 
called  there  "Pestekouy,"  now  known  as  Fox  River  of  northern  Illinois. 
The  nearest  lake  is  Pistakee,  in  Lake  County,  111.  This  may  be  the 
ground  identified  by  J.  F.  Steward,  in  the  township  of  Little  Rock,  Ken- 
dall County,  III.     See  ante,  p.  129.— Ed. 

[  173  ] 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


E^nards  perceived  this,  they  made  a  sortie,  and  fell  into  the 
ambush  of  our  savages  who  pressed  forward  too  much,  and  this 
Prevented  the  Renards  from  advancing  far  enough  to  be  sur- 
rounded. Some  volleys  were  fired  on  both  sides.  The  Ren- 
ards lost  four  men  and  some  woimded  and  they  retreated  into 
their  fort. 

After  this  first  attack,  the  hurons  made  them  a  proposal  to 
surrender,  promising  them  their  lives.  They  replied  that  they 
consented;  but  it  was  necessary  to  await  the  arrival  of  the 
otber  nations.  The  Outaouacs  and  Poutouatamis  who  had  gone 
to  the  Maskoutins,  arrived  on  the  following  day  with  the  Ilinois 
of  le  Rocher,  and  there  was  no  longer  any  thought  of  making 
proposals.  They  made  a  second  attempt,  which  met  with  no 
more  success  than,  the  first  one.  The  Renards  made  another 
sortie,  volleys  were  fired  on  both  sides  by  which  three  hurons 
were  killed  and  some  of  the  other  savages  wounded.  After  this 
affair,  a  council  was  held  in  which  it  was  resolved  that  a  Pout- 
outami  Chief  should  enter  the  Renards'  fort  to  propose  that 
they  surrender.  He  entered  it,  and  when  he  made  the  pro- 
posal, They  told  him  that  they  would  have  surrendered  as  they 
had  agreed  to  do  at  the  first  summons,  but  that  they  saw  very 
well  that  our  savages  wished  to  deceive  them  for  attempts  had 
been  made  to  take  them  unawares  during  the  parleys ;  that  they 
had  no  other  answer  to  give  except  that  the  Kations  should  with- 
draw; that  they  would  remain  quiet  in  their  fort,  and  that  in 
the  Spring  they  would  come  to  Detroit  or  to  the  river  St 
Joseph.  The  matter  ended  there,  but  as  the  hurons  have  lost 
three  men  on  this  occasion,  if  the  Renards  do  not  forestall  them 
by  surrendering  as  they  have  promised  to  do,  the  former  will 
not  fail  to  return  to  attack  them. 

One  of  the  huron  chiefs  is  to  come  to  Montreal  this  summer 
to  Invite  our  Iroquois,  and  the  Lorette  hurons^  to  Join  them  in 
order  to  completely  end  The  matter. 

iThe  Lorette  Hurons  were  a  village  of  the  Christian  Indians  of  that 
tribe,  established  (1697)  at  the  Jesuit  mission  of  Lorette,  eight  miles 
from  Quebec.  These  mission  Indians  were  much  employed  in  the 
Canadian  wars.     The  village  and  mission  still  exist. — Ed. 



French  Regfime  in  Wisconsin 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  May  3,  1733. 
urce,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  59,  c.  11,  fol.  6.] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  am  unable  to  give  you  any  news  of  what 

going  on  in  the  Mississipi  Country  owing  to  an  Accident  that 
appened  to  those  to  whom  Monsieur  de  Boishebert  had  en- 
trusted the  letters  from  that  country.  Two  of  our  French  who 
had  resolved  to  return  last  winter  on  the  ice,  had  an  affair  with 
the  savages  in  which  one  of  the  latter  was  killed.  He  deserved 
Ms  fate.  As  several  of  their  comrades  took  part  in  it,  our 
Frenchmen  retraced  their  steps  to  Detroit.  They  were  Robbed 
of  all  they  had,  and  the  letters  that  were  in  their  packs  were 
seized.  I  Hope,  Monseigneur,  that  Monsieur  de  Boishebert  has 
taken  steps  to  have  them  found,  and  I  shall  act  in  accordance 
with  the  news  I  receive.  The  difficulty  will  I  think,  Monseig- 
neur, be  to  create  a  diversion  in  that  country  so  long  as  our 
savages  are  determined  to  utterly  destroy  the  few  Renards  who 
^re  left. 

I  relied  to  a  great  extent  on  the  Miamis,  the  Ouiatanons  and 
the  Peanguichias  but  "the  mortality  among  them  may  disturb 
my  plans;  They  are  nevertheless  Requested  to  assist  them. 
They  must  feel  very  well  that  their  disaster  is  entirely  due  to  the 
Brandy  of  the  English. 

I  remain  with  very  profound  Respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  o})edient  servant, 

Quebec,  May  3d,  1733. 

I  Had  The  honor,  Monseigneur,  of  Writing  you  last  year 
that  smallpox  had  caused  great  ravages  among  the  Iroquois. 
It  Spread  everywhere.  Our  savages  who  are  settled  at  sault 
St  Louis  And  the  Lake  of  Two  Mountains  suffered  from  it. 
It  afterwards  extended  to  Montreal  where  it  was  verj^  severe. 
There  is  no  longer  any  question  of  it.  But  it  is  very  prevalent 
here  though  Less  Virulent 

[  175  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

1733:     MEMOIR  OP  THE  KING 

[Extracts  from  the  instrnctions  of  the  King  and  Minister  to  the 
Governor  and  Intendent  of  New  France.  MS.  In  archives  of  Ministfere 
des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Collection  Moreau-St.  M6ry,  vol.  10, 
f.  12,  fol.  131."] 

May  12,  1733. 
Acknowledges         His  Majesty  has  had  an  account  rendered  to 
receipt  of  onr     him  of  what  the  Sienrs  de  Beauharnois  and 
letters.  Hocquart  Wrote  last  year  respecting  the  affairs 

of  the  Colony ;  And  in  order  to  enable  them  to 
Continue  the  administration  thereof  with  the  same  Zeal  and 
Attention  they  have  Hitherto  displayed,  He  has  decided  to  ex- 
plain to  them  His  Intentions  Regarding  the  various  matters 
•within  their  jurisdiction. 

Copper  Mines.  He  has  N'oticed  all  that  they  have  written 
with  Eeference  to  the  Copper  Mines  near 
Chagoiiamigon.  And,  After  Eixamining  the  Memorial  of  the 
Sieur  de  la  Eonde  denis,  the  Captain  whom  they  Sent,  He  has 
approved  the  proposition  made  by  that  officer  to  Undertake  the 
discovery  and  Working  of  those  Mines,  And,  to  that  end,  will 
approve  of  the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beauharnois'  granting  him 
the  Post  of  Chagoiiamigon  for  nine  years,  as  he  requests,  on 
the  conditions  proposed  by  him,  IN'amely :  that  he  Shall  be  bound 
to  build  two  Vessels  at  His  own  expense,  one  of  Twenty-five 
Tons  on  Lake  Superior  and  another  of  fifty  Tons  on  the  Lake 
of  Sault  Ste  Marie,  in  order  to  transport  the  Ore  taken  from  the 
Mines  to  !N^iagara,  whence  he  shall  send  it  down  ©very  year  to 
Quebec  in  large  flat  Boats,  And  that,  in  the  spring  of  the  follow- 
ing year,  he  shall  send  up  Canoes  for  the  conveyance  of  the 
rigging  and  other  things  required  for  the  two  Vessels,  together 
•with  the  carpenters  and  Sailors  he  may  need. 
Copper.  It  is  upon  such  conditions  that  His  Majesty  Ex- 
pects the  Sieur  de  la  Ronde  to  undertake  the  dis- 
covery and  working  of  the  Mines  in  question;  And  Should  he 
not  fulfil  them  the  very  first  year,  it  is  His  Majesty's  wish  that 


1733]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

he  shall  pay,  as  he  has  offered  to  do,  the  rental  of  the  Post  of 
Ohagoiiamigoii  At  the  rate  to  be  determined  by  the  Sieurs  Mar- 
quis do  Eeanhamois  and  Hocquart,  to  whose  decision  His 
Majesty  leaves  the  Matter,  and  that,  Moreover,  he  shall  be 
deprived  of  the  permission  His  Majesty  is  pleased  to  grant  him. 
They  shall  obtain  a  Tender  from  him  in  accordance  witb  the 
above  and  see  that  he  Fulfils  the  same,  rendering  an  account  of 
the  execution  thereof. 


Renards —  He  has  also  learned  v^ith  complete  Satis- 

The  conduct  faction  of  the  Condition  to  whicb  the  Eenardi 
of  the  general  are  reduced  by  the  Blow  inflicted  On  that 
approved.  nation,  by  the  hurons  and  iroquois  of  the  Lake 

of  two  Mountains  since  the  action  of  the  Sieur 
de  Villiers.  According  to  the  special  Keport  thereon  made  by 
the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beauharnois,  there  is  reason  to  Hope  tbat 
that  nation  is  at  last  in  such  a  condition  that  it  will  no  longer 
cause  anxiety,  Especially  If  the  other  nations  have  carried  out 
their  design  of  Exterminating  the  race. 

Moreover,  His  Majesty,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  this  same 
iN'ation  has  failed  to  keep  the  promise  it  had  made  to  the  Sieur 
Marquis  de  Beauharnois  to  s^nd  him,  last  Summer,  four  of  ita 
principal  chiefs,  has  approved  of  his  having  sent  back  the 
hostage  he  had  in  his  hands,  with  orders  to  tell  His  people  that 
such  failure  to  keep  their  promise  Induced  him  to  leave  them 
at  the  mercy  of  the  Savages  who  had  taken  the  Field  to  attack 
them.  His  Majesty  has  no  doubt  that  he  has  maintained  the 
latter  in  the  same  dispositions  they  manifested  in  this  respect, 
and  that  he  has  taken  all  the  steps  in  his  power  to  secure  the 
complete  destruction  of  that  nation  which  there  is  no  hope  oi 
restraining  so  long  as  it  is  in  a  Oonditioai:  to  mioYa 
To  report.     He  is  to  report  whatever  May  occur  in  this  Ee- 

Post  of  the  Scioux.         His  majesty  was  also  pleased  to  leaJH 
that  the  post  of  the  Scioux  has  been  fully 
established,  and  that  those  Savages  have  received  the  French 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

with  evidences  of  Satisfaction;  It  is  to  be  desired  that  the 
Sieur  de  Linctot,  whom  the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beauhamois  has 
placed  in  charge  of  that  Establishment,  should  maintain  that 
nation  in  its  present  dispositions.  The  Sienr  Marquis  de 
Beauhamois  is  Aware  of  the  importance  of  propitiating  them, 
and  His  Majesty  is  convinced  that  he  will  always  take  the  most 
suitable  measures  to  derive  all  the  benefits  that  can  be  expected 
from  them.  He  will  continue  to  report  on  the  progress  of  that 

He-establishment  The  re-establishment  of  the  post  of  la 

of  the  post  of  la  Baye  has  given  His  Majesty  no  less  pleas- 
Baye  approved.  ure,  And  as  the  Sakis  Have  returned 
thither,  He  approves  of  the  Sieur  Marquis 
de  Beauhamois'  having  sent  up  Voyageurs  last  year  to  supply 
their  needs.  Tranquillity  being  no  longer  disturbed  in  that 
quarter,  it  will  be  easy  for  him  to  send  there  every  year,  as  His 
Majesty  recommends  him  to  do. 

Le  Sieur  Joncaire.  His  Majesty  has  also  learned  with 
Chaouanons.  pleasure  of  the  Success  of  the  expedition 

Their  being  in  of  the  Sieur  joncaire  to  the  Chaouanons. 

the  neighborhood  The  manner  in  which  the  Hurons,  Mi- 
of  the  Miamis  amis,  and  Oliyatanons  have  consented  to 

and  Guiatanons  have  those  savages  become  their  neighbors 

gives  reason  to  hope  that  great  advantages 
may  be  derived  therefrom.  Especially  If  harmony  and  accord 
continue  to  reign  between  those  I^ations.  The  Sieur  de  Beau- 
hamois must  contribute  to  this,  all  the  more  so  that  it  is  one  of 
the  Surest  means  of  maintaining  them  in  their  attachment  to 
the  French  and  of  keeping  them  away  from  the  English,  who 
Will  be  compelled  to  abandon  the  project  they  had  of  Establish- 
ing posts  in  the  direction  of  the  Oiiabache  Hiver  when  they  meet 
with  opposition  on  the  part  of  those  Savages.  This  considera- 
tion, added  to  the  Assistance  that  may  be  obtained  from  that 
nation  in  case  of  a  rupture  with  the  jroquois,  must  lead  the 
Sieur  de  Beauhamois  to  Realize  how  important  it  is  to  propiti- 



1733]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

ate  them.     His  Majesty  is  convinced  that  he  will  give  His 
entire  attention  to  this. 


untry  of  the 
Islinois  united 
to  the  Government 
f  Louisiana. 

With  regard  to  the  Eeport  His  Majesty 
has  had  made  to  Him  concerning  what 
the  Sieurs  de  Beauhamois  and  Hocquart 
wrote  last  year,  and  what  was  also  written 
him  by  the  Sieiirs  Perrier,  the  late  Gover- 
or,  and  Salmon,  the  Commissary  general  of  Louisiana,  respect- 
ng  tlie  country  of  the  jllinois  Savages,  He  has  decided  to  leave 
at  country  a  dependency  of  the  Government  of  Louisiana,  and 
as  ordered  the  Sieur  de  Bienville,  whom  he  has  appointed  to 
at  Government,  to  make  suitable  provision  for  the  Command 
f  that  important  post,  and  the  Sieur  Salmon  to  send  the  neces- 
ry  Munitions  there.  He,  nevertheless,  recommends  the  Sieur 
arquis  de  Beauhamois  to  give  that  post  all  the  attention  in 
his  power. 

His  Majesty  has  approved  of  his  having 
caused  the  Nations  which  are  in  a  position 
to  harass  them,  to  declare  against  the  Chica- 
chas ;  of  his  having  again  written  to  the  Com- 
mandants of  the  posts  of  the  Miamis,  the 
Ouitanons,  and  the  jllinois  to  induce  their 
Savages  to  strike  a  blow  At  that  nation,  and  of  his  having  also 
sounded  the  Hurons  with  the  same  object.  There  is  no  better 
way  of  subjugating  them  than  to  make  a  diversion  from  Canada, 
while  the  Sieur  de  Bienville  w^ll  take  measures  to  harass  them 
from  Louisiana. 

The  Sieurs  de  Beauhamois  and  Hoe- 
quart  have  had  reason  to  believe  that  the 
defeat  of  the  [N'atche's  has  not  been  so 
complete  as  had  been  proclaimed.  Their 
movements  since  then  have  only  too  clearly 
proved  the  contrary,  but,  inasmuch  as  that  nation  has  since 
experienced  various  defeats  in  which  it  has  lost  many  of  Its 
warriors,  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  it  Would  not  be  in  a 
Condition  to  give  any  trouble,  were  it  not  supported  by  the 
12  [  179  ] 

Measures  of 
Monsieur  the 
General  against 
the  Chicachas 

The  N'atchez 
and  Chicachas 
near  their  destruc- 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voLxvu 

Chicaclias.  And  this  makes  tlie  subjugation  of  tlie  latter  all  the 
more  important.  According  to  the  last  news  received  from 
Loiiisiana,  All  the  jtTations  seem  to  be  in  arms  against  botb  tbe 
Katchez  and  the  Chicachas,  and  there  was  reason  to  hope  that 
blows  were  to  be  inflicted  against  either  one  or  the  other  of 
those  ISTations  that  would  not  fail  to  subjugate  them.  His 
Majesty  has  given  His  orders  in  consequence  to  the  Sieur  do 
Bienville/  and,  judging  from  His  Zeal  and  ability,  he  expects 
him  to  succeed  in  restoring  peace  and  tranquillity  in  the  Colony. 
He  has  ordered  him  to  take  advantage  of  every  opportunity  to 
inform  the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beauhamois  of  everything  that 
may  occur.  The  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  must  do  the  same  with 
!Regard  to  Him,  in  order  that  both  may  Be  in  a  Position  to  lay 
their  plans  in  concert  According  to  the  information  they  may 
give  one  another. 

Twelve  medals  His  Majesty  is  Satisfied  with  the  as- 

to  be  given  to  those  surrances  of  the  Sieur  Marquis  de  Beau- 
who  deserve  them.  hamois  that  he  will  distribute  the 
twelve  medals,  Sent  him  by  His  Maj- 
esty last  year  for  the  Savage  chiefs,  only  when  the  latter  shall 
be  deserving  of  the  same :  And  On  his  request  for  a  similar  nunu- 
ber  of  such  medals,  He  has  given  orders  that  they  be  sent  to 
him,  recommending  him  to  exercise  the  same  care  in  their 

1  Jean  Baptiste  le  Moyne,  Sieur  de  Bienville,  at  this  time  governor 
of  Louisiana,  was  Canadian  born  (Montreal,  Feb.  23,  1680),  and 
younger  brother  of  Iberville,  the  founder  of  the  Mississippi  colony. 
He  served  with  Iberville  on  his  expedition  to  Hudson  Bay  (1797), 
when  but  a  youth  of  seventeen,  and  two  years  later  accompanied  him 
and  was  his  trusted  lieutenant  in  establishing  the  new  colony,  as  whose 
virtual  governor  he  acted  from  1702-04.  Again  (1718-24),  he  waa 
governor-general  of  the  colony,  and  after  the  administration  of  PSrier 
served  for  ten  years  longer  (1733-43),  when  he  retired  to  Paris,  where 
he  died  in  1768.  To  Bienville  is  due  the  honor  of  having  founded 
New  Orleans. — Ed. 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 



[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  May  30,  1733. 
MS.  in  archives  of  Ministere  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada, 
)rresp.  g6n.,  vol.  57,  c.  11,  fol.  8."] 

MoisrsEiGNEUR — I  have  just  received  Letters  from  Detroit, 
rom  the  Miamis,  and  from  the  Ouyatanons  where  small-Pox 

id  a  ^Malignant  Fever  have  continued  to  Cause  great  ravages. 

I  repeated  in  those  Posts,  Monseigneur,  the  orders  that  I  had 

iven  last  year  to  Form  Bands  to  join  the  Jlinois  and  to  attack 

[the  IvTatchez  And  Chicachas.     By  a  Letter  of  the  14th  of  March 

from  the  Post  among  the  Ouyatanons,  I  am  informed  that  the 

Jhicachas  attacked  during  the  night  a  Detachment  of  one  Hun- 

;d  and  Fifty  Men  who  were  coming  from  l^ew  Orieans ;  that 
Fteen  Frerch  were  wounded,  the  Sieur  Chevalier  de  T'onty* 
being  among  the  number,  and  that  the  Chicachas  withdrew  witH 
the  loss  of  Some  of  Their  men. 

I  am  also  informed  that  seven  Frenchmen  who  had  been 
among  the  Jlinois,  have  been  killed  or  captured  while  ascending 
the  Ouabache,  fifteen  Leagues  below  the  beautiful  river  (Oyo).^ 
This  news  is  confirmed  by  the  fact  that  a  pirogue  has  been  found 
with  Sacks  of  Corn  On  the  Bank  of  the  River,  and  a  Chest 
that  had  been  broken  open,  which  belonged  to  the  Master  of  the 
Canoe,  in  which  were  two  letters  for  Private  Individuals  among 
the  Ouyatanons.  As  no  news  had  been  received  when  they 
wrote  to  me,  it  is  conjectured  that  these  had  been  taken  by  the 

I  am  waiting  every  D'ay  for  the  result  of  the  Truce  between 
the  Plurons  and  the  Eenards,  for  the  latter  have  promised  that 
they  would  come  this  spring  to  the  River  St  Joseph  or  to 

Monsieur  de  Boishebert  writes  me  that  several  Bands  of 
outaouais  and  Poutouatamis  from  Detroit  attacked  the  Chioa- 

iSee  ante,  note  1,  p.  3,  on  Desliettes  de  Tonty. — Ed. 
2  For  an  early  description  of  the  Ohio  River,  and   its   name,   "the 
beautiful  river,"  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  364,  365.— Ed. 

[  181  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voLxvu 

chas  and  that  last  Siunmer  he  had  Caused  four  Bands  of  outao- 
uais  who  were  going  to  the  Testes  plattes  to  change  thein  route; 
that  he  had  barred  the  road  to  them  and  Made  them  turn  their 
arms  against  the  Chicaehas,  from  whose  country  they  returned 
in  The  autumn  with  several  Scalps  and  Slaves  Without  any 
other  Explanation. 

I  Eemain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur  Your  very 
humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 

Montreal,  May  30th,  1733.  Beauhabnois. 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
July  1,  1733.     Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  10.] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — The  Eenards  have  at  last  abandoned  their 
fort  in  which  there  remained  only  Fifty  of  them  in  all:  (Forty 
Warriors  and  10  Boys  from  twelve  to  thirteen  years  of  age). 
They  went  to  la  Baye  to  beg  Monsieur  de  Villiers  to  ask  their 
Father  to  have  mercy  on  them.  He  has  brought  here  four  of 
the  principal  men  among  them,  Two  of  them  being  Former 
Chiefs.  The  instigator  of  all  their  misdeeds  whose  name  is 
Kiala  is  among  these.  The  chief  who  had  remained  as  a 
Hostage  two  years  ago  and  whom  I  had  sent  back,  has  also 
returned.  I  am  sending  the  Sieur  de  Villiers  at  once  to  return 
to  la  Baye  with  orders  to  take  every  proper  precaution,  by 
Means  of  the  ISTations  which  Are  faithful  to  us,  to  bring  all  the 
Renards  to  Montreal  or  to  destroy  them.  If  we  succeed  I  shall 
disperse  them  among  our  Villages  of  settled  savages.  I  think, 
Monseigneur,  that  to  send  them  to  France  with  the  view  of  dis- 
tributing them  among  the  islands  would  Be  the  most  advan- 
tageous for  the  Country  because  here  they  could  always  desert 
to  the  English.  I  am  Having  the  three  others  taken  to  Quebec 
with  two  women  and  I  send  back  The  hostage  with  the  Sieur  de 
Villiers,  as  he  may  be  of  use  to  us. 

The  Sieur  de  Villiers  also  has  orders.  If  that  Wretched  Rem- 



French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

nant  will  not  obey,  to  kill  Them  without  thinking  of  making  a 
single  Prisoner,  so  as  not  to  leave  one  of  the  race  alive  in  the 
upper  Country  If  possible.  If  he  is  obliged  to  exterminate  the 
Men,  the  women  and  Children  who  remain  will  be  brought  here, 
Especially  the  Children.  I  Hope,  Monseigneur,  that  if  this 
step  meets  with  the  success  that  I  expect  from  it,  we  shall  be  in 
a  Position  next  year  to  make  all  our  J^ations  of  the  Lakes  attack 
the  Chicachas.  As  I  have  written  to  Detroit  and  to  all  the 
Posts  in  the  Neighborhood  of  the  Mississipy  to  go  there,  I 
expect  that  there  will  be  a  number  of  Bands  in  the  Field. 
Thirty  Men  from  sault  St.  Louis  and  from  the  Lake  of  two 
Mountains  have  gone  there  lately. 

The  Village  of  the  Sakis,  Monseigneur,  has  been  restored  to 
its  former  Condition. 

I  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  Humble  and  very  obedient  servant, 


Montreal,  July  1st,  1733. 


[Letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  1, 
1733.     Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  54,  c.  11,  fol.  377.] 

MoNSEi&NEUR — The  Sieur  de  Muy,^  the  Commandant  at 
Hiver  St  Joseph,  wrote  me  on  the  5th  of  June  tJiat  the  entire 
Village  of  the  Jlinois  of  le  Roeher  was  in  great  consternation. 
Last  Spring  thirty  of  their  young  men,  while  on  the  road  of 

1  Jacques  Pierre  Daneaux,  Sieur  de  Muy,  was  the  son  of  a  noted 
French  officer,  who  came  to  Canada  in  1685,  married  Marguerite 
Boucher,  and  after  serving  with  distinction  in  King  William's 
War  (1689-97),  died  on  his  way  to  Louisiana  to  assume  the  governor- 
ship. The  son  was  born  in  1695,  commanded  at  River  St.  Joseph  in 
1733,  served  as  captain  in  King  George's  War  (1744-48).  He  was  apr 
pointed  commandant  of  Detroit  in  1755,  dying  there  in  1757.  His 
superior  officer  reported  in  1747  that  he  was  a  "prudent,  wise,  and 
sedate  man,  and  a  very  exact  officer  in  all  that  appertains  to  the 
King's  service." — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voixvu 

the  Sioux  toward  the  Wisconsin,  Fell  upon  the  Saulteurs,  Follea 
avoines,  Sakis,  and  J^Tepissin^es,  killing  three  Men,  three 
women,  and  a  Child  in  the  cradle,  and  capturing  two  little 
girls  whom  Four  of  the  principal  Chiefs  brought  to  him  and 
whom  he  sent  to  Monsieur  de  Montigny,  the  Commandant  at 
Missilimakinac,  to  restore  to  the  saulteurs.  Those  four  Chiefs, 
Monseigneur,  gave  him  a  Collar  to  be  sent  to  me  with  words. 
By  that  Collar  thej  beg  me  to  have  pity  on  Them  and  to  speak 
to  the  nations  to  induce  them  to  forget  the  evil  Deed  that  their 
young  Men  have  Done.  I  At  once,  Monseigneur,  sent  orders 
to  all  the  Commandants  to  Prevent  the  nations  from  Attacking 
Them  until  this  matter  can  be  settled.  I  shall  inform  you  next 
year,  Monseigneur,  of  what  happens  with  reference  to  this. 

I  E^main  with,  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 


Quebec,  October  1st,  1733. 



[Extract  of  the  official  yearly  report  of  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart 
to  the  French  Minister,  dated,  Oct.  14,  1733.  Source,  same  as  preced- 
ing document,  but  vol.  59,  c.  11,  fol.  1G3.] 

Monseigneur — 

Extract  with  The  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  is  highly  flattered 
everything  at  the  satisfaction  that  His  Majesty  has  felt 
relating  to  respecting  the  Condition  to  which  the  Eenards 
the  savages.  are  reduced.  From  the  Account  that  he  had 
had  the  honor  of  giving  you,  Monseigneur,  in 
his  letters  of  the  1st  of  July  and  10th  of  October  last,  it  does 
not  appear  that  this  Kation  will  cause  us  any  anxiety.  The 
step  they  have  taken  in  sending  down  four  of  the  most  notable 
among  them  to  Montreal  in  the  name  of  the  remainder  of  the 
!N"ation  has  not  prevented  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  from  giving 
orders  to  the  Sieur  de  Yilliers  to  return  to  la  Baye  and  to  take 


1733]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

the  necessary  precautions,  by  means  of  the  iN'ations  that  are 
faithful  to  us,  to  bring  the  remnant  of  tbe  Eenards  to  Mon- 
treal, or  to  destroy  them  if  they  refuse  to  submit  to  it.  The 
decision  taken  by  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  in  this  Regard  is 
not  based  upon  any  anxiety  that  the  few  remaining  Renards 
may  cause ;  but  as  they  are  all  assembled  at  la  Baye  and  so  slight 
a  matter  occupies  the  attention  of  all  the  nations  which  are 
desirous  of  Exterminating  the  race,  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois 
has  thought  that  it  could  easily  be  effected  through  the  Sieur 
de  Villiers;  all  the  more  so  that  the  !N'ations  up  there  can  be 
more  usefully  employed  in  attacking  the  Chicachas,  without 
Allowing  them  to  prolong  a  war  against  the  Renards,  of  which 
there  will  probably  no  longer  be  any  question,  and  which  might 
have  lasted  a  long  time  had  the  task  of  putting  an  end  to  it  Been 
left  to  the  savages.  The  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  ventures  to  hope 
that  His  Majesty  will  be  pleased  to  approve  of  his  conduct  and 
that  He  will  be  no  less  satisfied  with  what  he  will  do  Regarding 
the  Chicachas. 

He  has  the  honor  to  call  your  attention,  Monseigneur,  to  what 
is  pointed  out  to  him  by  the  King^s  memorial  Respecting  the 
Chawanons.  He  Was  greatly  flattered  on  learning  that  His 
Majesty  Was  satisfied  with  the  accord  that  reigned  between  this 
Kation,  the  hurons,  theMiamis,  and  the  Oniatanons.  He  has  the 
honor  to  communicate  to  you,  Monseigneur,  the  reasons  that 
oompelled  him^  to  send  the  Sieur  Desnoyelles  to  the  Miamis — 
a  party  of  whom  had  Established  themselves  at  the  Riviere 
blanche  and  two  others :  one  on  the  upper  part  of  the  Kiepigon 
River  and  the  other  between  the  River  St  Joseph  and  the 
Miamis — to  bring  them  back  to  their  Village,^  and  to  Induce 
the  Chawanons  to  kindle  their  fire  there  in  accordance  with  the 

iThis  village  of  the  Miami  was  situated  upon  the  Maumee  River, 
and  known  by  the  name  of  Kekionga.  "Riviere  blanche"  was  a  title 
bestowed  by  the  French  upon  several  clear  rivers.  This  was  either 
the  Sandusky,  or  the  Little  Miami,  both  of  which  are  called  by  this 
name  on  early  maps;  more  probablj'-,  it  was  the  former.  The  Kiepigon 
was  probably  the  present  White  River,  of  Indiana;  on  the  earliest 
edition  of  Franquelin's  map,  this  is  named  "Orapigianing; "  later  it 
was  known  as  River  St.  Anne. —  Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

request  made  by  the  Miamis  to  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois. 
There  is  Reason  to  believe  that  the  -anioii  of  these  two  ITations 
will  Thwart  the  intentions  that  the  English  might  have  of 
Establishing  posts  for  the  purpose  of  attracting  them ;  and  there 
is  every  reason  to  believe  also  that  the  Chawanons  will  accept 
the  Miamis'  proposal,  for  they  informed  the  Sienr  de  Beau- 
harnois of  their  desire  to  form  but  one  Village  with  their 
brothers.  The  Sieur  Desnoyelles  has  orders  to  get  the  Wia- 
tanons  to  join  him  in  inducing  the  Miamis  to  return  to  their 
Village  which  they  have  abandoned  solely  in  consequence  of  the 
ravages  of  small-pox;  at  least  that  is  the  pretext  they  have 

The  Sieurs  de  Beauliamois  and  hocquart  have  observed,  Mon- 
seigTieur,  what  is  written  to  them  regarding  the  dependence  of 
the  Jllinois  country  which  his  Majesty  has  been  pleased  to 
include  in  the  Government  of  Louisiana.  They  are  not  aware 
of  the  reasons  that  have  induced  His  Majesty  to  do  this.  The 
request  made  by  these  savages  to  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  to  be 
dependents  of  this  Government,  owing  to  the  diflSoulty  they 
would  have  in  supplying  their  needs  from  the  Mississipi,  seemed 
to  be  worthy  of  some  consideration  with  regard  to  Them.  In 
any  case,  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  will  continue  to  devote  all 
the  attention  in  his  power  to  that  post  and  to  send  the  necessary 
orders  to  it. 

The  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  has  the  honor  of  communicating 
to  you,  Monseigneur,  those  notices  that  he  has  given  to  all  the 
posts  to  Induce  the  ISTations  to  attack  the  Chicachas,  and  to  the 
Governor  of  Louisiana  to  have  them  harassed  on  his  side.  The 
means  that  he  has  taken  to  create  a  diversion  among  all  the 
^Nations  which  are  in  a  position  to  molest  them  seem  the  surest 
and  the  most  suitable  for  their  subjugation ;  all  the  more  so  that 
the  War  with  the  Renards  in  which  the  savages  Were  engaged 
is  ended,  and  larger  bands  will  be  available  for  attacking  the 
Chicachas;  and  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  we  shall  be  able 
to  destroy  them  in  a  short  time. 

*  *  *  -K-  -Sf  *  -x-* 

[  186  ] 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

The  Sieur  de  Beanhamois  has  received  the  12  medals  that 
His  Majesty  has  had  the  Kindness  to  send  him  for  the  purpose 
of  decorating  the  savage  Chiefs  who  may  have  deserved  them. 
He  will  be  very  careful  to  distribute  them  only  in  this  case. 
The  Result  of  the  war  with  the  Renards  and  of  that  with  the 

IChicachas  has  entitled  to  that  mark  of  distinction  many  who 
have  not  yet  received  it  and  to  whom  it  is  necessary  to  grant  it 
The  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  will  devote  to  this  object  those  he  has 
received,  the  greater  poriion  whereof  he  has  already  promised. 
-::-  x-  *  -jf  *  -x-  -K-  * 

We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servants, 


Quebec,  October  14th,  1733. 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French 
Minister,  dated  Oct,  15,  1733.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document, 
but  vol.  59,  c.  11,  fol.  219.] 


^J  *  *  -Sf  *  *  *  * 

We  have  communicated  to  Monsieur  Delaronde  the  favor  con- 
ferred on  him  by  His  Majesty  in  granting  him  the  privilege  of 
working  the  copper  mines  with  the  post  of  Chagouamigon.  We 
have  explained  to  Him  his  Majesty's  intentions  on  the  subject, 
and  we  will  see  that  he  complies  with  them.  He  has,  as  asso- 
ciate in  that  undertaking.  The  Sieur  Le  Gardeur  Dfe  St  Pierre, 
Ensign,  who  possesses  much  Wisdom  and  intelligence  and  knows 
the  language  of  all  the  savages  of  the  upper  Country.  We  will 
report  next  year  on  the  progress  of  that  establishment. 

Quebec,  October  15th,  1733. 



Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 


[Letter  of  Beauliarnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Nov.  11,  1733.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  60,  c 
11,  fol.  297.] 

MoNSEiGNEUE — Monsieur  De  Beauhamois  had  the  honor  by 
his  letter  of  the  first  of  July  last  to  inform  you  of  the  orders  that 
he  had  given  to  the  Sieur  De  Villiers  whom  he  had  sent  back  as 
Commandant  at  la  Baye,  and  of  the  manner  in  which  he  was  to 
act  regarding  the  Renards.  The  result  has  not  fulfilled  our 

The  Sieur  De  Villiers,  the  younger,  an  Ensign  in  the  Troops, 
who  has  succeeded  to  the  Command  of  that  Post  through  the 
death  of  his  Father,  has  sent  one  of  his  brothers  and  The  Sieur 
Douville^  with  Letters  giving  us  the  particulars  of  what  hap- 
pened in  the  month  of  September  last  at  the  Post  of  La  Baye. 

Monsieur  De  Villiers,  the  Commandant  of  that  Post  arrived 
there  on  The  16th  of  the  said  month  of  September  alone  in  his 
Canoe.  He  had  left  at  a  distance  of  half  a  League  from  there 
The  Sieur  De  Repentigny,^  a  Lieutenant,  who  was  Command- 
ant at  Missilimakinac,  together  with  200  Savages;  Outawacs, 
folles  avoines,  and  sauteux,  and  about  60  French.  The  Sieur 
De  Villiers  had  given  Him  orders  to  be  ready  to  march  as  soon 
as  he  heard  The  signal  of  3  gun-shots  and  he  had  also  detached 
his  son.  The  Ensign,  with  10  Frenchmen  and  50  Savages  to 
the  petit  Cacalin,^  a  passage  by  which  the  Renards  might  escape. 

When  Monsieur  De  Villiers  arrived  at  the  French  fort,  he  at 
once  sent  for  The  Saki  Chiefs  to  inform  Them  of  Their  father's 

iThe  ensign  was  probably  Louis  Coulon  de  Villiers,  called  "Ze  gravid 
Yilliers;"  for  his  biotfaphy,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  p.  119.  Alexandre 
Dagneau,  Sieur  Douville,  was  married  to  Marie  Coulon  de  Villiers  in 
1730.— Ed. 

2  Probably  the  elder  son  of  Pierre  de  iGardeur  de  Repentigny,  who 
accompanied  Duluth  (see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  119,  123);  and  elder 
brother  of  the  Repentigny  who  later  commanded  at  Mackinac. — Ed. 

3  Now  called  Little  Kaukauna,  in  Brown  County,  Wis.,  about  ten 
miles  above  the  present  city  of  Green  Bay,  on  Fox  River. — Ed. 



1733]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Intentions.  Tlie  chiefs  came  to  Him  and  lie  explained  to  Tliem 
that  their  father  had  granted  the  remnant  of  the  Eenards  who 
were  with  Them,  their  lives;  But  on  the  condition  that  they 
should  submit  to  his  orders  and  go  to  Montreal.  After  a  Coun- 
cil which  lasted  some  time,  as  the  Sakis  Chiefs  gave  no  positive 
answer,  Monsieur  De  Villiers  sent  4  of  them  back  to  Their  fort^ 
to  tell  their  tribe  that  if  within  a  certain  time  they  did  not 
send  The  Eenards  to  him,  he  would  go  and  get  Them  Himfielf. 
When  the  specified  time  had  elapsed  without  the  Renards 
appearing,  and  when  Monsieur  de  Villiers,  whom  the  sieur  De 
Eepentigny  had  joined,  saw  that  The  Sakis  were  not  coming 
back,  he  resolved  to  go  to  their  Fort  in  person  accompanied  by 
two  of  his  Children,  by  the  Sieur  Douville,  the  younger,  his 
son-in-law,  and  by  7  or  8  French  to  ask  Them  to  Deliver  up 
The  Eenards  to  Him.  He  had  just  given  orders  to  the  Sieur 
Dfe  Eepentigny  to  guard  The  approaches  to  the  Sakis'  fort  with 
The  remainder  of  the  French  lest  the  Eenards  should  escape. 
When  Monsieur  De  Villiers  arrived  at  the  Door  of  the  fort  he 
asked  the  Sakis  for  the  Eenards.  He  found  there  some  armed 
Bakis  who  told  him  to  withdraw,  And  when  he  tried  to  enter  a 
Savage  approached  Him  with  uplifted  Tomahawk  and  at  The 
same  moment  three  gun-shots  were  fired,  one  of  which  killed  one 
of  the  Sieur  De  Villiers'  sons  at  his  side.  The  Father  and  the 
French  discharged  their  pieces  and  this  was  followed  by  other 
volleys  from  the  Sakis  by  Avhich  Monsieur  de  Villiers  was  killed, 
and  three  French  were  wounded. 

Monsieur  De  Eepentigny  who  guarded  The  aproaches  on  the 
side  of  the  woods,  ran  up  and  was  killed  a  moment  afterward  in 
a  sortie  that  the  Sakis  made  against  Him.  The  Sieur  Duples- 
sis,  a  Cadet  in  the  Troops,  and  six  other  French  met  the  same 
fate.  200  of  our  Savages  who  had  remained  in  the  French  fort 
went  to  the  Assistance  of  the  others  and  when  the  Sakis  saw 

^  This  appears  to  have  been  situated  on  the  lake  shore,  opposite  the 
French  fort,  on  the  east  side  of  Fox  River,  near  the  present  city  of 
Green  Bay. — ^Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

them  coming'  they  withdrew  into  Their  fort.     3  of  them  were 

Three  days  after  this  action  The  Sakis  evacuated  Their  fort- 
during  The  night  and  The  Ensign,  Sieur  De  Yilliers,  who  had 
returned  from  lo  petit  Cacalin,  assembled  all  the  French  and 
Savages — Outawacs,  foUes  avoines  and  Sauteux — and  pursued 
The  Sakis  and  overtook  them  about  4  o'clock  in  the  evening 
8  Leagues  from  the  post.^  He  attacked  them  and  fought  Them 
until  night.  20  Sakis  and  6  Renards  were  killed  in  this  last 
fight;  9  were  mortally  wounded  besides  others  who  were 
wounded  and  whose  number  is  not  known.  On  the  side  of  the 
sieur  Dfe  Yilliers,  his  brother,  a  C'adet  with  aigtiillettes,  received 
a  gun-shot  wound  in  the  arm;  The  Sieurs  D'aillebout,  the  des 
Musseaux  brothers,^  and  8  other  French  were  also  wounded 
while  two  others  were  kiUed. 

The  Outawacs  lost  9  men,  the  grand  Chief  of  The  nation 
being  among  the  number ;  The  f olles  avoines  6 ;  The  sauteux  2 
and  4  wounded  in  all. 

Monsieur  De  Beauharnois  will  at  once  give  the  necessary 
orders  to  attack  The  Sakis  and  The  remainder  of  the  Renards 
to  avenge  The  blood  of  the  French  that  has  been  shed,  and  he 
"will  concert  with  Monsieur  hocquart  regarding  The  expense 
that  will  have  to  be  incurred.  He  has  The  honor  to  submit 
to  you  by  a  private  Letter  the  ^ames  of  the  officers  who  are  to 

iFor  the  tradition  preserved  among  the  Indians  and  French  of  this 
event,  see  "Grignon's  Recollections,"  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  iii,  pp.  204-206. 
The  name  there  given  as  "De  Velie,"  is  doubtless  De  Villiers.  Another 
form  of  the  tradition,  is  given  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  viil,  pp.  207,  208. 
Dr.  Draper  dated  this  1730,  because  of  his  knowledge  of  De  Villiers's 
attack  of  that  year,  and  not  of  this  embroilment  in  1733.  The  Sieur 
Duplessis  was  a  son  of  the  former  commandant  at  La  Baye,  and  son- 
in-law  of  De  Villiers. — Eu. 

2  This  is  about  the  distance  of  Little  Butte  des  Morts,  near  the  pres- 
ent city  of  Appleton,  and  thus  would  coincide  with  tradition. — Ed. 

3  The  Sieiurs  Daillebout,  and  the  brothers  Des  Musseaux  were  all 
relatives,  descendants  of  Charles  D'Aillebout,  a  prominent  judge  at 
Montreal  during  the  17th  century,  and  Catherine  le  Gardeur.  Thus 
they  were  also  relatives  of  De  Repentigny. — Ed. 

[190]  ^ 

1734]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

replace  those  who  have  been  killed.  We  unite  with  him  in 
asking  you  for  their  promotion  which  they  deserve,  and  a  pen- 
sion for  Madame  De  Villiers,  to  provide  for  her  subsistence  and 
that  of  her  numerous  family,  Since  she  is  a  widow  with  10 
children.  The  Sieur  De  Villiers  who  was  Wounded  and  the 
Sieur  Douville,  the  younger,  arrived  this  evening  form  Montreal. 
Fortunately  The  Vessel  Le  Saint  Joseph  of  L'Isle  Royale  which 
sailed  this  morning,  had  been  compelled  to  put  back  in  conse- 

[quence  of  a  leak.     It  will  sail  tomorrow  at  daybreak  And  we 

[tave  barely  time  to  write  you  this  Letter. 

We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneiir,  Your 
very  humble  And  very  obedient  servants. 

Quebec,  November  11th,  1733. 


1734:     THE     CALUMET     DANCE;     FOXES     INTRIGUE     WITH 

[Memoir  by  the  Jesuit  missionary,  Le  Sueur,  from  MS.  preserved 
in  the  archives  of  the  Mission  of  St.  Frangois  du  Lac,i  translated  from 
an  apograph  in  the  archives  of  St.  Mary's  College,  Montreal.  Pub- 
lished also  in  Les  Soirees  Canadienes  (Quebec,  1864),  iv,  pp.  111-135.] 

History  of  the  Calumet  and  of  the  Dance 

While  all  the  nations  of  this  continent  dwelt  in  profound 
peace  and  while  the  English,  ever  watchful  of  their  Interests, 
Imperceptibly  took  possession  of  the  abenakis'  lands  and  suc- 
ceeded much  better  by  negotiations  and  through  the  medium  of 
a  very  advantageous  trade  than  they  could  have  done  by  open 

1  Father  Jacques  Eustache  (or  Frangois)  Le  Sueur  came  to  Canada 
in  1716,  and  having  studied  the  Abenaki  language,  was  assigned  to  the 
mission  of  those  Indians,  called  St.  Francois  de  Sales,  near  Three 
Rivers,  Quebec.  He  served  there  nearly  all  of  his  life,  having  lived  in 
Quebec  and  Montreal  at  short  periods,  dying  at  the  latter  place  in 
1760.  He  left  a  dictionary  of  the  Abenaki  language,  and  a  MS.  volume 
on  the  savages,  which  contains  this  account  of  the  calumet  dance. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

war  and  bj  the  report  of  cannon,  and  when  their  progress 
alarmed  the  French,  the  latter  strove  to  embroil  the  two  nations 
and  spared  no  effort  to  induce  the  Abenakis  to  compel  the  Eng- 
lish to  leave  their  Country/ 

At  that  time  and  in  the  year  1719,  the  Eenards  sent  a  mes- 
sage to  the  Abenakis.^  This  was  expressed  by  a  Picture,  one 
side  whereof  represented  several  very  large  and  very  populous 
Villages,  men  and  women  of  tall  stature,  well-fed  children,  very- 
fertile  fields,  woods  full  of  Elk,  moose  and  other  wild  animals, 
and  finally  Rivers  teeming  with  beaver  and  fish ;  on  the  other 
side  of  the  Picture  were  represented  some  small  Villages  barely 
visible;  the  persons  observed  in  them  were  so  emaciated  that  they 
oould  hardly  stand ;  neither  fields  producing  com  could  be  seen, 
nor  woods  full  of  wild  Animals,  no  Eivers  capable  of  supplying 
beaver  and  fish;  but  only  a  great  Dragon,  one-half  of  which 
showed  out  from  the  side  of  the  Picture  and  whose  open  jaws 
threatened  to  swallow  the  wretched  little  villages.^  The  fol- 
lowing is  the  explanation  of  the  Picture : — 

"My  Brother,  thou  seest  that  my  country  is  of  vast  extent; 
that  it  is  very  fertile  in  producing  grain  of  all  kinds ;  that  my 
woods  and  my  Rivers  supply  me  abundantly  with  all  sorts  of 
wild  animals  and  with  fish.  Consequently  see  how  well  off  I 
am  etc.  I  learn  with  regret  that  thou  art  reduced  to  a  small 
area  of  barren  and  sterile  Land  wherein  all  things  necessary 
for  thy  subsistence  are  wanting;  that  this  is  the  cause  of  thy 
leanness  and  of  the  death  of  thy  children  whom  thou  canst  not 
rear.  But  the  compassion  I  feel  for  thee  is  greatly  increased 
at  the  sight  of  that  great  Dragon  with  gaping  jaws,  ready  to 
devour  thee  and  whose  fury  thou  canst  escape  only  by  prompt 
flight.     As  I  take  an  interest  in  everything  that  concerns  thee, 

iThe  original  home  of  the  Abenaki  was  in  the  present  district  of 
Maine  and  New  Brunswick. — Ed. 

2  For  an  account  of  these  overtures,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi, 
pp.  431-436.— Ed. 

3  For  an'  account  of  picture  writing,  see  Garrick  Mallery's  "Picture 
Writing  of  the  North  American  Indians,"  in  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Ethnology 
Report,  1889-90.— Ed. 

[  192  ] 

1734]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

and  as  I  cannot  suffer  my  fellow-man  (whose  Flesh  is  dark  like 
my  own)  to  perish  miserably  for  want  of  succor,  I  offer  thee 
my  Land;  thou  wilt  find  it  vast  enough  to  settle  in;  fertile 
enough  to  abundantly  supply  all  thy  needs  and,  finally,  suffi- 
ciently remote  to  enable  thee  to  live  in  safety  and  far  beyond 
lihe  reach  of  thine  enemies." 

The  Abenakis  gave  information  of  this  message  to  their  mis- 
sionary,^ and  explained  it  to  him  quite  naturally.  The  only 
thing  respecting  which  they  were  lacking  in  sincerity  was  in 
giving  him  to  understand  that  the  Dragon  represented  the 
English  alone.  The  missionary,  continuing  to  rely  on  the  long 
standing  attachment  of  the  Abenakis  to  the  French  nation,  con- 
sidered that  he  had  ample  reason  for  congratulation  on  seeing 
that  the  former  seemed  to  enter  with  pleasure  into  the  project  of 
the  Answer  which  he  suggested  that  they  should  send  to  the 
Eenards.  This  was  to  put  the  Renard  and  the  Abenakis  Vil- 
lages on  two  sides  of  a  Picture ;  at  the  top  of  the  Picture  would 
be  a  Crucifix  from  which  would  issue  brilliant  rays  shedding  an 
admirable  light  over  the  Abenakis'  villages ;  and  to  represent  the 
villages  of  the  Penards  covered  by  a  black  cloud  casting  dense 
darkness  over  all  their  lands.  The  explanation  of  the  Picture 
would  be: — "My  Brother,  I  am  very  grateful  to  thee  for  the 
sentiments  of  compassion  which  touch  thee  at  the  sight  of  my 
wretchedness.  It  is  true  that  I  feel  it  as  thou  representest  it. 
I  must,  however,  confess  that  if  I  am  not  altogether  insensible 
to  my  poverty  I,  at  least,  endure  it  patiently  and  even  with 
joy.  I  have  the  happiness  of  living  here  with  the  Frenchman 
who  has  taught  me  to  know  the  Author  of  my  Being,  and  what 
I  should  fear  and  hope  for  after  this  shorti  and  miserable  life. 
I  prefer  the  advantages  of  an  immortal  life  to  all  the  Riches 
and  pleasures  thou  offerest  me.  I  cannot  better  express  my 
gratitude  to  thee  than  by  begging  thee  to  open  thine  eyes  to  the 
light  that  the  Frenchman  has  brought  into  this  country/'  etc. 

This    proposal    was    therefore    received    apparently    with 

iThis  was  Father  Joseph  Aubrey,  for  biographical  sketch  of  whom 
see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  337. — ^Ed. 

1 193  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvh 

applause.  Nothing  else  was  thought  of  except  the  presents  that 
were  to  be  sent  in  exchange  for  those  that  had  been  sent  them, 
and  of  deputing  the  persons  who  were  to  bear  them.  All  this 
was  done,  but  what  has  been  the  result?  Have  the  Abenakis 
rejected  the  word  of  the  Eenards  ?  Have  the  Renards  accepted 
tJiat  of  the  Abenakis  ?  Why  lose  time  in  s€)eking  to  investigate 
this  latter  point  ?  The  continual  hostilities  that  have  been  car- 
ried on  for  many  years  between  the  French  and  the  Renards 
show  clearly  enough  that  the  latter  were  not  touched  by  the 
word  of  the  Abenakis,  even  supposing  that  it  had  been  carried 
to  them.  But  did  the  Abenakis,  after  having  at  first  received  the 
word  of  the  Renards,  reject  it  afterwards  ?  The  following  facts 
will  enable  a  safe  judgment  to  be  formed  thereom 

Aboiut  two  years  after  these  messages  two  thirds  of  the 
Abenakis  nation  were  on  the  verge  of  departure  to  take  refuge 
in  the  country  of  the  Renards,  and  this  was  at  the  beginning  of 
the  time  when  war  was  about  to  break  out  between  the  Abenakis 
and  the  Etnglish.  When  the  Missionary  learned  the  plot  that 
was  secretly  formed,  he  promptly  warned  the  late  Monsieur  de 
Vaudreuil,  then  Governor  general  of  this  country,  who  for- 
tunately warded  oiif  the  blow.  'Not  five  years  have  elapsed  since 
the  Abenakis  made  a  second  attempt  to  carry  out  their  original 
design.  The  Chief  of  the  St  Fran(^ois  Mission,  who  was  hostile 
to  the  French,  had  taken  his  measures  so  well  that  his  plans 
would  inevitably  have  succeeded  had  not  God  removed  him  from 
this  world  by  a  death  as  sudden  as  it  was  tragic.  I  know  not 
who  gave  notice  to  the  Court  of  the  Alliance  of  the  Abenakis 
with  the  Renards ;  I  know  not  in  what  light  that  alliance  was 
represented  nor  the  proofs  that  were  adduced.  All  that  has 
come  to  my  knowledge  is,  that  the  Court — which  does  not  act 
without  being  fully  informed — paying  no  heed  to  the  former 
devotion  of  the  Abenakis  to  the  French  people,  nor  relying  in 
any  way  upon  the  benefits  it  had  conferred  upon  that  barbarous 
iN'ation  to  the  extent  almost  of  prodigality,  has  forbidden  their 
being  employed  on  the  expeditions  that  are  being  sent  against 
the  Renards. 

C  A  year  after  the  message  of  the  Renards  was  brought  to  the 
\  [  194  ] 

1734]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Abenakis,  the  Calumet  Dance  made  its  appearance.  Tlie  Calu- 
met was  kept  hidden  for  a  whole  year  and  not  a  word  was  said 
of  the  Dance.  He  who  had  charge  of  it  had  reason  to  fear  that 
neither  the  one  nor  the  other  would  be  well  received.  He  was 
aware  that  eighteen  years  previously  they  had  been  brought  in 
unavailingly  under  Father  Vincent  Bigot^  who  energetically 
and  successfully  opposed  the  reception  of  that  Calumet  and  of 
that  Dance,  because  he  knew  everything  connected  with  them. 
It  was  therefore  necessary  to  choose  a  favorable  time,  and  this 
was  when  he  found  that  the  late  Monsieur  de  Vaudreuil  had 
been  informed  of  all  his  doings  and  had  administered  a  severe 
reprimand  to  him.  Then  he  raised  the  mask  and  in  order  to 
revenge  himself  and  to  manifest  his  resentment,  he  at  last 
brought  forth  the  Calumet  and  the  Dance.  When  the  mission- 
ary of  St  Fran(^ois,  wlio  had  been  a  witness  of  what  had  occurred 
in  Father  Bigot's  time,  saw  this  Dance  suddenly  make  its 
appearance,  he  was  surprised  at  its  novelty,  and  heard  some 
savages  say  that  Christians  could  not  amuse  themselves  ivith 
such  diversions.  He,  therefore,  carefully  inquired  into  the 
matter  and  this  is  what  he  learned : — 

1st.  That  this  Dance  was  really  a  religious  ceremony  not  only 
amongst  the  Renards  but  also  amongst  all  the  nations  of  the 
upper  country;  that  it  was  called  the  Spirit  Dance;  that  thej 
did  not  say:  ^Mance  with  the  Calumet,''  but  "dance  in  honor 
of  the  CalumJet;"  in  other  words  that  it  was  the  God  of  those 

2nd.  That  the  words  used  in  the  song  of  that  Dance  are  an 
invocation  of  the  Spirit. 

3d.  That  when  the  Calumet  is  smoked  in  the  Councils,  a  man 
whose  wife  is  pregnant  must  abstain  from  smoking  it,  because 
his  wife  would  not  be  safely  delivered  of  her  child  and  the  latter 
would  inevitably  die. 

4th.  That  this  Dance  is  used  to  call  the  souls  of  those  against 

iVincent  Bigot  arrived  in  Canada  in  16S0,  and  in  1694  founded  the 
Abenaki  mission  at  Penlegoet.     From  1704-10,  he  was  superior  of  the 
Canadian  missions.     Returning  to  France  in  1713,  he  was  made  pro- 
curer of  these  missions,  and  died  in  France  in  1720. — Ed. 
13  [  195  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

whom  war  is  to  be  waged,  and  by  tbis  means  to  kill  their 
enemies  without  fail. 

5th.  To  conciliate  foreign  and  hostile  Nations  and  make  a 
lasting  peace  with  them. 

6th.  To  obtain  fine  weather  or  rain,  according  to  the  needs 
of  the  soil. 

7th.  To  have  favorable  winds  while  navigating. 

8th.  Finally,  that  it  is  a  specific  for  warding  off  evil  and  for 
obtaining  benefits  of  all  kinds. 

In  consequence  of  the  above  statement  a  missionary  asks 
whether  he  can  permit  his  new  Christians  to  perform  the  Calu- 
met Dance,  as  an  indifferent  matter.  And  this  is  how  he  puts 
his  question.  Can  we  permit  our  new  Christians  to  take  part 
in  that  which,  from  the  words  of  the  song  and  the  features  of 
the  dance,  is  a  Religious  ceremony  amongst  the  idolatrous  na- 
tions whence  this  song  and  this  dance  have  been  brought  ?  The 
Reasons  for  doubting  this  are  derived  from  the  nature  of  the 
thing  itself,  from  the  character  of  the  new  Christians,  from 
the  circumstances,  and  finally  from  the  following  considera- 

1st.  That  this  Dance  amongst  idolatrous  nations  is  used  for 
all  the  purposes  above  set  forth  is  a  fact  proved  by  the  testi- 
mony of  all  the  French  who  have  travelled  in  the  upper  country; 
all  our  savages  admit  it,  and  I  do  not  think  that  a  single  mis- 
sionary doubts  it.  But  that  the  words  of  the  song  are  an  invoca- 
tion of  the  Spirit  is  not  easy  to  prove  by  a  large  number  of  wit- 
nesses, because  one  must  have  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the 
language  of  those  I^Tations  to  be  able  tO'  judge  of  it ;  and  this  is 
what  Father  Chardon  formerly  asserted. 

This  suHumerr,  1734,  the  Abenakis  asked  Monsieur  the  Mar- 
quis de  Beauharnois  that  they  be  allowed  to  perform  that 
Dance;  they  made  use  of  all  their  eloquence  to  convince  him 
that  it  was  a  mere  trifle ;  but,  nevertheless,  they  admitted  to  him 
that  they  looked  upon  this  Dance  as  a  flag,  a  standard,  a  symbol. 
They  thought  they  could  deceive  Monsieur  the  Governor'a 
wisdom  by  making  use  of  a  word  that  might  escape  his  pene- 
tration ;  but  the  Answer  they  received  from  him  convinced  them 

[  196  ] 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

iihat  tliey  could  not  easily  mislead  liim.  Therefore  let  atten- 
tion be  paid  to  the  meaning  of  tlie  word  flag,  standard,  symbol. 
Everbody  knows  tbe  Savages  well  enongli  to  be  aware  that  they 
are  fond  of  expressing  themselves  in  figurative  language  and 
that  they  perfectly  understand  all  the  meanings  of  the  words 
which  convey  some  image  to  their  minds.  The  Abenakis  have 
received  the  Calumet  Dance  from  the  Renards;  this  Calumet 
Dance  brings  about  union  and  peace  between  nations;  the 
Abenakis  wish  to  retain  this  flag  of  the  Renards ;  therefore  they 
wish  to  live  on  good  terms  with  the  R<enards.  If  that  inference 
be  correct,  will  this  one  be  less  so?  The  Calumet  Dance  is  a 
Eieligious  Ceremony  amongst  the  Renards;  the  Abenakis  wish 
to  retain  this  Dance  as  a  flag,  a  standard,  a  symbol.  The 
Abenakis  therefore  desire  to  appear,  at  least  outwardly,  to  have 
the  God  of  the  Renards'  Religion.  Consequently  the  Mis- 
sionary was  not  surprised  when — on  the  Return  of  the  Aben- 
akis from  Montreal  and  on  his  declaring  to  the  Leader  of  the 
present  Conspiracy  that  the  Christian  Religion  and  this  idol- 
atrous Dance  could  not  exist  together  and  that  a  choice  must 
be  made  between  them — he  heard  the  savage  reply  coldly  and 
firmly :  "Since  these  two  things  are  incompatible,  the  Calumet 
Dance  must  therefore  be  retained  in  preference." 

*  *  *  *  ^  *  *  * 

3d.  The  levity  and  inconstancy  of  the  Siavages,  their  train- 
ing which  makes  them  averse  to  labor,  to  control,  and  to  re- 
straint; the  love  of  independence  and  freedom;  dissoluteness 
in  the  young  men;  unfaithfulness  in  marriages;  their  intem- 
perance and  excesses  while  intoxicated ;  all  these  defects  are  but 
80  many  vices  of  mankind.  The  Gospel  has  infallible  remedies 
for  repressing  them  as  it  effectively  represses  them  in  all  thd 
other  nations  of  the  world.  But  here  is  a  sin  of  a  special 
nature  and  which  is  peculiar  to  all  the  Savages;  it  consists  in 
sifting  this  same  Gospel  through  the  Sieve  of  the  Councils. 
Accustomed  as  they  are  to  hold  Councils  to  deliberate  on  matters 
of  the  slightest  importance,  they  do  the  same  with  respect  to 
the  word  of  God  that  is  announced  to  them.     If  they  hear  the 

[  197  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


Missionary  speak  of  a  particular  virtue  and  demonstrate  its 
necessity,  a  Savage  will  shortly  afterward  say  in  his  cabin  or 
at  an  assembly,  that  what  has  been  heard  in  the  church  is,  in 
truth,  very  fine  but  that  assuredly  God  does  not  ask  it  of  Sav- 
ages. If  they  hear  a  strong  denunciation  of  certain  vices, 
somebody  will  soon  apply  a  corrective  and  say:  "Oh!  surely 
God  will  not  call  us  to  account  for  that  and  will  not  judge  us 
for  it;  surely  God  will  not  damn,  a  Savage  for  such  a  thing." 
The  decision  is  pronounced;  an  Elder  has  spoken;  the  judg- 
ment is  final  and  without  appeal.  In  vain  will  the  Missionary 
thunder  in  the  church  and  protest  that  he  announces  the  word 
of  God  purely  and  simply ;  the  opposers,  like  unto  the  venerable 
magistrates  of  our  courts  who  are  insensible  to  the  insults  of 
the  persons  against  whose  suits  they  have  decided,  let  the  mis- 
sionary call  out,  and  will  not  abandon  the  opinions  they  have 


This  year^  our  Chiefs  were  dispersed  in  various  directions: 
two  went  to  carry  messages  to  the  Aniers,^  another  to  the  Misi- 
sakis.  During  their  absence,  our  young  men  supported  by  their 
partiizans  won  over  the  young  Chief  who  remained.  They 
persuaded  him  both  by  their  fine  words  and  by  the  flattering 
hope  that  he  would  be  the  only  Chief  in  this  mission  owing  to 
the  thorough  devotion  that  the  young  men  would  have  for  him. 
The  temptation  was  too  great  for  a  Savage  to  resist. 

The  missionary  can  truthfully  assert  that  of  all  those  who 
are  most  outspoken  in  favor  of  this  Dance,  some  are  very  disso- 
lute in  their  morals ;  the  others  have  no  religion,  and  not  one 
of  them  is  attached  to  the  French.  E^en  if  this  Dance  had  no 
other  drawbacks  than  all  the  other  dances,  should  it  be  per- 
mitted under  the  circumstances  ? 


If  there  were  amongst  the  Christians  any  upholders  of  the 
Oalumet  dance,  they  could  merely  allege  the  protestation  of  the 

1  Date  on  margin  of  MS.,  1734. — Ed. 

2 French  appellation  for  the  Mohawk  Indians. — Ed. 

[  198  ] 

L73i]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Savages  that  they  mean  no  evil.  The  following  facts  will 
over-rule  this  plea: 

1st  fact — He  who  brought  the  Dance  here  about  fifteen  years 
ago,  gave  it  to  be  understood  that  its  reception  would  be  a  pro- 
tection against  all  the  baleful  consequences  of  war,  while  its 
rejection  would  result  in  sure  destruction  by  the  enemy.  In 
all  the  attempts  that  have  since  been  made  to  establish  the  Dance 
in  this  Mission,  the  following  words  have  been  heard  a  hundred 
times  to  fall  from  the  lips  of  the  supporters  of  the  Dance :  "We 
are  dead ;  we  are  being  killed ;  the  only  means  we  have  for  our 
preservation  are  taken  from  us."  These  words  have  been  heard 
by  the  missionary,  uttered  by  an  Elder  in  the  middle  of  the 
Village  while  the  people  were  coming  out  after  mass. 

2nd  fact — An  Abenakis  who  is  distinguished  in  his  I^ation 
through  his  exploits  and  who  is  the  chief  upholder  of  the 
Dance,  despairing  of  being  able  to  establish  it  at  St.  Frangois 
through  his  own  credit,  withdraws  in  disgust  in  the  direction 
of  la  Baye  in  the  upper  country.  He  falls  ill  and  finding  him- 
self at  death's  door,  he  sends  for  Father  Chardon;  he  makes 
his  confession ;  he  has  not  been  a  Saint  but  in  his  present  con- 
dition, nothing  troubles  him  more  than  all  he  has  done  to  have 
the  Dance  admitted  in  St  Francois;  he  acknowledges  all  the 
evil  connected  with  it  and  begs  his  Confessor  to  inform  the 
missionary  of  St  Frangois  of  his  regret  for  the  harm  he  has 
done  in  his  Mission  and  that  he  makes  reparation  for  it  as 
best  he  can  at  death. 

3rd  f  act^ — Young  men  in  this  Mission  who  were  preparing 
for  the  Dance  have  been  heard  to  say  to  those  who  warned  them 
not  to  do  so :  "Why  do  you  wish  to  prevent  us  from  doing  what 
we  do  ?  It  is  as  if  w^e  took  part  in  the  procession  of  the  Blessed 

4lh  fact — The  Calumet  feathers  were  brought  here  again 
two  years  ago.  They  were  distributed  secretly  amongst  all  the 
cabins  of  this  Mission  to  receive  them.  In  every  cabin  the 
choice  fell  uj)on  the  persons  who  could  be  relied  on.  Olie  was 
addressed  to  a  newly  converted  woman  from  Orange.  In  vain 
was  it  represented  to  her  that  these  feathers  had  been  received 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voixvii 

in  all  ihe  cabins;  tliat  hers  would  inevitably  be  destroyed  if 
Bbe  took  not  that  feather ;  she  persisted  in  saying  that  when  she 
was  baptized  she  renounced  all  the  Savages'  superstitions.  And 
this  good  woman,  who  has  not  yet  attained  the  age  of  de- 
crepitude (she  may  be  about  45  years  old),  when  her  mis- 
sionary gives  her  advice,  is  very  well  able  to  reply  that  her 
cabin  is  the  only  one  in  the  Mission  where  Idolatry  is  not 

5th  fact — The  Chief  of  whom  I  have  spoken  and  who  per- 
ished so  miserably  3  or  4  years  ago,  before  going  out  hunting 
for  the  last  time,  placed  the  Calumet  feathers  in  his  niece's 
hands  recommending  her  to  keep  them  very  carefully  in  her 
box  as  the  sole  safeguard  of  the  Village,  and  the  infallible 
means  of  preserving  it.  The  niece  obeyed  her  uncle.  Some 
time  afterward  she  fell  ill.  Seeing  that  she  was  about  to  die, 
she  called  in  her  missionary  and  informed  him  of  the  sin  she 
had  committed  by  taking  charge  of  so  abominable  a  thing, 
which  was  looked  upon  as  the  protecting  Deity  of  the  Village, 

The  Calumet  Dance  being  what  we  have  shown  it  to  be ;  the 
Christians  who  have  received  it  being  such  as  we  have  depicted 
them ;  the  circumstances  needing  only  some  other  detailed  facts 
to  show  all  its  grievousness ;  the  consequences  being  inevitable; 
and,  finally,  the  Abenakis  retaining  this  Dance  with  the  same 
views  and  the  same  ideas  with  which  it  was  established  or  at 
least  with  which  it  was  performed  amongst  idolatrous  INTations, 
can  it  be  authorized,  permitted  or  tolerated  ? 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  Frencli  IVIinister,  justifying  his  con- 
nection with  the  Green  Bay  fiasco,  dated  Oct.  5,  1734.  MS.  in  archives 
of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n., 
vol.  61,  c.  n,  fol.  287."] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — (You  do  me  the  honor  of  informing  me  by 
your  letter  of  the  20th  of  April  last  that  his  Majesty  causes  an 
explaaation  to  be  given  me,  by  his  despatch  to  Monsieur  Hoo- 



1734]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

quart  and  myself  jointly  of  his  intentions  Regarding  what  con- 
cerns each  nation.  I  have  seen  what  His  Majesty  is  pleased 
to  point  out  to  me  on  this  Subject,  and  I  venture  to  assure  him 
that  this  matter  has  always  received  my  chief  attention  since 
I  have  Been  in  this  Colony.  You  will  Observe,  Monseigneur, 
by  our  reply  to  the  King's  memorial,  the  measures  that  I  con- 
tinue to  take  to  restore  tranquillity  in  the  upper  Country. 

It  would  have  been  difficult  for  me  to  forestall  the  events  that 
gave  rise  to  the  troubles  there  in  connection  with  the  Sakis  and 
Renards,  and  after  having  had  the  honor  of  informing  you  by 
our  joint  letter  of  the  11th  of  ^November  last  of  what  had 
caused  the  unfortunate  affair  of  la  Baye,  I  would  add  that  it 
should  be  attributed  less  to  the  remnant  of  the  Eenard  nation, 
than  to  the  slight  precautions  observed  by  the  Sieur  de  Villiera 
on  that  occasion.  What  I  had  had  the  honor  of  telling  you, 
Monseigneur,  in  the  preceding  years,  respecting  the  condition 
to  which  the  Renards  were  reduced,  was  authentic ;  and  there  was 
no  reason  to  think  that  so  small  a  number  as  those  that  remained 
and  implored  mercy  on  all  sides,  could  cause  ,any  trouble  in 
the  upper  Country,  especially  after  the  assurance  I  had  re- 
ceived, as  I  had  the  honor  of  informing  you,  that  the  Re- 
mainder of  that  Nation,  after  trying  in  vain  to  effect  an  alli- 
ance with  all  the  other  nations,  who  had  refused  them,  saw  no 
other  way  of  saving  their  lives  than  by  coming  and  throwing 
themselves  on  their  Father's  mercy.  !N"evertheless,  although 
this  information  came  to  me  from  all  sides,  and,  moreover, 
appearances  gave  me  no  reason  to  suspect  anything  else,  still, 
the  inconstancy  of  the  savages  and  the  little  reliance  that  can 
be  placed  in  their  promises  led  me  to  think  of  the  measures  that 
should  be  taken  to  prevent  the  consequences  that  might  result 
from  that  affair,  in  the  event  of  the  Renards.  succeeding  in  cor- 
rupting some  nations,  and  in  finding  a  refuge  among  them. 

To  that  end  I  had  ordered  the  Sieur  de  Villiers  by  special 
instructions  to  take  every  proper  precaution,  through  the 
nations  that  are  faithful  to  us,  to  bring  in  the  remainder  of  the 
Renards,  or  to  destroy  them  if  he  could  not  succeed  in  doing  so. 
I  had  expressly  recommended  to  him  before  attempting  any- 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voLxvh 

thing,  to  make  sure  of  the  Sakis  (as  being  Those  who  seemed  to 
me  the  most  to  be  suspected)  for  the  success  of  the  undertaking, 
And  with  that  object  I  had  given  him  a  large  collar,  accomr 
panied  by  presents  and  tw^o  medals  for  the  two  most  noted 
ohiefs  of  that  ]^ation,i — a  Course  that  seemed  all  the  more 
suitable  since  those  savages  had  Until  then  manifested  naught 
but  Hostility  toward  the  Renards  and  had  also  refused  their 
alliance.  The  precautions  that  I  took  were  calculated  to 
strengthen  the  resolution  they  had  taken,  and  to  estrange  them 
more  and  more  from  the  Renards.  If  those  measures,  Mon- 
seigneur,  had  been  Followed  as  I  had  arranged  them,  I  can 
assert  that  Matters  would  not  have  reached  such  an  extremity. 
As  far  as  I  w^as  concerned,  they  were  the  Best  measures  that  I 
could  take,  and  They  seemed  to  me  all  the  more  safe  since  I 
entrusted  their  execution  to  an  officer  who  had  always  displayed 
great  prudence  in  his  actions.  Monsieur  de  Villiers's  conduct 
<m  that  occasion  gave  a  different  aspect  to  the  affair.  That 
officer,  who  was  ordered  to  act  with  the  most  gentle  means,  and  to 
send  word  to  the  friendly  nations  to  deliver  up  the  Renards  to 
him  or  to  destroy  them  utterly,  began  by  talking  of  war  at 
Missilimakinac ;  and  without  heeding  the  commands  that  had 
been  given  him,  he  marched  straight  to  la  Baye  with  thirty 
French  and  a  hundred  folles  avoines  Savages,  whom  he  gathered 
on  the  way ;  and  he  ordered  the  Sieur  de  Repentigny  to  follow 
him.  with  thirty  French  whom  he  also  had  with  him  and  a  hun- 
dred Outauacs.  On  approaching  the  post  of  la  Baye,  the  Sieur 
de  Yilliers  left  the  Sieur  de  Repentigny  with  his  party  half  a 
league  from  the  fort  of  the  Sakis  with  orders  to  proceed  there 
on  hearing  the  signal  of  three  gun-shots ;  and  after  embarking 
in  his  oanoe  to  continue  his  route,  he  despatched  his  eldest  son 
with  ten  Frenchmen  and  fifty  savages  to  the  petit  Oacalin,  a 
place  by  which  the  Renards  might  escape  from  the  Sakis'  fort, 
and  he  kept  with  Him  only  sixteen  men,  whom  he  divided  into 
two  parties  to  blockade  the  fort.  To  say  nothing  of  the  fact 
that  all  these  manoeuvres  were  contrary  to  the  orders  that  he 
had  received  to  adopt  only  the  gentlest  measures  to  secure  the 
Subjugation  of  the  Renards,  and  that  for  the  Carrying  out  of 

[  202  ] 


1731]:        French  ReQ;ime  in  Wisconsin 


tis  design,  lie  had  witli  Him  but  those  sixteen  men  (for  the 
savages  of  his  party  had  asked  him  to  allow  them  time  to  hold 
a  feast),  he  acted  in  this  affair  with  still  less  prudence  and 
circumspection  since — in  addition  to  the  fact  that  there  was 
no  question  of  coming  into  conflict  with  the  Sakis  or  with  any 
other  nation  to  secure  the  Eenards — the  Very  objection  of  the 
Sakis  at  the  outset  to  deliver  up  the  remiainder  of  that  nation, 
and  their  request  to  Him  not  to  use  violence  to  get  them  because 
it  was  not  yet  time,  should  have  induced  him  to  have  had  some 
consideration  for  the  Sakis,  and  to  have  attempted  to  win  them 
by  means  of  the  presents  that  I  had  entrusted  to  him,  especially 
as  his  forces  were  not  yet  assembled.  The  Sieur  de  Villiers, 
not  heeding  all  these  considerations  and  guided  solely  by  rash 
Bravery  and  courage,  brought  on  the  misfortune  that  happened, 
which  it  was  impossible  for  me  to  foresee  owing  to  the  measures 
that  I  had  taken.  He  tried  to  enter  the  Sakis  fort,  He  being 
the  tenth,  to  force  and  tear  down  the  barrier,  in  the  hope  that 
such  boldness  would  overawe  them.  Some  Chiefs  told  him  to 
withdraw;  that  their  Young  men  had  no  longer  any  sense  and 
that  if  he  persisted  he  would  be  a  dead  man.  Nothing  stopped 
that  Officer.  A  gun-shot  Was  fired  by  a  Sakis  or  by  a  Rienard, 
and  killed  the  son  of  the  Sieur  de  Villiers  who  was  at  his  side. 
The  Father  fired  his  gun  at  the  first  who  presented  himself,  and 
this  Was  followed  by  a  volley  from  the  warriors  of  the  Village 
and  he  was  killed.  I  would  have  had  the  honor,  Monseigneur, 
of  giving  you  these  particulars  last  year  in  our  joint  letter  on 
the  subject  of  this  affair,  had  I  been  informed  of  them.  But 
the  news  only  reached  me  last  Summer,  and  I  was  all  the  more 
surprised  at  it,  since  the  orders  I  had  given  to  the  Sieur  de 
Villiers  were  very  different  from  the  manner  in  which  he 
acted.  In  any  case  he  had  engaged  in  this  affair  which  would, 
in  truth,  have  done  honor  to  the  French,  had  he  (although  With- 
out orders)  employed  his  forces  judiciously. 

You  will  observe,  Monseigneur,  in  the  reply  to  the  King's 
memorial  the  measures  that  I  have  taken  to  prevent  the  Conse- 
quences of  this  affair  and  to  put  an  end  to  the  same,  if  possible 
by  conciliatory  means  as  far  as  the  Sakis  are  concerned.     I 

[  203  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voLxvu 

have  occasioned  as  little  expense  as  possible  to  His  Majesty, 
and  lie  will  not  be  able  to  hear  of  the  Success  of  our  efforts 
before  next  year. 

I  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant 

Quebec,  October  5th,  1734.  Beaijharnois 



[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  6,  1734. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  61,  c.  11,  fol.  292.] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  have  received  the  letter  you  did  me  the 
honor  of  writing  to  me  on  the  20th  of  April  last.  I  noticed 
what  you  were  pleased  to  tell  me  respecting  the  establishment 
of  Detroit  and  the  garrison  whose  increase  I  had  the  honor  to  ask 
of  you,  which  you  were  pleased  to  report  to  His  Majesty.  You 
will  Observe,  Monseigneur,  by  a  joint  despatch  from  Monsieur 
hooquart  and  Myself,  the  means  we  are  taking  to  contribute  to 
the  establishment  of  that  post  by  the  grant  of  the  concessions 
requested  by  the  habitants;  and  by  the  care  I  have  taken  in 
the  selection  of  the  Commandant  whom  I  sent  thither.  I  ac- 
knowledge, Monseigneur,  that  such  precautions  may  be  useful 
for  the  progress  of  that  settlement,  His  Majesty's  Intention 
being  that  we  should  confine  ourselves  to  it  for  the  present.  I 
should  have  nothing  to  add  did  not  the  affair  of  the  Ouyatanons, 
whereon  we  have  the  honor  to  report  to  you  in  the  memorial  to 
the  King,  show  the  necessity  of  having  strong  garrisons  in  th« 
posts  to  protect  them  against  the  attacks  of  the  savages  to  which 
they  are  exposed,  and  against  which  it  is  always  good  to  be  on 
one's  guard.  This  is  still  more  necessary  in  the  case  of  the 
post  of  Detroit  as  it  is  the  entrepot  for  and  the  connecting  link 
with  Louisiana  and  the  other  neighboring  posts.  The  return 
of  the  Ouyatanons  and  the  repentance  they  have  manifested, 
can  be  attributed  solely  to  their  fear  of  the  force  sent  against 
Them  by  the  Commandant  of  Detroit.  These  considerations, 
Monseigneur,  and  the  necessity  of  having  garrisons  of  sufficient 


1734]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

strength  to  enable  the  Commandant  to  make  the  King's  author- 
ity respected,  have  induced  me,  every  year,  to  beg  you  to  urge 
His  Majesty  to  order  a  larger  number  of  troops  to  be  sent  to  this 
country  to  enable  me  to  supply  garrisons  to  the  posts  without 
-weakening  below  Their  present  strength  the  companies  stationed 
in  the  towns.  Although  I  have  sent  to  the  posts  only  the  num^ 
ber  of  soldiers  that  was  strictly  necessary,  I  would  nevertheless 
not  have  taken  the  liberty  of  addressing  fresh  remonstrances  to 
you  on  the  subject,  had  not  the  reasons  that  influenced  me  in 
previous  years,  seemed  to  me  deserving  of  more  attention, 
especially  in  our  present  state  of  uncertainty  as  to  the  course 
our  neighbors  [the  English]  may  pursue.  This  matter,  Mon- 
seigneur,  seems  the  strictest  of  the  obligations  imposed  on  me 
and,  although  you  have  done  me  the  honor  of  informing  me  that 
His  Majesty  could  not  bring  himself  to  order  am  additional 
number  of  troops  to  be  sent,  as  I  had  tal^en  the  liberty  of  asking, 
I  have  considered  that  present  circumstances  might  justify  me 
in  repeating  my  request,  as  the  good  of  his  Majesty's  service, 
and  the  welfare  of  the  Colony  are  at  stake.  I  venture  to  flatter 
myself,  Monseigneur,  that  you  will  be  pleased  to  take  this  into 
consideration,  especially  after  I  have  had  the  honor  to  assure 
jcm  that  such  increase  is  indispensable  for  strengthening  the 
posts  of  the  upper  Country,  and  retaining  the  necessary  garri- 
sons in  the  towns. 

I  had  the  honor  to  inform  you  last  year  that,  inasmuch  as 
the  Sieur  Peau^  had  incurred  great  expense  in  proceeding  to 
Detroit,  That  Officer  would  have  been  completely  ruined  had  I 
brought  him  back  the  same  year.  At  the  same  time  I  flattered 
myself,  Monseigneur,  that  His  Majesty  would  appreciate  these 
reasons.     But,  although  the  Sieur  Peau  was  greatly  needed  at 

1  Jacques-Hughes  P6g,u,  Sieur  de  Livaudi^re,  was  born  in  Paris  in 
1682,  and  came  to  Canada  as  officer  in  the  king's  troops.  He  was  com- 
mandant at  Fort  Frotenac  in  1724,  and  at  Chambly  in  1727.  After 
his  service  at  Detroit  (1732-30),  he  returned  to  Quebec,  and  was  made 
town  major  of  Quebec,  where  he  died  in  1747.  His  son  was  the  pecu- 
lator, whose  wife  was  mistress  of  Bigot,  the  last  intendant  of  New 
France. — Ed. 

[  205  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

that  post  owing  to  tlie  various  occurrences  tliat  had  happened 

there  and  with  which  he  is  thoroughly  familiar,  I  will  not  show 

the  same  consideration  in  future  and  he  will  be  relieved  next 

spring.     I  had  made  arrangements  for  this  prior  to  the  receipt 

of  your  orders.     However,  his  service  as  Town  Major  has  not 

heen  injuriously  affected  thereby. 


I  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Honseigneur,  Your 

very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant. 

Quebec,  October  6th,  1734. 


[Extracts  from  the  yearly  report  of  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart,  in 
reply  to  the  King's  memorial,  relating  to  affairs  in  the  upper  country, 
dated  Oct.  7,  1734.     Source:  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  65.] 



Since  the  blow  Struck  by  the  Sakis  and  Renards  jointly  at 
la  Baye  on  the  16th  September  1733,  and  their  precipitate 
flight  after  evacuating  their  fort,  pursued  by  the  Siieur  Cou- 
lons  de  Villiers,  the  Younger,  Those  Savages,  after  Wandering 
about  for  some  time,  asked  In  vain  for  a  refuge  among  the 
sioux  and  ayoiiais  who  refused  it  to  them.  The  last  news  that 
the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  has  received,  shows  that  they  have 
Established  themselves  in  a  fort  on  the  River  Wapsipinikam,^ 
two  or  three  days'  journey  below  the  Oiiiseonsin  in  the  East 
part  of  the  Mississippi,  near  the  riviere  aux  Boeufs  where  Fa- 
ther Guignas,  a  Jesuit  Missionary,  and  the  Ereuch  Were  stopped 
when  they  Elvacuated  the  post  among  the  sioux  in  1728.^  The 
same  news  adds  that  the  Sakis  have  fortified  themselves  and 
that  they  have  compelled  the  Benards  to  build  a  fort  for  them- 
selves so  as  to  be  separate  from  them,  but  nevertheless  in  their 

iThe  present  Wapsipinicon  River,  Iowa. — Ed. 
2  See  ante,  p.  38.— Ed. 


1734]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

neigliborhood.  It  may  be  considered  from  the  conduct  of  the 
Sakis  since  the  affair  of  la  Baye,  that  they  do  not  intend  to 
7  persist  in  supporting  the  Eenards,  and  in  undertaking  their 
defence;  That,  on  the  contrary,  they  wish  to  obtain  peace  and 
pardon  for  themselves;  And  the  reason  we  think  so  is  that  all 
the  Letters  from  the  Officers  at  the  Posts  say  the  same  thing, 
which  they  have  heard  from  Savages  Upon  whom  nevertheless 
we  cannot  otherwise  Rely.  The  report  that  may  be  considered 
the  most  reliable  comes  from  a  very  friendly  Kepissingue  saVage 
who  was  hunting  with  them,  and  who  said  the  same  thing  to  the 
Sieur  de  Beauhamois. 

The  Sieur  de  Celoron,^  the  Commandant  at  Missilimakinac, 
writes  that  he  has  been  informed  by  Poux  Savages  that  the 
sakis  regret  that  they  have  become  mixed  up  in  this  unforti;iiiate 
affair  of  which  they  openly  say  the  Eenards  Were  the  cause, 
and  that  they  Intend  to  separate  and  detach  themselves  from 
them  in  order  to  obtain  forgiveness. 

The  Sieur  Linctot,  the  Commandant  among  the  sioux,  writes 
that  the  Savages  at  his  Post  and  a  portion  of  the  Puants  have 
-^  promised  not  to  abandon  him,  and  that,  on  the  contrary,  they 
were  ready  to  attack  the  Sakis  and  Eenards.  But  that  officer 
keeps  ever  On  His  guard,  because  from  the  30  Cabins  of  Puanta 
that  were  at  his  post,  8  or  10  detached  themselves  last  winter 
to  go  and  join  the  Sakis,  but  they  have  since  then  returned  to 
their  Village. 

1  There  seem  to  be  no  data  to  determine  whether  this  was  the  father 
or  son.  Jean  Baptiste  Celoron,  Sieur  de  Blainville,  was  born  in  Paris 
in  1G64;  came  to  Canada  as  a  lieutenant  in  the  troops,  and  died  in 
Montreal,  June,  1735.  His  son,  Pierre  Joseph,  was  born  in  1693,  and 
was  eminent  for  his  services  in  the  Western  country.  In  1739  he  led 
the  northern  troops  against  the  Chickasaws;  from  1742-43,  and 
again  from  1750-54,  he  was  commandant  at  Detroit.  He  commanded 
at  Niagara,  1744-46,  and  at  Crown  Point,  1747-49.  He  was  probably 
the  leader  of  the  famous  Ohio  expedition  of  1749,  although  possibly 
the  commandant  was  his  younger  brother,  Jean  Baptiste.  In  the 
Seven  Years  War  (1754-63),  he  was  on  the  staff  of  the  commander-in- 
chief,  with  the  rank  of  major.  In  17G0,  he  was  characterized  as  "poor 
and  brave,"  and  died  about  1777. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

The  Oiitawacs  of  Missilimakinac  came  down  last  Spring  to 
the  number  of  thirty  two.  Their  word  was  to  weep  for  the 
dead  and  to  ask  their  Father's  opinion  regarding  the  affair  at 
la  Baye.  But  when  the  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  discovered  that 
they  were  deputed  by  their  Village  to  present  him  with  a  large 
Black  Collar — which  Meant  that,  inasmuch  as  the  French  had 
been  killed  as  well  as  They,  it  was  impossible  for  them  to  go 
and  avenge  their  dead  unless  they  had  some  French  with  them — 
he  replied  to  them  that  he  would  not  abandon  them,  that  he 
wished  to  chastise  and  take  vengeance  upon  the  Sakis  and 
Eenards  for  their  treachery;  that  he  would  give  them  aid  in 
men  and  in  the  necessary  munitions  to  enable  them  to  act  with 
us.  On  receiving  this  reply,  the  Outaiiacs  went  back  satisfied 
to  Missilimakinac.  The  Sieur  Celeron,  who  commands  there, 
Elncouraged  them  in  the  Hope  that  the  Sieur  de  Beauhamois 
had  given  them,  and  they  seemed  to  be  disposed  to  march  and 
to  strike  on  the  arrival  of  the  Aid  that  Would  be  Sent  to  them. 

The  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  had  already  been  Informed  by 
the  Sieur  Pea@  the  Commandant  at  detroit,  of  the  Impatience 
felt  by  the  hurons,  the  Poutoiiatamis  and  Outaiiacs  at  that  post 
to  see  some  French  arrive  for  the  purpose  of  attacking  the  two 
Hostile  nations.  The  Savages  at  the  other  posts  have  asked 
the  same  thing.  Moreover,  the  bad  Impression  that  would 
have  been  produced  On  the  Minds  of  the  savages  by  refusing 
to  Send  any  French,  and  the  dangers  to  be  dreaded  in  future 
from  the  N^ations  of  this  continent  if  the  deed  committed  at  la 
Baye  remained  Unpunished, — All  these  circumstances,  and  the 
honor  of  the  French  name  have  determined  the  Sieur  de  Beau- 
hamois, after  conferring  with  the  Sieur  hocquart  and  the  most 
Experienced  officers  in  the  Colony,  to  detach  a  party  of  84 
French,  consisting  of  seven  officers  and  the  remainder  of  Cadets, 
Sergeants,  Soldiers  and  some  settlers.^  N'ot  Only  have  the 
officers  and  Cadets  Eagerly  volunteered  for  this  Service,  but 

1  In  a  letter  dated  Oct.  10,  1734,  Beauhamois  writes:  "In  the  en- 
lire  colony  there  are  actually  only  seven  hundred  and  fifty  soldiers, 
one  hundred  and  sixty  of  whom  are  in  the  different  posts,  and  sixty 
with  M.  Desnoyelles'  party."    N.  Y.  Colon.  Docs.,  ix,  p.  1040. — Ed. 


i73i]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

tte  remainder  of  tlie  detaclimeiit  have  also  expressed  the  great- 
est Willingness,  as  well  as  our  settled  savages  (to  the  number 
of  two  hundred)  who  have  asked  to  he  allowed  to  march  even 
if  no  French  should  go. 

The  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  has  selected  the  Sieur  de  ISToyelles 
to  commiand  the  party.  That  officer  is  very  Efficienit  and  is 
greatly  loved  by  the  Savages,  And  he  Adds  to  these  qualities  a 
Constitution  capable  of  Enduring  the  fatigues  of  an  Expedition 
which  can  be  undertaken  only  in  a  very  inclement  season,  for 
it  will  be  necessary  to  proceed  a  very  great  distance  on  foot  and 
on  Snow-shoes.  The  other  officers  and  the  reniainder  of  the 
detachment  are  Capable  of  Following  him. 

The  Sieur  de  !N"oyelles  left  Montreal  on  the  14th  of  August 
last  with  his  detachment.  He  is  ordered  by  his  Instructions  to 
proceed  in  the  first  place  to  detroit,  and  there  to  concert  with 
the  Sieur  Peair,  The  other  officers,  and  the  nations  at  that  post 
regarding  the  proper  action  to  be  taken  on  arriving  at  the  spot 
whither  the  Sakis  and  Eenards  have  retired ;  to  direct  his  route 
by  Mssilimakinac  or  in  a  straight  line  overland  according  to 
Circumstances ;  and,  in  the  latter  case,  he  is  to  agree  upon  a 
rendezvous  with  the  Sieur  de  celoron,  the  Commandant  at  Mis- 
silimakinac,  where  the  latter  may  join  him  with  the  Savages 
of  his  Post,  and  a  party  of  our  settled  Algonquins  And  !N"epis- 
singues  who  have  started  And  who  are  to  proceed  to  the  said 
post  by  the  way  of  the  great  Eaver.^  He  has  also  been  strongly 
recommended  to  keep  On  His  guard  to  Avoid  All  Ambuscades 
and  not  to  Elxpose  his  forces  except  when  very  necessary. 

The  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  should  Also  inform  His  Majesty 
that  inasmuch  as  a  considerable  portion  of  the  Outaiiacs  of 
Missilimakinac  who  are  one  of  the  nations  most  Interested  in 
the  matter,  are  of  Opinion  and  they  have  stated  that  they  would 
like  to  have  the  matter  settled  by  conciliatory  measures  with 
the  Sakis  upon  the  latter  giving  up  the  Eenards,  whom  the 
Outawacs  look  upon  as  the  sole  cause  of  the  troubles  in  the 

iThe  route  by  the  Ottawa  River  and  Lake  Nipissing,  through  Geor- 
gian Bay  and  Lake  Huron  to  Mackinac. — Ed. 

[  209  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

upper  country,  Tlie  Sieur  de  IsToyelles  lias  orders  to  act  accord- 
ingly, and  to  grant  peace  to  the  Sakis  if  they  consent  to  give 
up  ike  Renards ;  If  not  to  destroy  both  nations  And  to  let  our 
Savages  eat  them  up. 

He  will  also  take  at  the  various  posts  the  officers,  cadets  and 
Soldiers  whom  He  may  need  to  strengthen  His  .party  and  other 
Willing  French  Voyageurs  who  may  volunteer  to  serve  under 
him  on  this  Expedition.  We  have  reason  to  believe  that  there 
will  be  no  lack  of  these  as  His  Majesty  may  see  by  the  Account 
we  are  to  give  him  of  what  has  happened  among  the  Oiiiatanons. 

Such,  Monseigneur,  are  the  best  and  the  least  expensive  meas- 
ures that  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  could  take  for  securing  the 
punishment  of  the  Sakis  and  Eenards,  and  which  he  had  al- 
ready taken,  as  being  absolutely  necessary,  before  he  received 
his  Majesty's  orders.  His  Majesty  cannot  learn  of  their  suc- 
cess before  next  year. 

With  regard  to  the  two  Renard  chiefs  who  were  at  Quebec, 
one  died  and  We  have  sent  the  other,  named  Kiala,  an  intrepid 
man,  to  Martinique.  We  have  given  notice  of  it  to  Messieurs 
de  Champigny  and  d'orgeville.  The  hurons  of  Lorette  asked 
the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  last  winter  for  The  wife  of  the  latter 
savage  and  they  adopted  her.  Her  quiet  conduct  had  Led  them 
to  believe  that  there  was  no  risk  in  letting  her  go  with  other 
huron  women  to  the  ^N'eighborhood  of  Lake  St  Peter^  to  gather 
maiden-hair  Ferns.  The  woman  escaped,  and  the  Sieur  de 
Beauharnois  has  given  the  necessary  orders  for  her  recapture. 
If  she  can  be  caught  we  shall  Send  her  to  the  Islands  on  the  first 

The  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  Also  Sent  the  Sieur  de  Joncaire, 
the  Elder,  to  the  cholianons  to  continue  to  Watch  their  actions 
and  to  Maintain  them  in  the  favorable  dispositions  that  they 
Felt  in  previous  years.  We  have  received  no  news  concerning 
them  that  can  lead  us  to  suspect  their  faithfulness.  That  officer 
is  charged  with  the  duty  of  maintaining  them  in  it  and  of  In- 
ducing them  to  form  a  Village  with  the  Miamis  or  hurons  so 

lAn  enlargement  of  the  River  St.  Lawrence,  above  the  town  of  Three 
Rivers. —  Ed. 



French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

as  to  keep  them  away  from  the  snares  that  the  English  might 
set  for  them. 

The  Sieur  de  N"ojenes  has  faithfully  Performed  the  task 
with  which  the  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  had  entrusted  him  of  once 
more  gathering  the  scattered  Mi  amis  in  their  Village.  They 
Are  there  at  present,  And  the  Sieur  Damaud^  who  commands 

e  post,  has  excellently  seconded  him  in  this  matter. 

An  event  occurred  in  the  Village  of  the  Oiiiatanons,  where 

e  Sieur  de  V  Epernanche^  commands,  which  at  first  gave 
rise  to  considerable  disorder.  Two  young  men — one  a  French- 
man, the  other  a  Savage,  fought  together.  The  Frenchman  had 
the  advantage.  The  Savage  went  for  his  comrades  who  as- 
sembled tumultuously,  struck  some  blows  with  their  knives, 
and  pillaged  all  the  French  at  the  Post,  without  however  any 
murder  being  committed.  The  Sieur  de  L'Elpemanche  who 
was  2  or  3  arpents  from  there,  was  informed  of  it,  but  he 
was  unable  to  remedy  the  matter,  and  when  he  saw  that  he  was 
not  in  a  Position  to  Overawe  the  savages,  he  Sent  Expresses  to 
the  Sieur  Peau,  the  commandant  at  Detroit,  to  inform  him  of 
what  was  happening  and  to  ask  for  assistance.  Oil  the  arrival 
of  these  Expresses,  the  Sieur  Peau  assembled  the  French  of 
detroit,  who  all  asked  to  be  allowed  to  go  and  obtain  satisfac- 
tion for  this  Insult.  There  were  one  hundred  and  Twenty  of 
them.  One  hundred  and  fifteen  hurons  joined  them  with  a 
large  number  of  outawacs.  The  Sieur  Darnaud  who  was  then 
at  detroit  whither  he  had  come  for  Supplies,  was  given  the 
Command  of  the  party  which  consisted  of  324  men  when  it 
reached  the  Miamis.  But  as  he  was  preparing  to  proceed  to 
the  ouiatanons  with  his  detachment  He  received  a  Letter  from 
the  Sieur  de  L'Epernanche  informing  him  that  everything  was 

1  Nicolas-Marie  Renaiid  (d'Arnaud)  Davenne,  Sieur  de  Desmeloises, 
was  bom  in  1696,  the  son  of  a  wealthy  Montreal  merchant,  who  had 
many  dealings  with  the  coureiirs  de  bois  at  Mackinac.  In  1722  he 
married  Angelique  Chartier,  daughter  of  Lotbini^re.  In  1742  he  was 
in  command  at  Fort  Frontenac,  and  died  the  following  year. — Ed. 

zFrangois  de  I'Espervanche,  Sieur  de  Villemure,  a  cadet  in  the  troops. 
He  also  served  under  Jumonville  in  1748. — ^Ed, 

14  [211] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voixvu 

amicably  settled;  That  he  had  smoked  with  the  Oniatanon 
Chiefs  And  that  the  young  men  had  given  back  to  the  French 
the  things  they  had  Pillaged  from  them ;  That  these  same  chiefs 
had  assured  him  that  they  bound  themselves  to  restore  to  the 
French  whatever  might  be  wanting  in  what  their  young  men 
had  taken ;  That,  at  the  same  time,  he  was  no  longer  in  need  of 
the  assistance  that  he  had  asked  of  the  Sieur  Peau  And  that 
all  was  Quiet  at  His  post.  On  receiving  this  Letter  the  Sieur 
Damaud  resolved  to  remain  among  the  Mi  amis  where  He  was 
in  command  and  he  sent  back  the  Sieur  Duburon  with  the 
French  and  Savages  of  detroit. 

This  action  has  had  a  very  good  Effect  upon  the  nations 
which  It  has  inspired  with  Dread  and  leads  to  the  belief  that 
they  will  in  future  restrain  themselves  much  more  than  they 
have  hitherto  done. 

The  Sioux  have  not  yet  come  down  and  it  seems  as  if  they 
will  not  do  so  before  next  year. 


The  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  was  informed  only  by  His  Maj- 
esty's memorial  of  the  expedition  of  the  1,000  Chactas  whom 
Monsieur  de  Bienville  was  to  send  on  The  sixteenth  September 
1Y33  against  the  Chicachas,  And  that  he  was  to  put  at  their 
head  the  Sieur  Lesueur,  a  Lieutenant,^  with  two  Ensigns  and  a 
detachment  of  35  soldiers.  Thus  it  was  impossible  for  the 
Sieur  de  Beauharnois  to  concert  with  the  Sieur  Bienville  to 
set  in  motion  at  the  same  time  some  nations  of  this  colony  to 
harass  the  chicachas.  Moreover,  The  affair  of  la  Baye  has 
become  the  sole  object  of  all  our  Savages'  attention.  IN'ever- 
theless.  If  It  should  be  brought  to  a  conclusion  by  the  concil- 
iatory means  that  we  have  reported  to  his  majesty.  The  Sieur 
de  Beauhamois  will  Urge  the  Savages  of  detroit  and  the  other 
nations  of  the  Lakes  to  continue  to  harass  the  Chicachas.     They 

iTHis  was  probably  a  son  of  the  explorer,  Pierre  Charles  Le  Sueur 
(for  whom  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  173).  He  settled  in  Louisiana, 
and  had  several  children.  Le  Sueur,  the  younger,  is  called  "the  Cana- 
dian."   He  led  the  Choctaw  aganist  the  Natchez  in  1730. — Ed. 

[  212  ] 

1734]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

are  all  disposed  to  do  so  and  they  would  have  started  to  go 
there  had  it  not  been  for  the  affair  of  the  Sakis. 

The  Sieur  Dartagnet/  the  commandant  among  the  Illinois, 
informed  the  Sienr  de  Beauharnois  that  his  savages  have  greatly 
changed  in  their  disposition  since  Monsieur  Bienville  has  sent 
one  hundred  men  to  Garrison  that  post ;  That  those  savages  have 
become  much  more  submissive  and  docile  And  Finally  that  a 
party  of  two  hundred  Warriors  of  that  nation  have  gone  down 
to  attack  the  Chicachas.  He  adds  that  it  is  a  month's  journey 
and  we  do  not  yet  know  the  Success  of  that  Expedition. 


We  have  JN'otified  Madame  de  la  Chaesaigne  and  the  widow 
of  the  Sieur  de  Villiers  of  the  pensions  that  His  Majesty  has 
been  pleased  to  grant  them. 

We  Remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servants, 


Quebec,  October  7th,  1734.  HoCQUART 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister, 
dated  Oct.  7,  1734.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  61, 
c.  11,  fol.  2?9.] 

Monseigneur — 

The  Sieur  Darnaud,  Commandant  in  the  Miamis  country, 
wrote  me  in  the  month  of  June  last  that  the  savages  had  given 
him  their  word  to  attack  the  Sakis  and  Eenards  on  the  first 
order  they  should  receive  from  their  Father,  but,  as  they 
thought  such  order  would  come  only  very  late.  All  the  Miamis, 

1  Pierre  d'^Artaguette,  son  or  younger  brother  of  Diron  d'Artaguetie, 
was  appointed  commissary  of  Louisiana  in  1708.  Pierre  being  sent  to 
command  at  Fort  Chartres  in  1733,  perished  at  the  hands  of  the 
Indians  in  1736  while  leading  the  ill-fated  expedition  against  the 
Chickasaw. — Ed. 

[  213  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

with,  the  exception  of  six  old  men,  had  gone  on  the  war-path 

against  the   Chicachas,   and  that  they  hoped  to  return  soon 

enough  to  carry  out  their  Father's  Intentions.    The  Ouyatanons 

and  other  ISTations  of  this  continent  are  all  disposed  to  march 

against  the  Chicachas,  and  a  number  of  hands  would  have  set 

out  had  not  the  affair  that  happened  at  la  Baye  kept  them  all 

in  suspense  owing  to  their  uncertainty  regarding  the  orders  I 

shall  have  to  give  to  avenge  the  treachery  of  the  Sakis,  whereon 

I  have  the  honor  to  report  to  you  in  the  reply  to  the  King's 



I  remain  with  very  profound  respect,   Monseigneur,   Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant. 


Quebec,  October  10th,  1734. 


[M.S.  in  archives  of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  "Collection 
Moreau-St.  M§ry,  vol.  10,  f.  12,  219."] 

Charles,  Marquis  de  Beauharnois,  Commander  of  the  mili- 
tary order  of  St.  Louis,  Governor  and  lieutenant-general  for  the 
King  In  new  France  and  in  the  Province  of  Louisiana. 

Gilles  Hocquart,  Chevalier,  Councillor  of  the  King  in  his 
councils,  Intendant  of  justice,  police  and  finance  in  the  said 

With  regard  to  the  information  given  us  that  the  Traders 
of  fort  Ponchartrain,  of  detroit  and  of  Missilimakina,  Under 
pretext  of  securing  their  Credits  for  the  loans  they  make  to 
the  Savages,  take  from  the  said  Savages  as  security  English 
Brandy  and  goods,  which  tends  directly  to  favor  foreign  Trade, 
and  to  ruin  that  of  the  Colony  And,  in  particular,  the  trade  of 
those  two  posts,  contrary  to  the  provisions  contained  in  the 
declarations  and  ordinances  of  the  King  rendered  on  the  Sub- 
ject of  foreign  Trade:  It  Being  Necessary  to  remedy  the 
fiame.     We  forbid  all  private  traders  at  detroit  and  at  Mis- 




1735]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

silimakinac  to  receive  from  the  Savages  Any  English  Brandy 

or  Goods  as  security  for  any  loans  they  may  make  to  them,  on 

penalty  of  being  deemed  to  have  carried  on  foreign  trade,  and 

as  such,  punished  by  the  confiscation  of  the  said  Brandy  and 

goods  in  favor  of  the  informers  and  of  the  persons  Seizing  the 

same,  and  of  being  further  condemned  to  a  fine  of  five  hundred 

livres.     We   order   the   Officers   commanding   the    said   posts 

to  have  searches,  perquisitions,  and  Seizures  effected  by  such 

persons  as  they  may  select,  of  such  foreign  Brandy  and  goods, 

and  to  have  minutes  thereof  drawn  up'  and  Sent  to  us,  that 

Monsieur  The  Intendant  may  order  the  confiscation  of  the  said 

Brandy  and  goods.  And  the  fine  If  there  be  occasion  therefor. 

Done  at  Quebec  the  Twenty  third  of  August,  one  thousand 

Seven  hundred  and  thirty  five. 





[Extract  from  a  letter  of  Father  Luc  Frangois  Nau,  Jesuit  mission- 
ary at  the  Iroquois  mission  of  Sault  St.  Louis,  dated  at  that  place 
Oct.  2,  1735.    In  Jes.  Reh,  Ixviii,  pp.  275-277.] 

The  Iroquois  of  Sault  St.  Louis  are  looked  upon  as  the  most 
Warlike  of  all  the  american  tribes ;  but  this  is  no  proof  of  their 
Valor.  Their  mode  of  warfare  is  but  stratagem  and  surprise. 
Their  encounters  are  mere  attempts  at  assassination.  They 
fight  bravely  then  only  when  they  know  that  the  sole  alternative 
lies  between  victory  or  death.  Our  people  have  a  war  on  their 
hands  this  long  time  with  A  Savage  tribe  called  the  renards. 
It  has  been  in  a  very  slight  degree  successful  through  the  im- 
possibility in  which  our  troops  are  of  ever  overtaking  Them  in 
suffi^cient  numbers  to  destroy  Them.  Last  year  ninety  of  our 
young  men  joined  the  french  expedition  against  the  renards; 
but  after  inconceivable  hardships  and  a  journey  of  more  than 
seven  hundred  leagues.  Their  guides  led  them  astray,  and  they 

[  215  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

were  obliged  to  make  their  way  back  without  having  caught 
sight  of  The  enemy  save  in  one  instance.  A  party  of  twenty- 
three  savages,  nearly  all  of  our  mission,  and  seven  frenchmen 
had  somehow  become  separated  from  The  main  body  when  they 
found  themselves  suddenly  surrounded  by  a  war  party  of  two 
hundred  renards.  Our  men  would  have  been  destroyed,  had  it 
not  been  for  The  resolution  of  the  Iroquois  Captain.  "We  are 
all  dead  men,"  he  said,  "if  we  surrender.  There  is  no  help 
for  it;  we  have  to  sell  our  lives  as  dearly  as  we  can.  Let  us 
show  these  renards  that  we  are  Iroquois  and  frenchmen.'* 
Whereupon  he  led  his  Warriors  to  the  attack.  The  enemy 
could  not  withstand  the  first  onslaught,  but  retreated  precipi- 
tately to  their  fort.  Thirty  renards  were  laid  low  and  ten 
taken  prisoners;  our  party  lost  but  two  frenchmen  and  one 

[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  Q,  1735. 
MS.  in  archives  of  Ministfire  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada, 
Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  63,  c.  11,  fol.  226."] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  havo  received  the  letter  that  you  did  me 
the  honor  of  writing  to  me  on  the  19th  of  April  last.  I  had 
the  honor  of  informing  you  by  my  despatch  of  the  17tli  of  June 
last  (which  I  sent  via  Flsle  Eoyalle),  of  what  had  happened 
during  the  Sieur  de  JsToyelle's  Campaign,  and  of  the  conduct 
of  the  hurons  and  Poutouatamis  of  Detroit.  I  Append  hereto 
a  detailed  journal  sent  me  by  that  Officer  in  which  you  will 
see,  Monseigneur,  that  the  slight  success  obtained  by  this  expe- 
dition (which  was  entirely  due  to  the  manoeuvres  of  the 
Savages)  is  confined  to  the  promise  given  by  the  Sakis  to  the 
Sieur  de  !N'oyelle  to  separate  from  the  Kenards  and  to  return  to 
la  Baye,  in  accordance  with  the  word  that  I  sent  them  to  forget 
the  unfortunate  affair  that  had  occurred  there.  This,  Mon- 
seigneur, was  the  most  suitable  step  that  the  Sieur  de  !N"oyelle 
could  take  in  the  situation  in  which  his  party  found  itseK  when 
it  reached  the  Renards.  Had  this  affair  been  carried  out  as  it 
had  been  planned,  there  is  no  doubt  that  they  would  have  sue- 


1735]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

oeeded  in  totally  destroying  them.  The  success  of  the  meas- 
ures I  had  taken  for  inflicting  the  punishment  they  deserve 
seemed  certain  but,  in  addition  to  the  fact  that  the  Savages  of 
the  party  completely  refused  to  obey,  the  Outawacs  of  Missili- 
makinac — who  were  to  Join  the  Sieur  de  l!Toyelle  under  the 
Command  of  the  Sieur  de  Celoron  to  whom  I  had  sent  orders 
fECCordingly  with  a  convoy  of  Thirty  ISTipissingues  and  Algon- 
fkins  to  Join  the  French  and  Outawacs,  and  who  had,  more- 
('over,  come  expressly  to  ask  me  to  avenge  the  blow  struck  by  the 
Sakis  and  Eenards  at  la  Baye- — completely  changed  their  minds 
when  they  returned  home,  and  told  the  Sieur  de  Celoron  that 
they  did  not  wish  to  war  against  the  Sakis,  whom  they  looked 
upon  as  their  brothers;  that  their  thoughts  were  not  as  They 
had  told  me ;  and  finally  that  they  were  of  opinion  that  the  Sakis 
should  be  granted  their  lives  on  condition  that  they  would  in- 
duce the  Eenards  to  come  and  place  themselves  at  the  mercy  of 
their  Father  as  They  had  promised  Him;  that  they  begged 
him  to  forgive  the  Sakis;  that  for  Their  part  they  wished  to 
Live  in  peace  and  to  hunt  for  the  subsistence  of  their  wives  and 
Children.  This  Unexpected  change  in  the  Savages,  and  the 
conduct  of  Those  who  went  with  the  Sieur  de  !N"oyelle  proves 
how  little  reliance  can  be  placed  on  minds  so  variable  and  so 
wanting  in  docility. 

The  ardor  they  displayed  at  first  and  the  particular  interest 
that  the  Outawacs  took  in  the  affair  of  la  Baye,  were  motives 
that  seemed  powerful  enough  to  prevent  any  change  taking  place 
in  these  savages ;  but  I  have  found  by  experience  that  it  is  diffi- 
cult to  bring  any  matter  to  a  conclusion  when  the  bands  of  Sav- 
ages are  superior  in  number  to  the  French.  This  Drawback, 
Monseigneur,  and  the  Insubordination  of  the  Savages  of  the 
party  that  followed  the  Sieur  de  Noyelle  against  the  Eenards, 
compelled  that  officer  to  have  recourse  to  conciliatory  means 
with  the  Sakis,  as  he  was  not  strong  enough  to  subdue  them, 
and  he  had  no  Provisions.  iSTevertheless  liis  attitude  after  com- 
pelling the  Sakis  and  Eenards  to  retire  into  their  fort,  and  the 
words  that  he  said  to  the  former  on  my  behalf  respecting  the 
pardon  that  I  granted  them  on  condition  that  they  separated 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

from  the  Renards,  did  not  betray  the  evil  plight  in  which  He 
was,  nor  that  his  forces  were  Inferior  to  Theirs.  The  Sakis, 
after  firing  some  shots  asked  for  a  suspension  of  hostilities,  and 
received  with  much  satisfaction  the  word  that  I  sent  them  that  I 
was  willing  to  forgive  them  provided  they  separated  from  the 
Kenards  and  returned  to  la  Baye.  They  replied  that  they  could 
not  start  at  once  owing  to  their  wounded,  hut  they  promised  to 
proceed  to  the  Place  indicated  to  them  by  their  Father  as  soon 
as  they  could  separate  from  the  Renards,  who,  on  the  other 
hand,  threatened  to  eat  up  their  women  and  Children  if  they 
left  the  fort.  The  last  news  is  to  the  effect  that  a  party  of  400 
Missouris  and  Kanses^  had  attacked  the  Sakis  and  Renards, 
after  the  Sieur  de  N^oyelle's  withdrawal,  but  that  when  the  lat- 
ter left  the  fort  in  which  They  were,  the  former  pursued  Them 
into  The  prairies  where  They  did  not  venture  to  attack  them, 
and  they  returned  without  doing  anything.  It  is  also  stated 
that  the  Sakis  had  taken  advantage  of  their  defeat  by  the  Mis- 
souris to  separate  from  the  Renards;  that  Thirty  had  with- 
drawn to  the  River  St  Joseph,  and  the  remainder  to  their  former 
Village  at  la  Baye.  This  news  was  brought  me  by  five  of  our 
settled  hurons  who,  after  the  Sieur  de  JsToyelle's  retreat,  went 
among  the  Chicachas  from  whom  They  took  two  Scalps  as  well 
as  one  from  a  Renard.  It  is  true  that  this  news  may  require 
confirmation  as  it  comes  from  Savages  who  often  disseminate 
false  reports,  but"  the  Interest  that  the  Sakis  have  in  separating 
from  a  nation  harassed  by  all  the  others  in  general,  and  Against 
whom  the  hatchet  of  all  the  Savages  is  lifted,  will  not  make  them 
hesitate,  I  think,  to  accept  the  proposal  made  to  them  on  my  be- 
half by  the  Sieur  de  I^oyelle,  which  they  appeared  to  receive 
with  much  satisfaction.     As  to  the  Renards  it  is  not  known 

iThe  Missouri  and  Kansas  Indians  were  tribes  of  the  great  Siouan 
stock,  living  and  hunting  upon  the  rivers  to  which  their  names  have 
been  given.  The  former  were  powerful  and  numerous,  when  the 
French  first  encountered  them;  but  by  the  beginning  of  the  19th  cen- 
tury were  so  reduced  by  smallpox  and  the  Sauk  and  Fox  wars  that  they 
had  been  obliged  to  unite  with  the  Oto,  by  whom  they  were  treated 
as  inferiors. — -En, 

[  218  ] 


1735]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


what  decision  Thej  have  taken  nor  the  place  thej  have  selected 
for  their  retreat.  It  is  certain  that  they  can  find  no  asylum 
among  any  nation,  either  in  the  Mississipi  country  or  in  this. 
The  Ayowais  to  whom  They  looked  for  help  have  taken  a  scalp 
from  them.  Thus  There  is  reason  to  presume  that  when  left 
to  the  mercy  of  all  the  Savages,  this  nation  will  he  completely 
exterminated  without  its  being  necessary  to  incur  any  other 
expense  than  that  occasioned  by  the  Parties  sent  against  those 
Savages,  which  were  absolutely  needed  to  make  the  French  name 
respected  among  the  savages..  Though  the  expedition  of  the 
Sieur  de  ^oyelle  has  not  succeeded  for  the  reasons  that  I  have 
had  the  honor  of  explaining  to  you,  his  brilliant  action  has  pro- 
duced a  very  good  effect  on  the  minds  of  the  savages  who  admit 
that  .the  courage  of  the  French  is  able  to  overcome  every  obstacle, 
and  that  they  would  seek  the  enemy  at  the  extremity  of  the 
world.  Moreover  if  the  Sakis  have  separated  from  the  Renards 
and  are  at  la  Baye  and  the  Elver  St  Joseph,  as  we  have  Reason 
to  believe,  this  is  what  the  Sieur  de  ISToyelle  had  orders  to  carry 
out,  and  it  is  in  accordance  with  what  you  did  me  the  honor  of 
writing  to  me  to  employ  conciliatory  means  if  possible  to  induce 
them  to  leave  the  Renards.  Had  he  been  compelled  to  use  force, 
it  would  have  been  all  the  more  dangerous  that  there  seems  to 
be  no  reason  to  doubt  that  the  alliance  of  the  Sakis  with  the 
majority  of  the  savages  of  the  Upper  Country  would  have 
kindled  a  war  that  would  have  been  difficult  to  stop,  and  that 
would  have  greatly  disturbed  trade  at  the  posts,  and  have  caused 
great  injury  to  the  Colony. 

Such,  Monseigneur,  is  all  the  information  that  I  can  give 
you  respecting  the  Sieur  de  ISToyelle's  expedition.  I  hope  next 
year  to  be  in  a  position  to  tell  you  of  the  various  attacks  that 
will  be  made  against  the  remnant  of  the  Renards  both  by  the 
nations  of  the  Mississipi  and  by  the  Savages  of  tbis  Country.  I 
have  urged  them  all  to  do  so  and  They  seem  disposed  to  extermi- 
nate the  race.  I  shall  take  care  to  reward  the  Chiefs  of  the 
bands  that  may  go  there  by  honorable  presents  which,  neverthe- 
less, will  not  be  costly.  But  whose  value  I  shall  cause  to  be 
appreciated,  and  which  will  stimulate  the  ardor  and  emulation 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections 

[vol.  xvii 

of  all.  This,  Monseigneur,  is  at  present  tlie  only  means  to  be 
adopted  to  utterly  destroy  tbis  nation  which,  from  all  appear- 
ances, is  now  wandering  about  and  cannot  cause  much  trouble 
to  the  posts  of  the  upper  Country  owing  to  its  dread  of  all  the 
other  nations. 

I  have  observed,  Monseigneur,  what  His  Majesty  is  pleased 
to  write  me  in  the  King's  memorial  with  regard  to  the  Chicachas. 
I  have  received  no  letter  this  year  from  Monsieur  de  Bienville, 
but  Monsieur  Dartaguiette  has  written  me  that  the  Pianguichias 
have  brought  in  ten  slaves  of  that  nation,  two  men's  Scalps  and 
one  of  a  woman ;  that  the  Chactas  had  taken  295  men's  scalps 
without  counting  the  Slaves ;  and  that  several  nations  had  gone 
to  attack  Them.  He  adds  that  the  !N'atchez  have  separated  from 
Them,  for  Fear  that  they  might  surrender  them  to  the  French  • 
to  secure  peace;  that  one  half  Lad  gone  to  Carolina  and  The 
other  to  Louischitas.^  His  Majesty  may  rest  assured  that  I 
shall,  as  far  as  may  be  in  My  power,  urge  the  nations  of  this 
country  to  harass  the  Chicachas,  and  to  unite  with  those  of  the 
Mississipi.  I  have  had  the  honor  of  informing  you,  Mon- 
seigneur, in  one  of  my  despatches  that  forty  or  Fifty  of  our 
Settled  Iroquois  had  gone  thither.  The  Hurons  who  abandoned 
the  Sieur  De  !N'oyelles  and  who  set  out  to  Join  him  when  they 
recognized  their  error,  were  also  to  go  and  attack  that  nation. 
The  Miamis  and  the  Ouyatanons  have  also  raised  some  bands, 
And  as  the  destruction  of  the  remnant  of  the  Renards  will  not 
be  the  sole  object  of  the  savages,  especially  if  the  news  of  the 
Sakis'  Return  be  true,  I  shall  continue  to  incite  the  Savages  to 
create  a  diversion  and  to  attack  both  the  Chicachas  and  the 

1  After  the  unfortunate  affair  with  the  Natchez  at  Fort  Rosalie  in 
1729,  and  the  punishment  inflicted  on  that  nation  by  Perier  in  1731, 
the  remainder  of  the  Natchez  took  refuge  with  the  Chickasaw,  upon 
whom  the  French  began  a  war  lasting  several  years,  as  disastrous 
for  Louisiana  as  the  Fox  wars  were  for  Upper  Canada.  The  Choctaw 
acted  as  French  allies,  but  in  a  half-hearted  fashion,  little  to  be  de- 
pended upon.  Louischita  or  Ouischilas  was  the  Washita  or  Black 
River  of  Louisiana,  where  the  Natchez  fortified  themselves  near  the 
present  Trinity,  Catahoula  Parish,  La. — Ed. 

[  220  ] 

1735]        French  Reg-ime  in  Wisconsin 

Benards.     Moreover  the  small  number  that  remains  of  the  lat- 
ter cannot  occupy  the  attention  of  all  of  them  for  very  long. 

The  Poutewatamis  have  avenged  the  blow  struck  at  Them  by 
the  Outawacs  of  Saginau.^  They  had  met  five  of  Them,  but 
They  sent  back  the  two  others  whom  They  told  to  say  to  their  Na- 
tion that  they  were  avenged  as  they  had  returned  blow  for  blow. 
The  Outawacs  sent  me  a  word  to  beg  me  to  restore  peace  between 
them  and  to  say  that  they  would  abide  by  what  I  told  them. 
I  therefore  gave  orders  to  the  Commandants  of  those  places  to 
completely  quiet  the  matter.  I  do  not  think  that  it  will  have 
any  other  Consequences,  for  these  two  JSTations  seem  to  be  mu- 
tually satisfied,  and  moreover  that  is  the  way  in  which  the 
Savages  put  an  end  to  their  disputes. 

I  have  received,  Monseigneur,  the  Twenty  four  Medals  that 
His  Majesty  has  been  pleased  to  give  orders  to  send  me.  I 
yenture  to  assure  you  that  I  shall  comply  with  what  he  pre- 
scribes in  connection  with  the  manner  in  which  I  am  to  dis- 
tribute them  and  that  I  shall  give  tliem  only  to  the  Chiefs  of 
bands  who  will  have  deserved  them  by  important  services. 

I  Remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 


Quebec,  October  9th,  1735. 

[Enclosure  in  the  above.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but 
fol.  236.] 

Copy  of  the  Belaiibn  of  the  Journey  of  the  Sieur  de  Noyelle 
Commanding  the  War-Party  against  the  Benards  and  Sakis, 
sent  to  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Beauharnois, 

MoNsiEUK — As  I  have  already  reported  my  march  to  you 
from  the  time  of  my  departure  Until  my  arrival  among  the 
Ouyatanons,'  I  have  the  honor  to  send  You  the  account  of  what 

1  Saginaw  Bay,  Mich. — ^Ed. 

2  For  the  French  post  among  the  Ouiatanon  see  ante,  p.  131. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

occurred  after  the  2nd  of  January,  when  I  left  that  place,  Down 
to  the  present  date,  the  23rd  of  April. 

When  I  arrived  among  the  Guyatanons,  I  went  to  see  several 
Kikapous  who  were  Six  Leagues  from  there,  and  asked  them 
where  the  Benards  might  be  found.  They  replied,  laying  a  red 
calumet  at  my  feet:  ''They  are  in  that  direction'^  (turning 
round)  ;  That  if  I  wished  to  obtain  more  positive  Information 
about  them  I  had  only  to  go  to  Masanne ;  that  I  would  find  their 
principal  village  there  and  their  People  knew  where  the- 
Renards  dwelt.  When  I  went  to  Them  they  told  me  that  the 
Renards  were  not  far  away  and  that  they  would  take  me  to  them. 
This,  Monsieur,  was  at  the  time  when  the  Hurons  and  Iroquois 
began  to  give  me  Trouble  notwithstanding  all  my  complaisance 
toward  Them,  and  all  the  promises  they  had  made  me  to  listen 
to  your  word  of  which  I  was  the  bearer.  They  told  me  that  they 
wanted  to  go  and  eat  up  six  cabins  of  Sakis  who  had  taken- 
refuge  at  the  River  St  Joseph.  I  gave  them  to  understand  that 
your  intention.  Monsieur,  was  not  to  strike  the  Sakis  if  they 
asked  for  their  lives,  and  if  they  wished  to  unite  with  Us  by 
delivering  up  the  Renards;  that  most  of  the  x^ations  who  are 
allied  with  them  had  asked  us  for  their  pardon  on  that  condi- 
tion; That  if  they  went  to  Kill  People  who  had  taken  refuge 
among  the  French  in  order  not  to  be  included  in  the  number 
of  the  Rebels,  it  would  have  a  very  bad  effect  in  the  upper  Coun- 
tries, and  would  deprive  all  the  ^N'ations  of  the  confidence  that 
they  have  in  Us.  All  these  discourses,  Monsieur,  were  of  no- 
avail.  Seventy  Hurons  started  with  ten  Pouteoliatamis  of  De- 
troit, saying  to  me  that  they  wished  to  eat  up  those  six  cabins. 
I  know  not  what  they  have  done  in  connection  with  this.  You 
Perceive,  Monsieur,  how  this  Action  weakened  our  forces. 

I  found  among  the  Kikapous  a  Missoury  chief  who  was  about 
to  return.  I  presented  him  with  gifts  and  recommended  Him 
to  inform  his  ^N'ation  of  our  march.  I  gave  Him  a  letter  for 
the  Commandant  of  the  post,  in  which  I  begged  him  to  urge  the 
Savages  of  his  post  to  march  and  join  me,  and  to  forward 
another  letter  that  I  wrote  to  Monsieur  Dartaguiette  whom  I 

[  222  ] 

J735]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


ad  already  informed  of  my  march  When  I  left  the  Ouyatanons. 
I  had  resolved,  Monsieur,  after  holding  a  Council  with  the 
French  and  the  savages,  to  pass  by  the  Ilinois  as  I  had  received 
no  news  from  Monsieur  de  Celoron,  although  this  took  me  a 
good  deal  out  of  my  way.  But  having  been  detained  by  the 
ice  for  22  Days;  being  moreover  without  Provisions  And  unable 
to  obtain  any  from  anywhere,  I  was  compelled  to  take  the  route 
that  I  followed.  When  I  left  the  Kikapous,  I  detached  the 
Sieurs  de  la  Perade  and  St  Ours^  with  several  Iroquois  and 
Kikapous  to  reconnoitre.  They  caputred  five  Sakis  (one  of 
whom  was  a  chief).  There  was  a  Eenard  with  Them  who 
•escaped.  They  ran  after  Him,  calling  out  in  the  Ilinois  tongue 
so  that  he  might  say  in  his  village  that  he  had  been  pursued  by 
Ilinois.  The  Prisoners  told  me  that  they  were  proceeding  to 
the  Kiver  St  Joseph  to  speak  to  their  People  and  ascertain 
whether  it  was  true  that  their  Father  Onontio  intended  to  grant 
them  their  lives ;  that  they  had  been  assured  of  this  by  a  ISTepis- 
sing  with  the  Chat  blanc,"  their  chief,  who  had  come  to  Them 
and  had  gono  to  the  Scioux  to  ask  Monsieur  de  St  Pierre^ 
'whether  They  could  trust  that  news.  They  told  me  that  the 
Eonards  were  no  longer  at  la  Pomme  de  Cigne  and  that  they 
had  withdravv-n  to  the  Kiviere  sans  fourche.''     I  have  the  honor 

1  Charles  Frangois  Xavier  Tarieu,  Sieur  de  la  Perade,  de  la  Nau- 
di6re,  was  born  in  1710.  In  1743  he  married  Genevieve  Deschampp, 
daughter  of  Boishebert.  He  was  ensign,  1724-41;  lieutenant,  1742; 
captain,  1750.  In  1747  he  commanded  at  the  Ouiatanon  post,  and  served 
at  the  siege  of  Quebec  in  1759.  He  went  to  France  after  the  capitu- 
lation of  Quebec;  but  returned  in  1763,  and  was  a  member  of  the 
first  legislative  council  under  English  domination  in  1775,  dying  the 
•same  year.  One  of  his  sons  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Monongahela, 
1755.  St.  Ours  was  either  a  son  or  nephew  of  Deschaillons,  ensign 
in  1733,  lieutenant  in  1744,  and  captain  in  1748.  If  the  son  of  Des- 
chaillons, he  was  later  the  brother-in-law  of  Perade,  marrying  Char- 
lotte Deschamps  in  1745. — Ed. 

2  For  account  of  this  noted  chief  who  lived  at  St.  Joseph,  and  his 
embassy  to  the  Illinois,  see  iris.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  448,  453-463. — Ed. 

3  St.  Pierre  was  commandant  of  Fort  Beauharnois,  1734-37. — Ed. 

4  La  Pomme  de  Cigne,  or  "swan-apple,"  is  the  French  form  of  the 
Indian  name  for  the  Wapsipinicon  River,  so  called  from  a  species  of 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

to  assure  you,  Monsieur,  that  without  the  Prisoners,  we  should 
never  have  seen  the  Renards,  because  none  of  our  savages  knew 
what  part  of  the  Country  They  were  in,  And  because  the  Kickar 
pons  their  allies  who  had  Followed  me  to  the  number  of  40  had 
caused  Us  to  lengthen  our  journey  so  that  we  had  our  backs 
turned  to  them.  Our  Savages  perceived  this  and  warned  me. 
I  caused  the  Prisoners  to  be  told  that  if  they  did  not  lead  me 
straight  to  the  Renards,  I  would  have  them  tied  to  the  Stake  to 
be  burned. 

We  crossed  the  Mississipy.  I  told  the  Iroquois  that  we  must 
procure  provisions.  The  Prisoners  thought  the  same  because 
the  Buffalo  were  moving  away  and  we  ran  the  risk  of  under- 
going a  long  fast.  Our  savages  would  not  load  themselves  with 
dried  meat  so  that  they  might  advance  better,  for  they  thought 
that  they  were  close  to  the  Enemy.  On  the  following  day,  we 
began  to  take  only  one  meal  per  Day — and  a  very  inferior  one  at 
that.  On  the  12th  of  March,  we  reached  the  Renards'  fort 
where  we  found  ISTobody,  and  we  were  kept  there  by  the  intense 
cold  without  any  food  for  two  Days.  I  sent  out  a  reconnoiter- 
ing  party  who  reported  that  they  had  seen  four  recent  Camping- 
grounds  and  had  followed  the  tracks.  Two  Days  afterward 
They  came  to  tell  me  that  they  had  seen  smoke.  I  sent  them 
back  to  make  sure  that  they  had  not  been  deceived.  They 
assured  me  that  the  Report  was  true.  We  marched  during  a 
portion  of  the  night  and  crossed  several  Rivers  with  the  Water 
Up  to  our  Waists.  We  stationed  ourselves  behind  a  hill  while 
waiting  for  Daylight,  wrapped  up  in  our  robes,  greatly  fatigued, 
wet  through,  and  very  hungry.  At  Daybreak  we  reached  a 
Wood  bordering  on  a  River.  The  Savages  who  wished  to  have 
the  glory  of  arriving  first  and  of  attacking  these  four  Cabins 

roots  that  grow  plentifully  on  its  banks.  The  "river  without  a  fork" 
(Riviere  sans  fourche)  is  the  Des  Moines,  as  is  evident  from  the  suc- 
ceeding document.  This  river  called  the  Moingona,  from  an  Indian 
tribe  of  that  name  found  near  it  by  the  explorers  of  the  17th  century, 
is  prominent  on  early  maps,  where  it  is  laid  down  with  a  straight 
course,  without  affluents,  and  frequently  identified  with  Lahontan's 
"Riviere  Longue." — Ed. 



1735]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

inade  Us  run  four  or  five  Leagues  as  fast  as  we  could.  They 
were  greatly  surprised  on  seeing  55  cabins  on  the  other  side  of 
a  very  wide  and  rapid  River  full  of  floating  ice.  The  son  of 
Kontagarouche,  the  war-Chief  of  the  Lake  of  two  Mountains 
told  me  that  we  must  All  swim  across.  I  replied  that  this  was 
imprudent  And  that  it  was  Impossible  to  cross  such  a  River 
while  the  cold  was  so  great ;  That  Many  of  the  French  and  even 
of  their  own  People  might  be  unable  to  swim  and  moreover  that 
they  would  wet  their  arms  and  ammunition;  That  as  only  60 
men  of  ours,  both  French  and  Savages,  had  arrived,  for  All 
Their  people  were  scattered  on  all  sides  thinking  they  would 
find  only  these  four  cabins  whose  tracks  we  had  followed,  it 
would  be  more  advisable  (as  we  had  not  yet  been  discovered)  to 
reassemble  and  go  higher  up  where  we  would  construct  Rafts 
at  the  most  suitable  point  for  crossing,  And  then  we  should  be  in 
a  position  to  attack  the  Enemy  with  our  arms  in  our  hands; 
While,  by  following  his  Advice,  the  Enemies  would  be  able  to 
kill  us  as  fast  as  we  Landed,  even  supposing  that  we  should  be 
able  to  cross.  He  replied  that  I  was  not  a  man.  I  could  not, 
Monsieur,  restrain  my  anger  nor  help  saying  to  Him :  "Dog  If 
thou  art  so  brave,  swim  over  and  let  us  See  what  Thou  wilt  do." 
He  did  not  answer  me.  I  requested  him  to  send  some  of  his 
People  to  meet  Those  who  were  left  behind.  All  was  in  vain. 
He  left  me  with  several  French  who  were  with  Me  and  he  took 
away  his  band  consisting  of  about  40  men.  When  we  had 
marched  nearly  a  league  we  heard  Death-cries  and  we  saw  one 
of  our  Savages  who  made  signs  to  us  that  our  People  were 
fighting.  We  ran  toward  this  man  as  fast  as  we  could  and  he 
told  us  that  one  of  our  French  was  wounded.  I  followed  the 
tracks  of  my  people  to  gather  them  together.  I  found  several 
who  were  crossing  the  River  at  its  greatest  width  by  means  of 
a  jam  of  drift-wood  and  of  two  large  logs  that  the  Renards  had 
arranged  to  enable  them  to  cross  and  re-cross  the  River  when 
they  went  to  hunt.  We  passed  over  the  River  like  the  others 
and  went  to  the  Cabins  where  we  found  iN'obody  as  The  Enemy 
had  withdrawn  to  place  their  women  and  Children  in  safety. 

[  225  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

Seven  French  and  23  Savages  who  were  the  first  to  arrive  found 
themselves  face  to  face  with  the  Enemy.  A  Savage  chief  from 
Sault  St  Louis,  named  Onorakingniak,  called  out:  "My  French 
and  Indian  brothers,  we  are  dead  men,  but  we  must  sell  our 
lives  very'  dearly  and  not  let  ourselves  be  captured."  They 
fought  so  fiercely  that  they  pushed  the  Enemy  back  into  the 
Wood  where  They  had  taken  refuge.  When  the  latter  saw  only 
80  men.  They  retraced  their  steps  and  tried  to  surround  them 
so  as  to  take  them  prisoners.  Our  people  perceived  this  and 
fell  back,  fighting  all  the  time.  On  this  occasion  the  Sieur  de 
Croisille^  received  the  wound  from  which  He  died.  When  I 
arrived  with  the  Sieurs  de  Lignery,  Chevalier  de  Chaillon  and 
Chabert,^  a  chief  from  the  Lake  of  two  Mountains,  several  of  us 
French  and  Savages,  marched  upon  the  Enemy  to  surround 
them.  One  of  the  30  men  came  to  report  their  situation  to  us. 
I  at  once  sent  All  Who  were  with  Me  to  their  assistance,  and 
told  them  that  I  would  join  them  as  soon  as  the  main  body  of 
the  party  which  I  expected  should  arrive.  I  started  about  half 
an  hour  afterward  with  the  Sieurs  de  la  Perade  and  St  Ours, 
several  French  and  savages.  I  dispersed  Those  who  were  with 
Me,  some  to  the  right  and  some  to  the  left,  to  attack  the  Enemy. 
Oti  my  side  I  surrounded  seven  against  whom  two  shots  were 
fired.  I  learned  at  that  time  that  the  Sieur  Chabert  was  mor- 
tally wounded.  About  two  hours  afterward  they  called  out  to 
me  that  the  Enemy  were  going  toward  the  Wounded  to  scalp 
them  and  this  was  where  the  Reserve  body  was  posted.  This 
compelled  me  to  decide  to  tell  our  People,  as  night  was  approach- 
ing, to  fall  back  and  seek  a  place  where  we  could  fortify  our- 
selves, secure  protection  for  the  wounded,  and  defend  ourselves 
against  the  Enemy  who  were  Superior  in  numbers  and  quite 
fresh.  I  feared  with  reason,  that  the  Kikapous  might  side' 
with  the  stronger,  for  I  saw  them  On  an  Eminence  and  they 

1  Sieur  de  Croissele  was  a  nephew  of  Pierre  le  Gardeur  de  Re- 
pentigny,  the  elder,  and  cousin  of  the  one  who  was  killed  at  La  Baye 
in  1733.— Ed. 

2  A  relative  of  De  Joncaire,  for  whom  see  ante,  p.  118. — Ed. 




1735]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

looked  upon  us  as  beaten.  It  was  very  difficult  for  us  to  fortify 
ourselves  on  a  prairie,  as  the  Enemy  had  seized  the  Only  Island 
at  that  place  on  which  their  women  and  Children  had  made  a 
fort  while  they  were  fighting.  Through  lack  of  wood,  I  was 
obliged  to  divide  my  people  into  two  bands,  and  while  I  was 
endeavoring  to  fortify  myself  I  detached  50  men  both  French 
and  savages  to  fire  on  the  Enemies'  fort  and  keep  them  from 
attacking  us,  while  we  worked. 

On  the  Following  morning  the  Iroquois  asked  me  to  go  to 
Them  to  hold  a  Council  respecting  what  was  to  be  done.  I  went 
without  any  hesitation  to  see  them.  They  told  me  that  they  had 
with  Them  a  Savage  who  could  speak  every  language  (this  was 
one  Beauvais,  a  half  breed  residing  at  Sault  St  Louis)  who 
had  conversed  throughout  the  night  with  the  Sakis  Chief  and 
with  one  of  the  Renards  who  had  been  captured  in  the  fight. 
As  soon  as  I  arrived  I  saw  a  Kikapous  who  had  married  among 
the  Eenards,  enter  with  a  white  flag;  he  said  that  we  had 
called  out  to  them  to  come,  and  that  he  came  to  see  what  was 
wanted  and  to  listen.  I  said  everything  I  could  to  Him  to 
induce  the  Sakis  to  abandon  the  Eenards  and  return  to  la  Baye. 
He  replied  that  if  we  really  meant  what  we  said  we  should  give 
up  one  of  their  people  who  was  a  prisoner.  The  Iroquois  told 
me  that  we  must  send  their  Chief  back  to  them  and  that  this 
would  induce  them  to  come  out  of  their  fort  and  to  abandon  the 
Eenards.  I  consented  and  this  Same  Chief  returned  with 
presents  and  porcelain  beads  and  informed  me  that  if  we  had 
not  attacked  Them  and  if  our  party  consisted  solely  of  French 
they  would  not  have  hesitated  to  surrender,  but  that,  as  the 
French  were  not  Superior  in  numbers  to  the  Iroquois  to  be  able 
to  control  them,  They  had  every  reason  to  fear  that  when  they 
were  separated  from  the  Eenards  and  at  a  distance,  the  Iro- 
quois would  put  them  in  the  Kettle;  That  nevertheless  on  the 
word  of  the  French  They  would  come  out  whenever  we  liked.  I 
said  to  Him:  '^Thou  may  est  come  forth  in  the  Daytime  and 
fear  nothing,  because  if  the  Iroquois  wished  to  act  treacherously 
toward  thee,  I  would  oppose  it  and  although  we  are  but  few  they 

15  [227] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

would  not  play  with  Us."  He  represented  to  me  that  it  waa 
very  late,  that  the  women  and  Children  had  not  had  time  to 
camp,  and  that  it  was  too  cold.  On  the  following  day  the 
other  Sakis  Chiefs  sent  me  word  that  they  conld  not  come  out, 
because  the  Eenards  had  said  to  them:  "Dogs  that  ye  are,  if 
yon  abandon  us,  we  will  eat  your  women  and  Children  as  soon  as 
you  have  gone  out.  We  will  then  fight  against  you  and  after- 
ward against  the  French." 

The  Sakis  sent  me  a  Young  saulteur  with  two  of  his  Sisters, 
and  an  Ilinois  woman  whom  they  had  captured  last  autumn; 
and  I  sent  them  in  exchange  a  Young  Saki  whom  I  had  with 

For  four  Days,  Monsieur,  our  Party  had  had  nothing  to  eat 
but  12  Dogs  and  a  Horse  that  was  killed  at  night  near  the 
Renards'  fort.  Several  Soldiers  were  obliged  to  eat  their 
mocassins.  They  All  asked  me  to  lead  them  to  the  assault. 
When  I  saw  that  we  were  suffering  from  hunger  and  had  no 
hope  of  obtaining  provisions,  I  proposed  to  the  Iroquois  to  send 
some  of  their  People  to  hunt  for  our  subsistence  and  enable  us 
to  attack  the  Enemy  again.  They  replied  bluster ingly  (as  you 
will  see)  that  we  must  Fast  and  work  four  or  five  Days  more. 
They  afterward  asked  me  to  let  them  go  away.  I  can  positively 
assure  you.  Monsieur,  that  they  needed  food  as  much  as  We  did, 
And  as  we  could  not  hold  out  any  longer,  I  sent  a  collar  to  the 
Sakis  to  convince  them  that  their  Father  had  instructed  me  to 
tell  them  that  he  would  grant  them  their  lives  on  condition  that 
they  would  abandon  the  Eenards,  As  they  had  previously  prom- 
ised Him,  and  return  to  la  Baye.  They  promised  me  that  they 
would  do  so. 

In  this  encounter  we  lost  two  French  and  one  Huron ;  four 
or  five  savages  were  wounded.  The  Ebemy  had  30  men  Killed, 
wounded,  and  taken  prisoners.  I  proceeded.  Monsieur,  to  Mon- 
aieur  Dartaguiette's  post  to  march  against  the  Chicachas 
according  to  your  orders.  ISTearly  All  our  Savages  left  me  and 
went  on  the  war-path  in  one  direction  or  another.  Most  of 
them  told  me  that  they  wished  to  return  home  to  provide  for  the 
subsistence  of  their  families. 



1735]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Monsieur  Dartagniette  asked  me  whether  I  would  go  back, 
saying  that  a  party  of  400  Missouris  and  Kanses  with  several 
Frenchmen  was  about  to  march  Against  the  Eenards  and  Sakis ; 
that  we  might  unite  our  forces  and  destroy  them ;  and  that  he 
would  give  me  food  and  men.  I  said  that  I  was  quite  ready 
to  march  if  he  would  take  upon  HimseK  the  responsibility  of  the 
expense  that  this  new  war  would  cost.  He  replied  that  he 
would  take  no  responsibility.  I  did  not  venture,  Monsieur,  to 
take  it  on  MyseM  in  view  of  the  uncertainty  of  success.  JiTeither 
could  I  march  against  the  Chicachas  on  account  of  the  band  that 
the  Missouris  had  levied  against  the  Renards  and  the  defection 
of  our  savages.  I  have  nothing,  Monsieur,  wherewith  to  reproach 
myself  and  I  venture  to  hope  that  you  will  not  address  any 
reproaches  to  me  when  I  have  done  my  best.  You  would  hardly 
believe  all  that  I  have  been  through,  and  the  fatigues  I  have 
endured.  I  would  count  them  as  nothing,  had  I  succeeded. 
The  savages  Are  the  Sole  Cause  of  our  ill  success  and  They  could 
not  help  admitting  to  me  that  Nontagarouche  had  made  us 
miss  our  opportunity. 

I  take  the  liberty,  Monsieur,  of  representing  to  you  that  on 
expeditions  of  this  kind  It  is  necessary  that  the  French  should 
be  stronger  than  the  Savages  so  as  to  be  able  to  dominate  them ; 
otherwise  They  dominate  us,  and  I  have  experienced  this  only 
too  well,  notwithstanding  my  complaisance  and  attention  to 
Them.  There  was  one  from  the  Sault  who  was  bold  enough 
to  beat  one  of  our  Soldiers  in  my  presence.  I  pretended  to 
turn  my  head  away  as  if  I  had  not  seen  it,  for  we  expected 
every  Day  to  be  abandoned  by  those  people  at  the  first  word 
that  we  might  say  to  them. 

The  Kikapou  who  was  married  among  the  Renards,  and  who 
followed  Those  who  were  with  Me  was  shot  dead  two  leagues 
from  the  Renards  by  an  Iroquois  who  scalped  Him  in  my 
presence.  J^ever  were  Savages  more  surprised.  They  trem- 
bled like  leaves,  for  they  dreaded,  with  reason,  that  they  might 
All  meet  the  same  fate  for  the  Iroquois  said :  ^^We  have  come 
to  seek  Enemies;  here  are  some  already  found  since  by  their 
conduct  they  are  as  much  Renards  as  the  others." 

[  229  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voLxvu 

[Letter  of  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  October  26,  1735, 
enclosing  a  letter  to  the  comptroller-general  of  finance.  Source,  same 
as  preceding  document,  hut  vol.  64,  c.  11,  fol.  159.] 

MoNSEiGNEUB" — I  take  the  liberty  of  placing  under  Your 
[eyes]  The  letter  that  I  write  to  Monsieur  the  Comptroller  gen- 
eral of  finance.  In  answer  to  That  which  he  did  me  the  honor 
of  writing  to  me  respecting  the  Trade  of  the  Company  of  the 
Indies/  As  he  asks  me  for  Information  respecting  the  Si  our 
Desnoyelles's  Campaign  because  it  affects  the  hunting  of 
Beaver,  I  have  thought,  subject  to  your  good  pleasure,  that  I 
could  not  avoid  entering  into  some  details  with  him.  My 
Letter  to  Monsieur  the  Comptroller-general  is  not  sealed. 

I  remain  etc. 


[Enclosure  in  the  above.] 

At  Quebec  the  26th  of  October,  1735.2 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  have  received  the  letter  that  You  did  me 
The  honor  of  writing  to  me  on  the  10th  of  March  last. 

The  receipts  from  Beaver  skins  have  been  considerable  this 
year,  notwithstanding  the  Troubles  And  the  war  expeditions 
in  the  upper  Country,  because  The  Post  among  the  scioux  and 
tihe  new  posts  Established  for  the  discovery  of  the  Sea  of  The 
west  have  secured  nearly  100  thousand  very  good  skins.  The 
total  receipts  amounted  to  178  thousand  livres 

iThis  was  the  famous  speculative  concern  known  first  as  the  Mis- 
sissippi Company,  formed  by  Law  in  1717.  In  1719  it  was  reorgan- 
ized under  this  title.  The  company  retroceded  Louisiana  to  the  King 
in  1731,  but  retained  commercial  rights  in  the  colonies.  About  this 
time  the  company  began  its  famous  career  in  India.  It  went  into 
liquidation  in  1770.— Ed. 

2 Note  on  the  original  MS.:  "L.  P.  'Le  President'  of  the  Council  of 
the  Marine  to  Monsieur  The  Comptroller  general.  Accounts  for 
the  number  of  Beaver  skins  received.  Of  the  Campaign  of  Monsieur 
des  Noyelles,  relative  to  the  interests  of  the  Company  of  the  Indies. 
Beaver  to  Be  replaced  on  the  same  footing  as  before  the  ordinance 
of  the  4th  of  January,  1733.  Note:  After  the  present  letter  is  That 
forwarding  the  same  to  the  minister." 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Monsieur  Des  noyelles  left  Montreal  in  the  month,  of  August 
1734,  with  80  French  and  about  130  of  our  settled  savages  to 
^)ursue  the  Sakis  and  Een,ards.  He  took  with  himi  on  his  way, 
both  at  Detroit  and  at  the  Ouiatanons,  about  100  hurons  and 
Poutouatamis.  After  7  montlis'  journey  both  by  water  and  by 
land,  he  arrived  on  the  bank  of  the  River  Mongona  [Des 
Moines]  60  Leagues  from  the  spot  where  that  River  falls  into 
the  Mississipi,^  to  which  place  they  had  been  guided  by  40 
Kikapoux.  The  savages  and  French  set  to  work  to  cross  The 
River  to  fall  on  what  they  took  for  4  Cabins  of  Renards  whose 
Camping  places  they  had  traced.  But  when  27  savages  and  3 
French  had  crossed  that  River  before  the  main  body  of  The 
little  army  had  assembled,  and  as  they  were  about  to  rush, 
hatchet  in  hand,  on  those  4  cabins,  they  found  themselves  sur- 
rounded by  nearly  250  Sakis  and  Renards  who  formed  55  Cab- 
ins, and  against  whom  these  30  men  fought  so  well  that  they 
compelled  them  to  fall  back  and  to  retire  into  a  fort  built  by  the 
"women  And  Children  while  the  Warriors  were  fighting;  so 
that  when  the  main  body  of  our  small  army  made  its  appear- 
ance The  enemy  had  retreated,  and  the  Sakis  asked  Monsieur 
Desnoyelles  for  a  suspension  of  hostilities  in  order  to  hold  a 
parley.  That  officer  who  had  been  ordered  to  use  naught  but 
conciliatory  means  to  detach  the  Sakis  from  the  Renards,  had 
recourse  to  the  same  and  without  letting  them  know  the  sorry 
Plight  of  his  army,  which  consisted  only  of  240  men — for  The 
Hurons  had  left  at  Otiiatanons,  and  moreover  they  had  no 
provisions  to  allow  of  their  sustaining  a  siege.  He  neverthe- 
less spoke  to  the  Sakis  as  a  superior.  And  told  them  that  their 
father  had  sent  him  solely  to  tell  them  that  he  would  forgive 
them  for  the  affair  at  la  B'aye  on  condition  that  they  separated 
from  the  Renards  and  returned  to  kindle  at  that  spot  the  fire 
that  they  had  abandoned.  These  savages  received  the  Sieur 
Desnoyelles's  message  with  much  satisfaction,  and  replied  to 
him  that,  on  account  of  the  men  who  had  been  wounded  in  the 

1  Probably    in    the    vicinity    of    the    present    city    of    Des    Moines, 
Iowa. — -Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

Bkinniah  with  our  30  men,  they  were  imable  to  follow  him  but 
that  he  might  assure  their  father  that  they  would  return  to 
their  old  village  as  soon  as  they  conld.  5  of  our  Settled  hurona 
who  had  been  on  the  war-path  against  the  Chicachas  have  re- 
ported that  30  of  These  Sakis  were  at  the  River  St  Joseph, 
and  the  remainder  at  la  Baye.  This  news  lacks  confirmation; 
But  if  It  be  true,  tranquillity  will  be  restored  in  the  Posts,  and 
the  remnant  of  the  Renards  who  are  said  to  be  wandering  about 
in  the  regions  of  the  Mississipi  will  gradually  be  destroyed  and 
•will  not  give  our  savages  enough  occupation  to  keep  them  from 
hunting.  I  shall  have  the  honor  of  writing  more  particularly 
about  this  next  year.  Moreover,  as  regards  the  sieur  Desnoy- 
elles's  Campaign,  I  cannot  better  describe  to  You  the  fatigues 
and  the  hardships  that  the  long  journey  on  foot  and  hunger 
caused  him  and  the  party  under  his  command  .to  endure,  than 
to  say  that  I  am  surprised  that  Frenchmen  should  have  been 
able  to  undergo  them.  In  the  skirmish  that  took  place  on  the 
19th  of  April  last,  we  lost  two  French  and  one  savage.  The 
enemy  had  30  killed,  wounded  and  taken  prisoners.  Had  not 
the  Hurons  abandoned  Monsieur  Desnoyelles  and  had  the 
Outawacs  of  Missilimakinac  been  able  to  join  him,  there  would 
no  longer  be  any  question  of  the  Eenards  at  present.  'No  other 
reason  can  be  assigned  for  the  defection  of  The  hurons  except 
their  spirit  of  independence,  in  spite  of  their  attachment  for 
the  French ;  And  the  desire  they  had  to  go  and  eat — thus  they 
speak — other  Sakis  Established  at  River  St.  Joseph  who  are 
attached  to  us,  but  who  displeased  the  Hurons  merely  because 
they  bear  the  name  of  Sakis.  It  required  all  the  wisdom  and 
all  the  prudence  of  the  sieur  Demuy,  the  officer  Commanding 
at  the  River  St  Joseph,  to  restrain  the  hurons  and  prevent 
them  from  attacking  Those  Sakis.  That  the  Campaign  met 
with  no  better  success  did  not  depend  upon  the  sieur  Desnoy- 
eUea.  This  expedition  has  in  any  case  shown  the  savages,  And 
they  have  acknowledged  it,  that  the  French  are  as  capable  as 
they  of  undertaking  Marches  and  of  seeking  The  enemy  at  the 
extremities  of  the  Colony. 

The  Company  of  the  Indies  has  done  well  in  relaxing  the 

[  232  ] 

1735]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

excessive  severity  of  the  ordinance  that  I  promulgated  on  the 
4th  of  January  1733  for  the  reduction  of  the  price  of  Summer 
Beaver  which  was  10  sols  The  livre,  both  green  and  dry,  on 
condition  that  it  he  burned,  because  the  Hatters  of  the  King- 
dom could  not  make  use  of  it  as  the  company  wrote  to  me.  But 
since  it  has  heeded  the  representations  made  to  It  that  such 
reduction  might  injure  its  Trade  by  inducing  the  savages  and 
even  the  French  to  take  to  the  English  not  only  this  kind  of 
Beaver,  which  they  accept,  but  also  That  of  good  quality.  It  has 
therefore  sent  orders  to  its  agent  to  forward  to  France  the 
Beaver  taken  in  summer,  as  was  practised  previous  to  my  ordi- 
nance. It  has  also  begged  me  to  raise  the  price  of  the  same. 
I  considered  that  it  was  in  its  interest  to  restore  matters  to  their 
old  footing.  The  Company  of  the  Indies  carries  on  its  Trade 
in  good  faith,  and  it  would  not  be  proper  to  suspect  it  of  having 
asked  for  The  reduction  of  the  price  of  the  Summer  Beaver  on 
condition  that  it  be  burned,  solely  in  order  to  obtain  it  in  the 
future  at  about  the  same  price  as  the  reduced  rate  without  being 
obliged  to  bum  it.  Moreover,  This  is  a  matter  of  so  little  con- 
sequence that  it  otherwise  deserves  no  Consideration. 
I  remain  etc 

Indorsed:     "Given  an  answer  the  8th  of  May,  1736." 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Oct.  11,  1735.  MS.  in  archives  of  Ministdre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press- 
mark, "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  63,  c.  11,  fol.  58.] 

MoNSEiGNEUK — Wc  havo  received  the  letter  that  you  did  us 
the  honor  of  Writing  to  us  on  the  15th  of  May  last,  to  which 
was  appended  the  report  handed  you  by  the  Director-General  of 
the  mint  in  France  on  the  assay  that  you  caused  to  be  made  in 
Paris  of  the  copper  of  Lake  superior,  a  piece  of  which  we  sent 
you  last  year. 

In  the  King's  memorial  we  Informed  you  of  the  subsequent 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

discoveries  of  the  sieur  De  la  Eonde,  and  of  the  measures  he 
adopts  for  prosecuting  that  Undertaking.  The  Information 
that  we  gave  jon  is  nothing  else  than  extracts  from  the  Letters 
that  He  and  his  son  have  written  us.  We  send  you  copies  of 
those  Letters. 

The  Sieur  La  Ronde  might  have  given  us  more  detailed  in- 
formation, but  from  what  he  writes  to  us  There  is  hardly  any 
reason  to  doubt  the  advantages  to  be  derived  from  that  Under- 
taking both  for  himself  and  for  the  Colony ;  at  least  He  engages 
in  it  in  a  manner  that  leaves  us  no  doubt. 

Oti  Examining  The  Ingot  of  copper  that  we  sent  last  year, 
one  might  be  inclined  to  believe  that  it  had  been  cast;  And  If 
it  has  been  acknowledged  by  Monsieur  Grassin  as  a  work  of 
nature,  the  pieces  we  send  this  year  will  convince  him  still 
more,  Independently  of  the  certainty  we  have  that  these  speci- 
mens were  cut  with  hatchets  from  larger  pieces  of  the  same 
quality.  We  consider  that  the  whole  difficulty  in  the  Working 
of  these  mines,  supposing  that  the  ore  is  as  pure  as  it  seems  to 
us  to  be.  Consists  at  present  in  finding  means  to  divide  into  port- 
able pieces,  the  masses  of  Copper  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Tona- 
gan,  and  that  which  will  no  doubt  be  also  found  at  other  Places 
on  Lake  Superior;  for  if  They  are  as  enormous  as  the  Block 
lying  on  the  shore  of  the  Lake  which  we  Reported  to  you  in 
1732,  when  we  sent  you  the  Sieur  de  la  Ronde's  proposals  re- 
garding this  Undertaking,  the  iron  or  steel  Implements  that 
would  be  Used  in  separating  them  might  be  Insufficient,  And 
although  the  copper  is  pure,  this  method  of  mining  it  might  be 
very  costly.  We  can  expect  from  the  Sieur  de  la  Ronde  nothing 
but  great  activity  in  seeking  for  these  mines,  and  both  from 
him  and  from  the  Workmen  and  voyageurs  whom  he  has  with 
him  nothing  but  mere  natural  Industry,  without  the  slightest 
Idea  of  the  art  [of  mining] ,  which  will  not  be  conducive  to  An 
easy  Exploitation  of  these  mines.  This  is  doubtless  the  reason 
which  has  Induced  the  Sieur  de  la  Ronde  to  write  us  to  beg 
you  to  procure  a  skilled  workman  for  him  to  show  them  how 
to  Work  these  mines,  which,  he  says,  consist  only  of  a  Mass  of 
ore.     He  asked  Monsieur  hocquart  for  a  certain  Chambellan,  a 



1-35]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


l^d  and  silversmith  in  Quebec.  This  workman  has,  in  truth, 
B>me  Ability  and  Skill.  On  hearing  the  account  that  we  gave 
\  im  of  the  quality  of  these  mines,  He  finds  less  difficulty  in 
tiieir  Working  than  we  do.  He  claims  that  when  the  mine  is 
icncovered  it  will  be  easy  with  Iron  Wedges  well  tempered  and 
mih  iron  Sledges  to  divide  a  Block  of  Copper  of  any  size  into 
jjortable  ingots,  especially  if  there  are  any  flaws  in  it,  as  in 
the  largest  of  the  three  pieces  of  copper  which  we  send  to  Mon- 
sieur de  Beauhamois  to  be  Forwarded  to  you.  We  cannot 
warrant  success  until  the  Experiment  has  been  made.  The 
said  Chambellan  will  start  next  Spring  to  join  the  sieur  De  la 
Ronde,  and  at  all  Elvents  He  will  Take  with  him  the  tools  he 
nmy  need  to  w^ork  according  to  the  proposed  method,  the  min« 
that  has  been  found,  if  the  Sieur  de  la  Konde  does  not  discover 
others  easier  to  work  in  the  course  of  the  explorations  that  he 
is  to  make  on  Lake  Superior.  It  seems  to  us  that  he  really 
intends  to  prosecute  this  Undertaking.  Perhaps  he  may  obtain 
further  assistance  from  the  workman  for  whom  he  asks  you. 
If  it  be  possible  to  find  One  He  offers  to  defray  the  expense, 
and  we  beg  You  in  that  case,  Monseigneur,  to  give  your  orders 
to  have  one  sought  for  and  sent  out  by  the  first  ships  from  St. 
Malo  which  sail  for  1'  Isle  Royale,  sp  that  he  may  proceed 
thence  to  Quebec  in  time  to  Embark  in  the  sieur  De  la  Eonde's 
Canoes  and  arrive  during  the  open  seasom  at  the  Establishmient 
on  Lake  superior. 

That  officer  has  also  Sent  us  another  small  piece  of  Copper 
which  was  given  to  his  son  by  a  savage  of  that  quarter,  and 
which  he  claims  to  have  been  taken  from  another  mine  situate 
on  a  branch  of  the  same  Tonagan  river.  It  is  in  the  same  box 
as  the  3  other  pieces. 

We  received  the  last  Letters  of  the  sieur  De  la  Ronde  dated 
the  22nd  July  in  Time  to  be  able  to  answer  them,  and  to  ask 
him  for  further  Information  On  the  situation,' — the  Extent, 
and  everything  relating  to  the  Tonagan  mine.  We  Hope  that 
he  will  give  us  this  information  in  a  more  detailed  and  more 
satisfactory  manner,  and  we  shall  Report  the  same  to  you  next 
year.     We  shall  send  him  in  the  Spring  a  Copy  of  the  memo- 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

rial  that  you  have  sent  us,  in  order  that  he  may  derive  Informa- 
tion from  it,  and  also  to  encourage  him  to  pursue  his  discov- 
eries. Father  Piscot,  a  Ilecollet,^  who  has  some  knowledge  of 
metals,  has  written  a  paper  on  these  mines,  some  ore  from 
which  he  tested  at  Montreal  by  order  of  Monsieur  de  Beau- 
hamois.  We  take  the  liberty  of  sending  it  to  You.  We  ap- 
pend the  report  made  by  one  Oorbin,  a  carpenter,^  to  Monsieur 
Hocquart  on  what  he  saw  of  those  Mines. 
We  remain  etc. 


[Letter  of  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister.     Source,  same  as  pre- 
ceding document,  but  vol.  64,  c.  11,  fol.  59.] 

At  Quebec  the  14th  of  October,  1735. 
MoNSEiGNEiTR — 'Siuce  The  description  Monsieur  the  Mar- 
quis de  Beauhamois  and  Myself  have  given  to  you  together 
respecting  Monsieur  De  la  Eonde's  discovery,  one  Corbin,  a 
Carpenter  who  built  the  bark  on  Lake  Superior,  has  come  down 
to  Quebec  and  has  reported  to  me  what  he  has  seen  of  the  Cop- 
per mine  that  is  on  the  Tonnagane  river.  I  have  drawn  up 
this  report  in  words  almost  as  simple  as  those  which  That 
Workman  employed  in  explaining  himself  to  me.  It  is  Ap- 
pended hereto.  I  shall  urge  the  sieur  De  la  Eonde's  partner 
to  send  next  Spring  to  Lake  superior  with  one  Chambellan 
several  hardy  and  skillful  workmen  to  endeavor  to  mine  the 
Copper  beds  on  the  bank  of  that  Eiver  with  crowbars,  Wedges, 
sledge-hammers  and  other  tools  that  they  may  need  to  clear 
away  the  Soil  and  break  up  the  metal  if  possible  into  portable 
pieces.  But  if  we  can  obtain  from  France  a  workman  who 
is  a  good  craftsman  and  able  to  give  information,  and  to  devise 
expedients  for  working  the  mine,  this  will  greatly  facilitate 

lEtienne  Piscot  was  superior  of  the  Recollects    at    Montreal.    See 
Tanguay,  Repertoire  Gen.  du  Glerge  Canadien  (ed.  1868),  p.  98. — Eto. 

2 Probably  the  Corbin  who  made  the  canoes  at  Michilimackinac  for 
Louvigny's  expedition.     See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  407. — Ed. 

[  236  ] 



«36)        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

the  work.  The  sieur  De  la  Ronde  asks  for  one  whom  he  offers 
to  pay.  You  alone,  Monseigneur,  are  able  to  procijre  one  for 
him  and  in  case  you  should  be  unable  to  find  one,  he  begs  you, 
Monseigneur,  to  have  an  instructive  treatise  drawn  up  which 
will  teach  the  easiest  and  least  expensive  Manner  in  which 
such  a  mine  can  be  worked,  And  which  will  consequently  men- 
tion the  implements  and  tools  to  be  Used  as  well  as  The  pre- 
cautions to  be  taken  as  a  protection  against  the  noxious  gases 
that  the  metal  may  exhale  when  mined. ^ 
I  remain  etc. 


[Enclosure  in  the  above.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but 
fol.  61.] 

Report  made  to  Monsien/r  hocquart^  hy  one  Corhin,  a 
Carpenter,  An  Employee  of  the  Sieur  Be  la  Bonde,  respecting 
the  copper  rmrues  of  LaJce  Superior  amd  the  River  Tormaganne. 

The  said  Oorbin  left  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  The  place  where  tihe 
sieur  De  la  Ronde  is  building  his  Vessel,"  on  The  [blank  space 
in  MS.]  May  last  with  two  men  named  Vaudry  and  Le  Bean 
who  were  going  to  meet  the  Sieur  de  la  Rondel's  son.  The  lat- 
ter was  returning  after  speijding  the  winter  at  Chagouamigon. 
He  embarked  with  Them,  and  they  were  followed  by  two  others 

1  Marginal  note  on  MS.: 

"Respecting  the  Tonnagane  Copper  Mine.  Appends  The  report  of 
one  Corbin.  Will  send  next  spring  one  Chambellan,  And  some  Hardy 
men  with  suitable  implements  for  mining  the  ore.  Asks  the  Minister 
on  behalf  of  the  Sieur  Le  Ronde,  who  offers  to  pay  him,  for  a  person 
well  skilled  in  such  matters,  or  in  default  of  such  a  workman  a  good 
instructive  treatise  in  order  that  these  mines  may  be  more  easily 
worked  also  suitable  implements  and  tools.    L.  P." 

2 In  a  letter  written  about  this  time  (see  Macalester  College  Contri- 
hutions,  1st  series,  No.  4,  p.  114),  it  is  said  of  La  Ronde:  "He  has 
constructed  at  his  own  expense,  a  bark  of  forty  tons  on  Lake  Superior, 
and  was  obliged  to  transport  in  canoes,  as  far  as  Sault  Ste.  Marie, 
the  rigging  and  materials  for  the  vessel.  The  post  Chagouamigon 
was  given  him  as  a  gratuity  to  defray  expenses."  See  also  Wisconsin 
Historical  Society  Proceedings,  1894,  pp.  87,  88. — ^Ed. 

[  237  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

named  fell  and  Grobin.  They  took  on  board  a  savage  at  the 
place  called  The  cove  [  L'anse]  near  the  point  of  Kienon/  who 
asserted  that  he  had  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  Mines  and  of 
the  Copper  in  the  said  River  of  Tonnagane.  They  travel  led 
thither,  And  after  entering  the  said  River,^  which  they  ascended 
for  a  distance  of  about  8  leagues  from  the  shore  of  Lake  Super- 
ior, they  Found  a  mine  about  15  arpents  in  length  ascending 
the  said  river,  30  feet  from  the  water's  edge  and  which  may 
be  at  a  height  of  60  feet  in  the  Cliff.  This  Mine  consists  of 
layers  or  beds  5  or  6  pouces"  thick.  There  are  about  Fifty  of 
these  layers  one  above  the  other  nearly  to  the  top  of  the  Hill, 
and  they  are  intersected  or  Bound  together  by  a  Sandy  soil 
without  Stones.  There  does  not  appear  to  be  any  break  at 
any  Part  of  their  Length.  At  the  first  Layer  near  the  water, 
there  is  a  Sort  of  Stone  which  is  easily  broken  And  which  de- 
taches itself  from  the  Copper  without  being  mixed  with  it. 
All  these  Beds  or  layers  of  Copper  run  about  The  Length  of  15 
arpents  following  the  course  of  the  River.  Corbin  adds  that 
they  cut  some  of  this  Copper  with  a  hatchet  at  The  place  where 
there  was  a  seam ;  that  it  appeared  to  him  quite  pure,  and  that 
at  every  place  in  these  15  arpents  where  they  bored  they  found 
it  similar  to  this ;  that  on  being  taken  from  the  Mine  it  can  be 
forged  and  worked  as  easily  as  lead;  that  a  Spit  And  several 
small  tools  were  made  out  of  it  Such  as  knife-Handles,  braces 
for  the  Carpenters,  foot-rules  And  other  Articles,  without  taking 
any  other  trouble  than  hammering  it  while  cold  just  as  it  came 
out  of  the  mine. 

That  after  examining  this  mine,  The  savage  wanted  to  take 
them  into  three  branches  of  that  same  River  where  he  assured 
them  there  was  as  much  copper  at  each  Place  as  they  Saw  before 
them ;  but  that  as  they  had  no  provisions  and,  moreover  no  tools 

^L'anse  is  the  usual  designation  on  maps  of  tlie  period,  for  what 
is  now  known  as  Keweenaw  Bay,  at  the  base  of  Keweenaw  Point, 
upper  peninsula  of  Michigan. — ^Ed. 

2 Marginal  note  on  MS.:  "A  vessel  of  at  least  40  tons  could  enter 
that  River." 

3  For  this  measure,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvl,  p.  353. — En. 


1735]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

-suitable  for  cutting  a  quantity  of  the  metal,  they  came  away. 

The  said  Corbin  likewise  saw  in  the  bottom  of  Lake  superior 
a  mass  of  virgin  copper  which  he  thinks  must  weigh  from  8  to 
10  Thousand  livres,  and  he  says  that  there  is  another  on  the 
bank  of  the  said  River  Tonnagane  at  the  foot  of  the  mine  which 
eeems  to  have  rolled  down  from  the  Cliff,  and  which  is  from 
6  to  7  feet  in  Diameter  and  the  same  in  height;  that  it  is  sur- 
rounded by  Riocks  which  are  easily  detached  by  striking  them, 
or  by  building  a  fire  against  them. 

He  thinks  that  in  order  to  remove  the  layers  of  Ct>pper  from 
this  Mine  it  will  be  necessary  to  use  strong  iron  crowbars  to 
dislodge  and  lift  them  when  cut  in  pieces  by  means  of  Wedges 
driven  in  with  Sledge-hammers,  and  files  mounted  like  saws 
for  sawing  the  layers  in  the  Cliff.  He  says  that  this  is  also  the 
opinion  of  Monsieur  De  la  Ronde. 

He  also  adds  that  the  outer  face  of  these  copper  beds  or 
Layers  is  covered  with  Verdigris  and  that  the  metal  shines  only 
'when  scraped  with  an  iron  implement;  that  it  is  perhaps  this 
Verdigris  that  prevents  the  breaks  in  the  Length  of  these  beds 
from  being  seen  ;  that  the  sandy  Soil  between  the  beds  of  copper 
falls  away  as  easily  as  bad  Dry  mortar.  This  he  ascertained 
by  striking  it  with  the  back  of  his  hatchet  and  by  scratching  it 
with  the  Blade.  He  observed  that  this  Soil  is  very  dry,  and 
consists  of  three  different  kinds  of  substances ;  sand  Predomi- 
nates and  it  is  mixed  with  clay  and  a  sort  of  Mineral  dust  that 
seems  to  be  of  copper ;  it  is  shining  And  reddish ;  That  each  of 
these  layers  of  sandy  soil  is  covered  with  Verdigris  like  The 
beds  of  copper;  that  they  have  all  fallen  away  so  that  the 
copper  beds  project  2,  3,  and  4  pouces,  and  the  layers  of  soil 
are  indented  to  the  same  extent. 

The  Cliff  is  perpendicular  and  almost  Equally  so  through- 
out the  length  of  the  15  arpents,  at  the  end  of  which  it  is  easy 
to  ascend  to  the  summit  of  the  Cliff.  This  Corbin  did,  and 
scraped  away  The  earth  in  several  places  with  his  hatchet;  he 
observed  that  it  is  reddish  in  some  places,  grey  in  others,  dry- 
everywhere,  and  easy  to  remove,  without  being  mixed  with 
any  stones.     The  surface  of  this  Soil  is  denuded  of  trees  and 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

even  of  grass  with  the  exception  of  a  few  small  hollows  where 
there  are  some ;  that  is  a  few  scattered  tufts  of  grass  and  stunted 
fir-trees  3  and  4  feet  high ;  That  there  are  trees  only  at  a  dis- 
tance of  12,  15  and  20  arpents  in  the  valley,  and  they  are  only 
as  thick  as  one's  leg  and  scattered  in  clumps.  The  Country 
is  level.  Corhin  saw  no  spring  of  water-,  not  even  the  Trace 
of  one,  for  15  arpents  fronting  on  the  River.  He  thinks  that 
a  Land-slide  has  taken  place  at  this  last  Spot,  and  he  bases  his 
opinion  on  the  fact  that  at  various  points  on  The  bank  of  the 
River  there  are  mounds  of  earth.  The  appearance  whereof  re- 
sembles That  of  The  soil  at  the  top  of  the  ClifF. 

From  The  mouth  of  The  River  T'onnagane  to  the  spot  where 
the  mine  is  situated,  there  are  7  or  8  small  rapids  which  will 
not  prevent  Canoes  carrying  six  thousand  livres  from  ascending 
the  river.  These  Canoes  will  go  down  even  more  easily.  The 
first  of  these  rapids  is  three  Leagues  up  the  River;  the  seven 
others  are  at  varying  intervals  from  one  another. 

This  Report  has  been  made  to  me  by  Corbin,  carpenter,  at 
Quebec,  This  [blank  space  in  MS.]  October,  1735. 



[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French 
Minister,  dated  Oct.  5,  1736.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document, 
but  vol.  6B,  c.  11,  fol.  55.] 


We  cannot  too  strongly  represent  to  you,  Monseigneur,  the 
N'ecessity  of  strengthening  Detroit.  We  see  no  other  means  of 
attaining  this  object  than  by  posting  a  strong  garrison  And 
granting  Lands  there.  But  this  project  can  only  be  partially 
carried  out  until  His  Majesty  is  pleased  to  increase  The  num- 
ber of  his  Troops. 

The  Concessions  which  We  have  granted  to  various  inhabit- 
ants for  some  years  past  have  Induced  them  to  Work  more 
assiduously  than  they  had  hitherto  done  in  cultivating  the  SoiL 


736]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Ln  1735,  from  1300  to  1400  Minots  of  wheat  were  harvested, 
Ajid  Monsieur  Peau  who  has  just  returned  from'  there  esti- 
nates  that  wheat  will  not  be  worth  more  than  3  livres  Tlie 
minot  This  year  at  Detroit.  At  present  there  are  at  that  Post 
a  garrison  of  17  soldiers,  40  families,  And  80  men  capable  of 
bearing  arms.  We  have  recently  granted  sixteen  More  con- 
cessions to  inhabitants  of  that  place  who  asked  us  for  them, 
And  we  append  Copies  tlieieof  which  We  beg  you,  Monseig- 
neur,  to  get  ratified  by  His  Majesty.  The  3  or  4  inhabitants 
who  hold  concessions  from  tbe  Sieur  Lamothe  Oadilloc  can  be 
Disturbed  in  the  possession  of  Their  Lands  solely  by  The  King's 
officers,  w^hich  will  not  happen.  They  feel  no  anxiety  on  that 

We  have  to  inform  you  that — upon  the  request  made  last 
Summer  to  Monsieur  Peau,  then  tbe  Commandant,  to  have  a 
person  appointed  to  wbom  Tbe  said  inhabitants  might  pay  the 
Cens  Et  rentes'^  for  their  Lands — Monsieur  Hocquart  appointed 
One  l^avarre,  a  young  man  of  acknowledged  integrity,  residing 
at  Detroit,  to  act  as  Receiver  of  EQs  Majesty's  Domain,  and  he 
allowed  him  a  commission  of  four  sols  in  the  Livre  on  the 
moneys  collected  by  him.  Some  years  ago  Monsieur  Hocquart 
granted  that  Individual  a  License  as  l^otary,  an  office  be  fills 
to  the  satisfaction  of  the  inhabitants.^ 

iThe  French,  land  taxes  were  summed  up  by  the  term  "cens  et 
rentes,"  the  first  being  a  feudal  tax  usually  paid  in  kind  to  the  seignior. 
At  Detroit,  the  commandant  of  the  post  had  certain  rights  for  which 
he  received  a  yearly  sum,  but  Detroit  was  not  a  seigniory;  the  term 
"cens  et  rentes"  is  here  doubtless  employed  in  a  collective  sense,  for 
what  the  English  would  call  "quit-rents"  due  to  the  Crown.  This  tax 
was  usually  one  or  two  sols  (sous)  per  front  foot.  See  Burton,  Cadil- 
lac's Tillage  (Detroit,  1896). — ^Ed. 

2  Robert  Navarre  was  born  in  France  in  1709,  of  an  illegitimate 
branch  of  the  royal  house  of  that  name.  Soon  after  his  arrival  in 
Canada,  he  was  sent  to  Detroit  as  royal  notary  (1728  or  1730),  where 
in  1734  he  married  Marie  Lothman  de  Barrois.  Thus  was  founded 
one  of  the  most  important  families  among  the  French  habitants.  See 
Hamlin,  Legends  of  Le  Detroit  (Detroit,  1884);  also  Denissen,  Family 
of  Navarre  (Detroit,  1897).  The  founder,  Robert  Navarre,  died  in 
1791.— Ed. 

[  241  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voLxvh 

When  Monsieur  De  B'eauhamois  appointed  the  Sieur  Des- 
nojelles  Commandant  of  that  Post,  he  notified  that  Officer  that 
The  pay  And  The  clothing  of  the  soldiers  of  the  Garrison  to  be 
stationed  there  wonld  be  at  his  charge.  But  if  such  Garrison 
exceed  30  men,  as  it  is  necessary  that  It  should,  We  doubt 
whether  any  officer  wishing  to  do  his  duty  can  undertake  it 
We  will  await  The  orders  you  may  give  us  on  the  subject. 

If  The  affair  of  the  copper  mines  should  have  as  advan- 
tageous results  as  We  have  Reason  to  Hope,  this  Country  will 
become  more  and  more  worthy  of  his  Majesty's  attention  and 
of  the  jealousy  of  our  neighbors.  The  Post  of  Missilimakinac 
And  That  of  Riviere  St  Joseph,  will  require  the  same  precau- 
tionary measures  as  that  of  Detroit.  This  will  at  first  entail 
considerable  expense  upon  his  Majesty,  But  there  is  every 
Eieason  to  believe  that  he  will  be  amply  compensated  in  The 

We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Tour 

very  humble  and  very  obedient  servants 


Quebec,  October  5th,  1736. 


[Extract  from  the  annual  report  of  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart, 
dated  Oct.  12,  1736.  Transcript  from  N.  Y.  Colon.  Docs.,  ix,  pp.  1050- 

*  *  *  *  **  *  * 

Sieur  de  Beauharnois  reported  last  year  the  cause  of  the  ill 
success  attending  Sieur  de  IS'oyelles'  campaign  against  the  Foxes 
and  the  Sakis.  He  has  the  honor  to  inform  you,  My  Lord, 
by  a  private  letter,  of  resolution  adopted  by  these  Indians,  and 
of  the  dispositions  of  the  Sakis,  according  to  the  news  he  has 
received  from  the  commandant  at  the  River  St.  Joseph. 

Sieur  de  Joncaire,  commandant  among  the  Chaouanons,  has 
written  Sieur  de  Beauharnois  that  his  Indians  continued  to 



1736]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

ject  the  evil  advice  of  the  Iroquois,  and  were  disposed  to  fol- 
low their  Father's  pleasure ;  that  they  were  about  sending  Depu- 
ties to  Detroit  to  visit  their  Brothers  the  Hurons,  and  that  they 
would  oome  down  to  Montreal  next  Spring,  to  hear  Sieur  de 
Beauhamois'  word  and  obey  it.  They  have  added  that  as  he 
had  located  them  on  the  Beautiful  [Ohio]  river,  they  would 
not^  without  his  orders,  abandon  the  fire  he  had  lighted  for  them 
at  that  place.  Therefore,  although  the  transmigration  of  these 
Indians  to  Detroit  has  not  yet  taken  place,  it  is  to  be  presumed 
from  the  dispositions  they  continue  to  entertain,  that  Sieur  de 
Beauhamois  will  succeed  in  engaging  them  to  do  so.  The 
maxim  of  the  Indians  in  negotiations  of  this  nature,  is  to  have 
frequent  talks  together,  and  nothing  is  terminated  among  them 
•until  after  divers  interviews.  This  has  been  the  cause  of  the 
delay  manifested  by  the  Chaouanons.  As  for  the  rest,  M.  de 
Beauhamois  flatters  himself  that  the  business  will  be  terminated 
next  year;  he  will  not  lose  sight  of  it. 

As  regards  the  Miamis,  they  appear  very  quiet  in  their  vil- 
lage, and  M.  de  Beauhamois  has  not  heard  that  any  of  them 
liave  dispersed. 

In  the  answer  to  the  King's  Memoir  of  1734,  Mess"  de 
Beauhamois  and  Hocquart  have  explained  the  reasons  which! 
had  prevented  M.  d'Amaud,  who  commanded  the  party  sent 
against  the  O^iatonons  proceeding  beyond  the  Miamis,  and 
the  motives  which  induced  M.  de  Beauhamois  not  to  push  that 
affair  any  further. 

He  will  add,  in  regard  to  its  probable  consequences,  that  he 
agreed  the  more  readily  to  be  content  with  the  pardon  the 
Ouiatanons  have  solicited  of  him,  inasmuch  as  there  is  no  doubt^ 
had  Sieur  d'Amaud  continued  his  march,  but  these  Indians 
would  have  been  advised  thereof  by  the  Miamis,  their  allies, 
and  have  retired  to  the  Peanguichias  or  Islinois,  who  are 
equally  their  allies,  so  that,  besides  being  unable  to  wreat 
vengeance  on  the  Ouitanons,  it  would  be  declaring  war  against 
the  other  nations,  among  whom  they  would  certainly  have  found 
an  asylum,  and  stopping  the  path  to  the  Mississippy  on  our- 
selves. The  peace  we  have  for  some  time  been  endeavoring  to  es- 
16  [243] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

tablish  in  the  Upper  countries,  and  tlie  condition  of  affairs  ro- 
quired  mild  and  moderate  means  to  be  preferred  on  an  occasion^ 
involving  neither  the  honor  of  the  Erench  nation  nor  the  King's 
arms,  and  arising  merely  out  of  a  simple  fray  between  some 
drunken  young  Onitanons  and  two  or  three  Voyageurs,  in  an 
affair  of  trade.  The  proceedings  and  resolution  of  the  French 
of  Detroit  to  wreak  vengeance  for  the  insult  perpetrated  on 
these  Voyageurs,  have  not  been  unknown  to  all  the  I^ations, 
and  may,  in,  like  manner,  help  to  restrain  those  of  that  quarter. 
In  fine,  it  has  not  been  until  after  having  weighed  all  these 
considerations  and  the  unfortunate  consequences  this  affair  might 
involve,  which  M.  de  Beauhamois  has  just  explained,  that  he 
deemed  it  prudent,  and  of  infinite  importance  to  the  good  of  the 
Colony,  to  grant  the  Ouitanons  the  pardon  they  asked  of  him, 
rather  than  aggravate  the  troubles  of  the  Upper  country,  by  ac1> 
ing  in  direct  opposition  to  the  views  he  entertains  of  reestablish- 
ing peace,  the  object  so  strongly  recommended  to  him. 

In  regard  to  the  Scioux,  Sieur  [St.]  Pierre,  who  commanded 
at  that  post,  and  Father  Guignas,  the  Missionary,  have  written 
to  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  on  the  10th  and  11th  of  April  last, 
that  these  Indians  appeared  well  intentioned  towards  the 
French,  and  had  no  other  fear  than  that  of  being  abandoned 
by  them.  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  annexes  an  extract  of  these 
letters;  and  although  the  Scioux  seem  very  friendly,  the  result 
only  can  tell  whether  their  fidelity  is  to  be  absolutely  depended 
on,  for  the  unrestrained  and  inconsistent  spirit  which  composes 
the  Indian  character,  may  easily  change  it.  They  have  not 
come  down  this  summer,  as  yet,  but  M.  de  St.  Pierre  is  to  get 
them  to  do  so  next  year,  and  to  have  an  eye  on  their  proceed- 


M.  de  Beauhamois  gave  an  account  last  year  of  the  affair 
of  the  Chicachas,  and  since  that  time  has  not  received  any 
news  from  M.  de  Bienville. 

We  are  with  most  profound  respect.  My  Lord,  Your  most 
humble  and  obedient  Servants,  Beauharnois 

Quebec,  October  12th,  1736.  HoCQUABT 



736]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

[Extracts  from  an  enumeration  given  by  an  unknown  person.i 
iated  Oct.  12,  1736.  Transcribed  from  N.  Y.  Colon.  Docs.,  ix,  pp. 

Enumeration  of  the  Indian  Tribes  connected  with  the  Govemr 
_  ment  of  Canada;  the  Warriors  and  Armorial 

P  bearings  of  each  Nation.     1736 

The  Tetes  de  Bovle  or  Tribes  of  the  Interior 

.  These  are  wandering  Savages  who  have  no  knowledge  either 
of  the  order  or  form  of  villages,  and  evince  the  least  intellect; 
tihey  inhabit  the  mountains  and  lakes  in  the  interior,  from  Three 
Rivers  to  Lake  Superior.  Their  armorial  bearings  are  un- 
known, if  any  they  have. 

At  Missilimahindk 

The  Outawas  of  this  village  amount  to  one  hundred  and 
eighty  warriors;  the  two  principal  branches  are 
Kiskakons  (1)  and  Sinago  (2)  ;  the  Bear  (1)  and 

Black  Squirrel  (2),-'  .  .  .  .        180 

River  Missisague 
The  Missisagues  on  the  river  number  thirty  men,  and 
twenty  men  on  the  Island  called  Manitouatim  of 

Lake  Huron.     They  have  for  device,  a  Crane/      .  50 

iTbe  authorship  of  this  enumeration  has  been  variously  assigned. 
O'Callaghan  says  it  has  been  supposed  to  be  Joncaire;  but  he  was 
on  the  Ohio  at  this  date,  and  not  at  Mackinac.  Schoolqraft  (History 
of  Indian  tribes,  Phila.,  1847,  iii,  p.  558),  says  there  is  a  note  on 
the  original  MS.,  that  the  compilation  is  supposed  to  have  been  made 
by  Monsieur  Chauvignerie.  We  think  it  probably  the  work  of  Celeron 
the  younger,  who  was  commandant  at  Mackinac  at  this  date,  and 
well  acquainted  with  Indian  tribes. — Ed. 

2  For  the  Ottawa  clans,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp.  119,  120. — Ed. 

3  For  location  and  history  of  this  tribe,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp. 
18,  371.  The  island  is  the  Manltoulin,  at  the  entrance  of  Georgian 
Bay. — ^Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol. 

Lake  Superior — At  the  Mouth 

At  the  Falls  of  Saint  Mary  are  the  Sauteurs/  to  the 
nuinber  of  thirty;  they  are  in  two  divisions,  and 
have  for  device,  the  Ctrane  and  the  Oat  fish,  .         80 

Michipicoion — At  North  of  this  Lahe^ 

Tte  Papinakois  and  those  of  the  interior;  the  first  are 

twenty  warriors,  and  have  for  device,  a  Hare,         .         20 

River  Ounepigon 

The  Obkemanettigons  are  domiciled  there  to  the  number 
of  forty  warriors.  They  have  for  device,  the  bird 
called    the    Fisher  .  .  .  ,40 

The  Monsonis,*  who  are  migratory,  estimate  themselves 
two  hundred  men,  and  have  for  device,  a  Moose 
[Original']  f  .....       200 

Tlie  Abittibis  and  the  Tetes  de  Boule  come  there  also. 
Some  have  informed  me  that  the  first  have  for  arms, 
the  Partridge  with  the  Eagle.  I  have  already 
stated  that  they  are  in  all  one  hundred  warriors. 

Tlie  Namewilinis  have  one  hundred  and  fifty  fit  to  bear 

arms.     They  have  for  device,  a  Sturgeon,^  .        150 

The  tribes  of  the  Savannas,  one  hundred  and  forty  war- 
riors strong,  have  for  armorial  device,  a  Hare,       .       140 

iFor  the  history  of  the  Chippewa  (whom  the  French  called  Saut- 
*eurs),  see  Minn.  Hist.  Colls.,  v. — Ed. 

2  There  was  a  small  French  post  on  the  Michipicoton  River,  a  depend- 
ency of  the  larger  one  at  Nipigon. — Ed. 

8  The  fort  on  the  Nipigon  River  was  found  to  draw  the  trade  from 
the  English  at  Hudson  Bay.  It  was  resorted  to  by  a  number  of 
roving  tribes.  The  domiciled  tribe  is  probably  the  loon  totem  of  the 
Chippewa.  See  Warren,  "History  of  the  Ojibways,"  Minn.  Hist.  GolU., 
v,  ch.  2,  The  Monsoni  were  a  wandering  Algonquian  tribe  north  and 
east  of  Lake  Nipigon. — Ed. 

*  Probably  the  Sturgeon  clan  of  the  Chippewa. — Ed. 

[  246  ] 

.736]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 



The  Ouace  are  in  number  sixty  men,  and  have  for  device 

a  ,Oat  fish,  .  .  .  .  .  ■       ^ 

Tecamamiouen,-  or  Rainy  Lake 

These  Indians  are  the  same  as  those  who  come  to  ITepi- 

^gon.     They  are  about  this  lake  to  the  number  of  one 
hundred  men,         .....       100 
Lake  of  the  Woods 

The  Oistinaux  are  scattered  hereabout,  to  the  number 
of  two  hundred  warriors.  They  have  for  device, 
the     Wild     goose,  ....       200 

Lake  Ounepigon 

The  Cristinaux  are  around  this  lake  to  the  number  of 

sixty  men,  .  .  .  .  .60 

Assenipoels.     See  Scioux. 

South  of  Lake  Superior 

Kiouanan  [Keweenaw] .  In  this  quarter  there  are  dom- 
iciled forty  Sauteurs,  who  have  for  device,  the 
Crane  and  the  Stag,  .  .  .  .         40 

The  Sauteurs  of  Point  Chagouamigon  are  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  warriors,       ....        150 

The  Scioux,  at  the  head  of  this  lake,  in  the  woods  and 
along  the  lakes,  though  scattered,  are  computed  at 
three  hundred  men,  ....       300 

iThe  post  of  Kamanistigoya  was  founded  before  1718,  to  command 
the  portage  of  Pigeon  River,  called  "the  Grand  Portage."  The  Ouacfi 
may  be  the  same  as  the  tribe  referred  to  in  1697  as  "Les  GensappelSs 
de  L'Outarde  (people  of  the  bustard)  otherwise  Ouikaliny."  See 
Margry,  Dccouv.  et  etabl.,  v,  p.  7. — Ed. 

2  This  post  was  founded  by  La  V^rendrye  in  the  fall  of  1731,  and 
named  St.  Pierre.' — iEo. 

[  2i7  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voLxtu 

The  Scioux  of  the  Prairies  are,  in  the  opinion  of  Voya- 
geurs,  over  two  thousaTid  men,  Their  Armorial 
devices  are  the  Buffalo,  the  Black  Dog  and  the 
Otter,  ......     2000 

The  Assenipoels,  or  Pouans  can,  according  to  others,  vie 
with  the  Scionx,  from  whom  they  formerly  sprung. 
They  number  one  hundred  and  fifty  to  the  south  of 
Lake  Ounepigon,  and  have  for  device,  a  Big  Stone 
or  a  Pock,  .....       150 

The  Puans  have  retired,  since  1728,  to  the  Scioux  to  the 
numher  of  eighty ;  they  have  for  Armorial  hearings, 
the  Stag,  the  Polecat  (Pichovx),  the  Tiger,^  .         80 

T%e  head  of  Lake  Superior 

The  Ayowois  are  settled  at  the  south  of  the  River  de  Mis- 
souris,  at  the  other  side  of  the  Mississipi.  They  are 
no  more  than  ei,a"litv.     They  have  for  device,  a  Fox,         80 


IxJce  Michigan  and  its  dependencies 

The  Folles  Avoines,  north  of  this  lake,  numher  one  hun- 
dred and  sixty  warriors,     ....       160 

The  most  considerable  tribes  [have]  for  device,  the  Larp'e 
tailed  Bear,  the  Stag,  a  Kiliou — that  is  a  species  of  Eagle  (the 
most  beautiful  bird  of  tliis  country,) — perched  on  a  cross. 

In  explanation  of  a  Cross  forming  the  Armorial  hearings  of 
the  Indians,  it  is  stated  that  formerly  a  Chief  of  the  Folles 
Avoines  finding  himself  dangerously  sick,  consented,  after  trying 
the  ordinary  remedies,  to  see  a  Missionary,  who.  Cross  in  hand, 
prayed  to  G^od  for  his  recovery,  and  obtained  it  from,  his  imercy. 
In  gratitude  for  this  benefit,  the  Chief  desired  that  to  his  arms 
should  he  added  a  Cross  on  which  the  Kiliou  has  ever  since  been 
always  perched. 


iTBe  word  "pichou  "  was  commonly  used  for  the  Canadian  lynx  or 
loup  carrier;  the  "tiger"  was  a  catamount. — Ed. 

[  248  ] 

1736]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Pouteouatamis.  In  1728  there  was  a  small  village  of 
;  this  nation,  retired  on  an  island  to  the  number  of  20 
The  Bay  [La  Baye],  at  the  head  of  this  Lake  is  the  so- 
journ, or  rather  the  country  of  the  Sakis.  This 
nation  could  put  under  arms  one  hundred  and  fifty 
men.  Others  do  not  count  but  one  hundred  and 
twenty.  They  have  for  device,  a  Crab,  a  Wolf,  and 
a  She-Bear,  .  .  .  .  .160 

Fox  River 

The  river  of  the  Foxes  discharges  into  this  lake.  This 
nation  now  migratory,  still  consists,  when  not  sep- 
arated, of  one  hundred  men  bearing  arms.  They 
have  for  devicei,  a  Fox,       ....       100 

The  Kickapous,  formerly  their  allies,  may  be  eighty  men. 

They  bear  for  device,  the  Pheasant  and  the  Otter,  80 

The  Maskoutin  has  for  Armorial  device,  the  Wolf  and 

the  Stag.     This  nation  is  estimated  at  sixty  men,  60 

River  8aini  Joseph,  south  of  Lake  Michigan 

The  Pouteouatamis,  who  call  themselves  the  Governor's 
eldest  sons,^  compose  the  village  of  the  Biver  Saint 
Joseph,  to  the  number  of  one  hundred  warriors. 
The  principal  tribes  bear  the  Golden  Carp,  the 
Frog,  the  Crab,  the  Tortoise,  .  .  .100 

There  are  in  the  village  about  ten  Miamis  who  bear  as 

their  arms  a  C^ane,  .  .  .  .10 

Also,  eight  Illinois  Kaskakias,  whose  device  is  a  feather' 

of  an  arrow     — ^^ v>^"~"n^'^'^=^        notched;  or  two 

arrows   supported   one   against  the   other    (x)    in 
saltier  [like  a  St.  Andrew's  cross.] 
These  are  the  nations  best  known  to  us  as  well  along  the 
Grand  Biver  of  the  Ontawas  as  north  and  south  of  Lakes 

lit  is  probable  that  they  called  themselves  the  "eldest  sons"  because 
they  were  the  first  of  the  nations  at  La  Baye  to  make  an  alliance 
with  the  French,  and  to  visit  Montreal.  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvl, 
pp.  34-50. — Ed. 

[  249  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


Superior  and  Michigan.     I  propose  now  proceeding  again  from 
Montreal  by  way  of  the  Lakes  to  Missilimakinak. 

Lake  Erie  and  Dependencies;  South  Side 

The  Chaouanons  towards  Carolina,   are  two  hundred 

men,  ......       200 

Flatheads.  The  Cherakis,  Chicachas,  T'otiris,^  are  in- 
cluded under  the  name  of  Flatheads  by  the  Iroquois, 
who  estimate  them  at  over  six  thousand  men,  in 
more  than  thirty  villages.  I'm  told  they  had  for 
device  a  Vessel  (un  Yaisseau.),      .  .  .     6000 

The  Ontationoue,"  that  is  those  who  speak  the  language 
of  Men;  so  called  by  the  Iroquois  because  they 
understand  each  other — may  be  fifty  men.  I 
know  nothing  of  themi,       ,  .  .  .50 

The  Miamis  have  for  device  the  Hind  and  the  Orane. 
These  are  the  two  principal  Tribes.  There  is  like- 
wise that  of  the  Bear.  They  are  two  hundred  men, 
bearing  arms,         .....       200 

The  Ontationoue,"  that  is  those  who  speak  the  language 
same  JSTation,  though  in  different  villages.  They 
can  place  under  arms  three  hundred  and  fifty  men. 
The  devices  of  these  Indians  are  the  Serpent,  the 
Deer,  and  the  Small  Acorn/'  .  .  .        350 

Illinois.  The  Metchigamias  at  Fort  Chartres,  num- 
ber 250  men.  .....       250 

iThe  Totire  (Tutela)  were  a  small  western  Virginia  tribe,  iden- 
tified by  Powell  as  of  Siouan  stock.  See  U.  S.  Bur.  Eth.  Report,  1885- 
86.  The  English  writers  speak  of  them  as  on  Big  Sandy  River  in 
the  latter  years  of  the  17th  century;  and  say  that,  about  that  time, 
they  moved  into  North  Carolina  near  the  Southern  tribes.  Later,  they 
joined  the  Tuscarora  and  were  incorporated  into  the  Six  Nations. — Ed. 

2  The  Tionnontate  or  Tobacco-Huron  (more  properly,  Wyandot). 
In  17D3,  a  remnant  of  this  once  important  tribe  dwelt  near  the  Miami. 
See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  224. — Ed. 

3  For  a  description  of  these  villages,  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p. 
376.— Ed. 

[  250  ] 


1736]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

The  Kaskakias,  six  leagues  below,  have  a  village  of  one 

hundred  warriors,  ....       100 

Ihe  Peorias  at  the  Rock,  are  fifty  men,  .  .         50 

The  Kaokias,  or  Tamarois,  can  furnish  two  hundred 

(men,  .  .  .  .  .  .200 

All  these  Indians  comprehended  under  the  name  of  Illinois^ 
have,  for  device,  the  Grane,  the  Bear,  the  White  Hind,  the 
ork,  the  Tortoise. 

Lake  Erie;  Detroit 

le  Hurons  at  present  are  two  hundred  men,  hearing 

arms.     They  mark  the  Tortoise,  Bear,  and  Plover,       200 

The  Pouteouatamis  have  a  village  there  of  one  hundred 
and  eighty  men.^  They  bear  for  device  the  Golden 
Carp,  the  Frog,  the  Crab,  the  Tortoisa  (See 
River  Saint  Joseph,  south  of  Lake  Michigan,)  ....        180 

The  Ontawas  have  two  villages  there,  composed  of  one  of 
the  tribe  of  Sinagos;  the  other  of  Kiskakons,  and 
may  count  two  hundred  warriors,  .  .       200 

They  have  the  same  devices  as  those  of  Missilimlakinakl ;  that 

is  to  say,  the  Bear  and  Black  Squirrel. 

Lake  Sai/rd  Clair,  which  leads  to  Lake  Huron 

At  the  end  of  the  little  Lake  Saint  Clair,  there  is  a  small 
village  of  Mississagues,  which  numbers  sixty  men. 
They  have  the  same  devices  as  the  Mississagues  of 
Manitouatin  and  Lake  Ontario;  that  is  to  say,  a 
Ctane,        .  .  .  .  .  .60 

Lake  Huron. 
I  have  spoken  before  of  the  Mississagues  who  are  to  the 
N"orth  of  this  Lake.     On  the  South  side,  I  know 
only  the  Olitawas,  who  have  a  village  of  eighty  men 
at  Saguinan,  and  for  device  the  Bear  and  Squirrel,         80 

iNote  appended   to  text:     "Instead   of   180,  only   100   men  must  be 
counted."  »„, 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 


All  the  I^atioTij?  have  this  m  eommoTi ;  that  a  man  who  goes  to 
war  denotes  himself  as  much  by  the  device  of  his  wife's  as  by 
that  of  his  own  tribe,  and  never  marries  a  woman  who  carries 
a  similar  device  to  his.  M 

If  time  permitted,  yon  would,  Sir,  have  been  better  satisfied 
with  my  researches. 

I  would  have  written  to  the  Interpreters  of  the  Posts,  who 
would  have  furnished  me  with  more  certain  information  than  I 
oould  obtain  from  the  Voyageurs  whom  I  questioned.  I  am 
engaged  in  the  history  of  the  Scioux,  which  you  have  asked  of 
Monsieur  de  Linerot  [Linclot]. 




[Letter  of  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Oct.  14,  1736.  MS.  in  archives  of  Minist§re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press- 
mark, "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  65,  c.  11,  fol.  81."] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — We  have  The  honor  to  inform  You  that 
Monsieur  De  la  E>onde  who  was  instructed  to  work  the  Copper 
Mines  on  Lake  Superior,  came  down  from  there  in  the  month 
of  August  to  report  on  his  discoveries,  and  brought  with  him 
About  500  pounds  of  ore  taken  from  two  large  masses  of  copper, 
one  of  which  is  at  the  Tbnnaganne  Eiiver,  and  the  other  on  the 
Shore  of  Lake  Superior  near  the  Piouabic  River.  ^  We  have 
drawn  up  the  annexed  memorandum  from  what  he  has  told  ua 

iNow  Iron  River,  in  northern  Michigan.  The  word  Piouabic  (Pewa- 
bic)  signffies  iron,  the  terms  being  in  the  18th  century  used  inter- 
changeably. Alexander  Henry,  in  his  Travels  and  Adventures  (Bain 
ed.,  Boston,  1901),  p.  187,  refers  to  this  as  the  "Piwatic  or  Iron  River." 
Foster  and  Whitney,  "Report  on  Copper  Regions  of  Lake  Superior," 
in  United  States  Land  Commissioner's  Report,  1849,  suggested  Pewa- 
bic  as  the  name  of  a  town  at  the  mouth  of  this  river,  and  so  laid  it 
down  on  their  map.  A  small  village  of  that  name  is  now  in  Houghton 
County,  near  the  Pewabic  mine. — Ed, 


1736]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

respecting  tlie  situation  of  those  mines,  and  everything  con- 
nected therewith.  From  this  You  will  be  able  to  judge,  Mon- 
seigneur,  of  the  favorable  Hopes  to  which  this  first  attempt  gives 
rise,  and  of  the  advantages  that  may  be  expected  from  the  work- 
ing of  those  mines.  Although,  until  now,  there  is  nothing  abso- 
lutely certain  beyond  the  discovery  of  those  two  masses,  there  is 
every  reason  to  believe  that  they  are  not  the  only  ones  And  that, 
by  digging  at  the  Cape  of  the  Piouabic  Eiver,  similar  Masses 
will  be  found.  All  the  savages  assert  that  Copper  is  to  be  found 
at  a  great  many  Places  on  Lake  Superior;  from  time  to  time 
they  have  brought  pieces  which  they  have  given  to  Frenchmen 
and  in  particular  to  Father  St.  Pe,  a  Jesuit  Missionary  at  Misr 
ftlimakinac.^  We  consider  that  these  discoveries  cannot  be  too 
carefully  followed  up.  But,  in  order  to  do  so  at  present  And 
with  success,  it  is  necessary  to  have  The  workman  and  The 
artificer  asked  for  by  Monsieur  D©  la  Ponde.  We  beg,  you, 
Monseigneur,  to  give  orders  that  one  be  found. 

Annexed  hereto  is  The  Statement  of  the  specimens  of  Copper 
from  Tonnaganne  And  Piouabic  which  We  will  put  on  board 
the  King's  Ship  and  which  Monsieur  Hocquart  will  be  careful 
to  deliver  to  you,  Monseigneur. 

We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servants 


Quebec,  October  14th,  1736.  Hocquart 

Statement  of  the  specimens  of  Copper  Sent  to  Monseigneur 
The  Comte  de  Maurepas  by  The  King's  ship. 

ISr^  1     Three  small  pieces  from  the  Tonnaganne  Mine. 
IST^  2     Another  small  piece  of  ore  of  two  colors,  red,  and 
white,  from  the  said  Tonnaganne  Piver. 

N^  3     Another  small  piece  of  Copper,  or  metal  of  some  other 

1  Jean  Bapfiste  de  Saint  Po  was  born  Oct.  21,  1686,  entered  the  Jesuit 
novitiate  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  and  later  joined  the  Canada  mission. 
His  first  station  was  among  the  Miamis,  whence  he  was  transferred 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voixvu 

kind  which  detached  itself  from  the  ore  placed  in  the  Crucible, 
and  flew  out  of  it  during  the  melting,  while  an  assay  was  being 
made  by  Monsieur  Be  la  Konde.  This  small  Ingot  comes  from 
the  same  Place  aforesaid  and  from  the  same  block  of  Copper 
mentioned  in  the  memorandum  of  the  said  Sieur  De  la  Ronde. 

1^°  4  .  several  specimens  of  the  Soil  or  kind  of  Soil 
adhering  and  contiguous  to  the  same  block  aforesaid. 

N^  A  A  large  piece  of  ore,  weighing  About  110  pounds, 
marked  A.  on  one  of  the  faces,  from  the  Piouabic  River. 

Another  Idem,  weighing  65  pounds,  also  marked  A,  from  the 
same  Place. 

Several  other  Pieces,  large  and  small,  also  from  the  Piouabic 
River,  without  any  number. 

The  Copper  is  in  two  cases,  N"^  7  &  N"^  8,  which  Monsieur 
de  Beauhamois,  Intendant,  is  to  take  out  in  order  to  Send  them 
to  Monseigneur. 



.  [Letter  from  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister, 
dated  Oct.  16,  1736.  MS.  in  archives  of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris; 
press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  66,  c.  11,  fol.  77."] 

Monseigneur — 'We  have  the  honor  to  send  you  the  List  of 
the  soldiers  and  other  Subjects  who  have  presented  themselves 
last  year  and  this  year  also  to  obtain  the  half  pay/  We  beg 
you  to  procure  it  for  them.  These  are  old  soldiers  who  have 
done  good  service  and  who  are  all  unable  to  subsist  without  that 
aid.  With  respect  to  Jacques  Eeel,  a  habitant,  as  he  is  Crippled 
from  the  effects  of  the  Wound  that  he  received  in  1Y33  in  the 
war  against  the  Renards  and  sakis.  We  trust,  Monseigneur,  that 

to  Mackinac,  1735-36.  After  this  he  returned  to  Montreal,  where  he 
was  resident  superior  (1748-54).  Twice  he  served  as  superior  of  all 
Canada  (1739-48.  and  again  in  1754). — 'Ed. 

1  Marginal  note  on  MS.:  "Propose  only  the  number  necessary  to 
replace  those  who  died  in  previous  years.  Letter  of  May  2nd,  1735 
to  Monsieur  Hocquart." 


1736]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

you  will  be  pleased  to  allow  him  10  livres  per  montli  to  help 
him  in  providing  for  himself.  Moreover,  such  a  reward  will 
b©  an  encouragement  to  the  other  habitants  whenever  warlike 
expeditions  are  undertaken. 

We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servants 

Quebec,  October  16th,  1736.  Hocquart 

Indorsed:     "Received  the  15th  of  April,  1737.    The  16th  of  October, 
1736.     Invalid  Fund.    Monsieur  Hocquart." 


[Letter  of  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  17,  1736. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  65,  c.  11,  fol.  142.] 

Monseigneur — I  have  Received  the  letter  that  you  did  me 
the  honor  of  writing  me  on  the  Seventeenth  of  April  last  with 
Reference  to  The  affair  of  the  Renards  and  Sakis. 

I  fully  expected,  Monseigneur,  that  the  ill  Success  of  that 
Expedition  would  not  be  agreeable  to  the  King.  ^Nevertheless, 
you  Know  that  I  took  every  Care  to  ensure  a  Successful  result, 
and  you  were  even  pleased  to  write  me  on  the  nineteenth  of 
April  of  last  year  that  His  Majesty  had  approved  the  orders  that 
I  had  given  to  the  Sieur  Denoyelle,  and  the  measures  I  had 

When  I  Informed  you  of  The  Condition  of  the  Renards 
after  the  Attack  made  On  Them  by  the  Sieur  de  Villiers,  I 
stated  Kothing,  Monseigneur,  beyond  what  Had  been  written  to 
me  from  all  the  Posts  of  the  upper  country;^  and  I  have  since 

1  Father  le  Roullenger,  Jesuit  missionary  among  the  Illinois,  wrote 
to  the  Minister  in  1736:  "The  court  was  deceived  when  it  was  in- 
formed that  the  Renards  were  destroyed.  1st.  In  the  colony  of  Canada 
they  have  incurred  more  expenses  than  are  necessary  to  destroy  the 
Renards;  but  they  have  treated  them  too  gently,  and  this  management 
has  only  served  to  augment  the  expenses,  and  to  render  this  nation 
more  insolent.  2nd.  In  order  to  succeed,  the  natives  of  the  two  colo- 
nies of  Canada  and  Louisiana  must  be  united,     .^d.  Nothing  must  be  - 

[  255  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voLxvii 

learned  that  The  increase  in  the  number  which  I  Had  the  honor 
of  mentioning  to  Yon  as  being  that  of  the  Renards  Remaining 
at  that  time,  Was  due  to  the  fact  that  all  the  Savages  who  had 
Eenards  Slaves,  had  Returned  them,  and  that  the  tribes  sup- 
plied them  with  guns  and  ammunition. 

You  may  imagine,  Monseigneur,  that  the  Savages  have  their 
policy  as  we  have  Ours,  and  that  they  are  not  greatly  pleased 
at  seeing  a  nation  destroyed,  for  Fear  that  their  turn  may  come. 

They  manifest  Much  ardor  towards  the  French,  and  act  quite 
differently  We  have  had  a  Recent  proof  of  T^is  among  the 
Outawois,  who  have  begged  for  mercy  for  the  Sakis,  although 
they  Had  an  Interest  in  Avenging  the  death  of  their  people  and 
of  their  great  chief. 

The  Savages  as  a  rule  greatly  fear  the  French,  but  they  do 
not  love  them.  All  that  they  manifest  towards  them  is  N'ever 

You  will  Observe,  Monseigneur,  in  the  Reply  to  the  King's 
Memorial  of  one  thousand  Seven  Hundred  and  thirty  four,  that 
the  Sieur  Denoyelle  had  orders  to  pass  by  Detroit  to  levy  the 
hurons  and  other  Savages  at  that  post ;  and  that  I  had  ordered 
him,  in  His  Instructions  respecting  the  request  of  the  Outawois, 
to  grant  the  Sakis  their  Lives  if  they  delivered  up  the  Renards 
to  him.  He  had  also  orders  to  consult  there  with  Monsieur 
Peau,  the  other  Officers,  and  the  tribes,  respecting  the  measures 
to  be  taken  in  accordance  with  the  information  he  might  have. 
He  was  extremely  Embarrassed  by  the  question  put  to  him  at  the 
Council,  by  the  Hurons  asking  whether  he  had  orders  to  destroy 
the  Sakis  with  the  Renards,  and  saying  that  otherwise  they 

concealed  from  the  savages.  If  the  Iroquois  had  known,  that  it  was 
desired  to  pardon  the  Sakis,  they  would  not  have  marched;  or  they 
would  not  have  been  the  cause  of  a  division  such  as  that  which  caused 
Monsieur  de  Noyelles's  enterprise  to  fail.  4th.  Soldiers  are  in  no  wise 
suitable  for  a  march  of  six  months  by  land.  Incapable  of  providing 
their  own  subsistence,  they  are  a  charge  upon  the  savages,  which 
gives  rise  to  complaints.  For  such  expeditions,  only  Canadians, 
accustomed  to  this  kind  of  journeys,  should  be  employed." — 'Ferland, 
Cours  d'Histoire  du  Canada  (Quebec,  1865),  ii,  p.  441. — Ed. 



1733]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


fwould  not  march.  He  told  them  Without  other  Explanation, 
That  he  had  orders  to  Eat  up  both  nations.  He  Detached  two 
canoes  to  Send  word  to  the  Sienr  De  Celeron  who  commanded 
at  Missilimakinac,  and  to  indicate  a  Eendezvons  to  Him.  He 
left  Detroit  to  go  to  the  Miamis,  and  Afterward  to  the  Ouya- 
tanons  in  order  to  Keep  the  Savages  away  from  the  River  St 
Joseph  where  Six  cabins  of  Sakis  had  taken  Eefnge.  As  soon 
as  the  hnrons  arrived  among  the  T\ickapoiix  they  held  a  council 
with  the  Iroquois,  and  said  to  the  Sieur  Denoyelle:  "Thou 
hast  told  us  that  We  should  eat  the  Sakis  and  the  Eenards. 
There  are  Salds  at  the  River  St  Joseph;  we  will  begin  by  de- 
stroying these."  In  vain  did  he  Remonstrate  with  the  hurons, 
and  tell  them  the  orders  he  had  received;  they  Would  listen 
to  nothing  and  departed  from  him  in  that  fashion. 

It  was  not,  Monseigneur,  the  Passage  through  the  country 
of  the  miamis  that  caused  the  hurons  to  abandon  Him.  Tbe 
Sole  reason  was  that  which  I  have  just  had  the  honor  of  giving 
You ;  for  it  was  our  settled  Savages  who  asked  that  they  might 
pass  by  the  lakes  that  they  might  more  easily  procure  Food 
along  the  Road.  The  Provisions  that  we  give  them  previous 
to  their  departure  when  they  go  to  war,  are  left  by  them  at  the 
Village  for  the  Subsistence  of  their  families,  and  this  cannot 
be  Prevented.  Moreover,  before  leaving  la  Chine,  they  had 
agreed  to  pass  through  the  country  of  the  miamis  in  order  to 
induce  them  to  join  the  expedition.  They  chanted  the  war- 
song  with  Them  at  that  Place,  and  it  was  the  miamis  whom  the 
Sienr  Denoyelle  had  brought  with  him  to  Montreal  who  were 
the  first  to  strike  the  Post  at  that  feast. 

If  the  Sieur  Denoyelle  did  not  induce  the  Savages  to  march 
with  him,  it  may  be  due  to  the  Voyageurs,  who  no  doubt 
Secretly  dissuaded  them  from  it  for  their  own  Interests,  as  has 
happened  several  times. 

This  Affair  does  not  appear,  Monseigneur,  to  have  had  any 
regrettable  results.  On  the  contrary,  tbe  Collar  given  to  the 
Sakis  on  my  behalf  by  the  Sieur  Denoyelle,  has  had  all  The 
effect  I  could  have  Hoped. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

The  Sieur  De  St  Pierre,  the  conunandant  among  the  Scioux, 
and  Father  Guignas,  the  missionary  of  that  Post,  Wrote  me  on 
the  tenth  and  eleventh  of  April  last  that  Onabasseban  or  le 
Chat  blan,  the  great  Chief  of  the  Sakis,  Had  Come  to  tell 
them  on  the  first  of  the  same  month  that  the  Renards  Were 
about  to  divide  Themselves  into  several  war  parties,  and  attack 
on  all  sides,  since  they  had  no  longer  any  Hope  of  their  Lives ; 
that  all  that  he  coidd  obtain  from  them  Was  that  they  should 
suspend  Their  Expeditions  Until  his  return ;  that  afterward  they 
would  act  according  to  the  good  or  bad  tidings  he  might  bring 
them;  that  as  for  Him  and  His  people,  they  had  EiCsolved  to 
fieparate  from  that  desperate  nation. 

The  Sieur  De  St  Pierre  Eeplied  to  him:  "Since  the  Sakis 
'Axe  the  cause  of  the  Eenards  Still  Being  in  a  Condition  to 
give  trouble  because  they  have  not  abandoned  them,  you  should 
now  Prevent  Them  from  Carrying  out  their  evil  design,  and 
Induce  Them  to  remain  quiet  Until  Onontio,  to  whom  I  Shall 
Write,  has  made  Known  His  Intentions." 

A  proposal  was  made  to  the  Sieur  De  St  Pierre  to  let  them 
form  Villages  partly  with  the  Puants  in  whom  they  had  con- 
fidence and  partly  with  the  Sakis,  that  then  there  would  no 
longer  be  any  question  of  the  Renards.  Le  Moyne,  the  Sakis 
chief  who  is  faithful  to  the  French  and  Onnontate,  a  !N"ipi&- 
fiingue  chief.  Came  down  to  bring  me  this  IsTews.  They  asked 
me  what  my  plans  were  and  I  sent  them  Back  saying  that  I 
Was  a  good  Father  who  forgave  his  Children  when  they  asked 
for  mercy;  that  I  Willingly  granted  the  Sakis  Their  Lives, 
because  I  Was  informed  that  what  they  had  done  was  solely 
through  the  solicitation  of  the  Renards;  that  I  also  wished  to 
have  pity  on  the  Renards  And  to  grant  them  their  Lives,  since 
the  Sakis  asked  me  to  pardon  Them,  but  only  on  condition  that 
they  should  disperse  among  the  nations,  and  that  no  mention 
should  Ever  be  made  of  the  name  of  the  Renards,  who  had  so 
often  Disturbed  the  earth.  This,  Monseigneur,  was  the  best 
line  of  conduct  that  I  could  follow  with  respect  to  that  post) 
which  the  Sieur  De  St  Pierre  had  written  to  me  they  would 
be  obliged  to  abandon,  and  that  there  Was  danger  in  driving 

[  258  ] 

i736]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

the  Eenards  to  despair  because  the  Scioiix  intended  to  give  them 
an  Asylrnn.  The  unfortunate  affair  of  Monsieur  Dartaguiette, 
which  has  made  All  the  Savages  still  more  Insolent  than  they 
were,  has  contributed,  in  no  slight  degree,  to  induce  me  to  take 
this  decision/ 

The  Sieur  De  Lusignan,^  the  commandant  at  the  River  St 
Joseph,  Wrote  me  on  the  eighth  of  July  last  that  the  Sakis  with, 
their  women  and  Children  Had  started  on  the  first  of  the  Same 
month  to  Come  to  his  post  to  beg  for  their  lives.  By  another 
Letter  v.)f  the  same  Date,  he  informed  me  that  he  had  learned 
from  His  Savages  that  the  Renards  had  entered  into  an  alliance 
"with  some  of  the  Prairie  Scioux  on  The  other  side  of  the  Mi&- 
sissipi.  I  have  Had  the  honor  of  conveying  this  information 
in  the  King's  memorial. 

I  think,  Monseigneur,  that  when  they  Learn  the  Reply  that 
I  gave  to  le  Moyne  and  to  onnontate  they  will  leave  the  Scioux 
(if  they  Are  with  Them)  to  form  villages  with  the  Puants  and 
the  Sakis. 

By  a  third  letter  of  the  twenty  fifth  of  July,  the  Sieur  De 
lusignan  informs  me  that  the  Sakis  came  to  the  River  St  Joseph 
on  the  nineteenth  of  the  same  month;  that  they  came  to  His 

1  Beauharnois  here  refers  to  the  defeat  and  capture  in  March,  1736, 
of  a  Frencn  detachment  from  the  posts  of  the  Wabash  and  the  Illinoi*', 
who  were  on  their  way  to  second  the  expedition  of  Bienville  from 
Louisiana  against  the  Chickasaw.  Pierre  D'Artaguette  was  the  leader 
of  the  northern  division  of  the  army,  which  having  failed  to  make 
a  junction  with  the  main  body,  attacked  the  Chickasaw  with  disas- 
trous results.  Twenty-two  French  were  taken  prisoners,  among 
others  the  commander,  the  Jesuit  missionary  Senat,  Vincennes,  one 
of  the  Sieurs  de  St.  Ange,  and  other  officers,  most  of  whom  were  tor- 
tured and  burned  at  the  stake. —  Ed. 

i^Paul  Louis  Dazenard,  Sieur  de  Lusignan,  was  born  in  1691,  and 
being  made  ensign  in  the  colonial  troops  in  1724,  served  long  and  ar- 
duously, obtaining  a  lieutenancy  in  1735,  and  a  captaincy  in  1744. 
After  coranianding  at  River  St.  Joseph,  1735-39,  he  was  among  the 
Sioux  in  1745;  in  charge  of  Fort  Frederic,  1755;  and  at  the  post  of 
danger,  Fort  Carillon  (Ticonderoga),  1757-58.  Later  (1759),  he  com- 
manded at  Isle  aux  Noix,  and  was. at  St.  John  in  1760.— Ed. 

IT  [259] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xth 

fort,  quite  naked  and  in  tears,  to  offer  him  a  Calumet  and  to  beg 
for  their  Lives;  that  they  Were  Followed  by  the  Chiefs  and 
elders  of  the  Po;utouatamis,  Jlinois,  Miamis,  And  Outawois 
who  had  Gone  to  meet  Them  and  take  them  Food,  because  one 
of  their  People  had  come  to  tell  them  that  they  had  none.  He 
adds  that  they  have  Established  themselves  at  The  Place  that 
he  pointed  out  to  them,  Between  the  Poutouatamis,  Miamis  and 
Jlinois  Villages,  and  that  they  asked  him>  leave  to  go  down  to 
Montreal  next  spring  to  beg  for  mercy.  He  has  Sent  me  their 
Words  and  His  Answers. 

The  IJTations  Established  On  the  bank  of  the  Missouris  who 
last  year  Joined  five  or  Six  hundred  Savages  And  French  Voy- 
ageurs,  have  all  Gone  home  Without  having  done  anything. 

I  Remain  vdth  very  profound  Respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 

Quebec,  October  17th,  1736. 


[Extracts  from  the  yearly  memorial  of  the  king  in  reply  to  tha 
report  of  the  governor  and  intendant.  Transcript  from  N.  Y.  Colon. 
Docs.,  ix,  pp.  1059,  1060.] 

His  Majesty  has  learned  with  pleasure  that  Captain  Des- 
noyelles'  expedition  against  the  Foxes  and  Sacs  in  1735  has 
not  been  attended  by  any  bad  consequences.  As  he  causes  his 
intentions  regarding  those  Indians  to  be  fully  explained  to  the 
Marquis  de  Beauharnois,  he  will  content  himself  here  to  recom- 
mend him  to  conform  thereto. 

He  hopes  to  learn  that  the  Chaouanons  will  have  kept  the 
promise  they  gave  Sieur  Joncaire,  the  commandant  in  their 
country,  to  come  down  this  spring  to  Montreal,  to  hear  the 
Marquis  de  Beauharnois  discourse  on  their  migration.  It  is 
probable  that,  should  they  determine  on  that  course,  they  will 
easily  be  persuaded  to  settle  at  Detroit;   and  that  it  is  very 

[260]  J 

1737}        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

desirable,  so  as  to  protect  the  fidelity  of  these  Indians  against 
the  insinuations  of  the  English.  But  the  delay  they  interpose 
to  that  movement  induces  his  Majesty  to  apprehend  that  the 
Marquis  de  Beauhamois  will  meet  with  more  difficulties  than 
he  had  anticipated,  and  that  the  English,  with  whom  his  Maj- 
esty is  informed  they  trade,  had  made  sufficient  progress  among 
them  to  dissuade  them  therefrom.  However  that  may  be, 
Sieur  de  Beauhamois  should  neglect  nothing  to  accomplish  that 
removal;  and  this  object  deserves  now  the  more  attention  by 
reason  of  the  settlement  which  a  party  of  Cherakis  and  Chicka- 
chas  has  made  on  the  river  Oio,  as  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  must 
be  aware. 

His  Majesty  is  satisfied  with  his  explanations  respecting  hia 
determination  in  1Y34  not  to  press  the  affair  that  occurred 
among  the  Ouiatanons,  and  to  be  content  with  the  pardon  these 
Indians  demanded  of  him.  A  mild  and  moderate  policy  is 
always  preferable,  when  it  can  be  pursued  without  affecting  the 
honor  of  the  Kation  and  the  glory  of  His  Majesty's  arms.  But 
there  are  occasions  when  it  may  be  absolutely  necessary  not  to 
Btop  short,  and  when  such  policy  may  be  accompanied  by  very 
unfortunate  consequences.  It  is  for  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  to 
decide  on  the  course  he  is  to  adopt  in  occurring  circumstances, 
and  his  Majesty  cannot  but  rely  on  his  zeal  and  prudence. 
As  respects  the  Scioux;  according  to  what  the  commandant 
and  Missionary  at  that  post  have  written  to  Sieur  de  Beau- 
hamois, relative  to  the  dispositions  of  these  Indians,  nothing 
appears  to  be  wanting  on  that  point.  But  their  delay  in  com- 
ing down  to  Montreal  since  the  time  they  promised  to  do  so, 
must  render  their  sentiments  somewhat  suspected,  and  nothing 
but  facts  can  determine  whether  their  fidelity  can  be  absolutely 
relied  on.  But  what  must  still  further  increase  the  uneasiness 
to  be  entertained  in  their  regard,  is  the  attack  on  the  convoy 
of  M.  de  la  Veranderie,^  especially  if  this  officer  has  adopted 

iThe  Sioux  attacked  on  June  8,  173(>,  a  party  of  twenty-one  French 
sent  by  Sieur  de  la  V6rendrye,  in  charge  of  his  oldest  son,  to  convey 
the  Jesuit  missionary,  Aulneau,  to  Mackinac,  and  massacred  the  entire 

[  261  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


the  course  he  had  informed  the  Marquis  de  Beauhamois  he 
should  take,  to  have  revenge  therefor.  His  Majesty  will  wait 
imipatiently  Sieur  de  Beauhamois'  report  of  what  shall  have 
been  done  on  that  subject,  and  is,  meanwhile,  persuaded  that 
he  will  have  adopted  such  measures  as  will  have  appeared 
to  him  the  most  suitable  for  the  public  service. 
Versailles,  May  10th,  1737. 


[Extracts  from  the  yearly  report  of  Beauharnois.  MS.  in  archives 
of  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g§n., 
vol.  67,  c.  11,  fol.  139."] 

Copper  Mines.  This  year  we  have  no  Interesting  Beport  to 
make  to  His  Majesty  with  reference  to  the 
copper  mines.  The  son  of  the  Sieur  de  la  Ronde  merely  wrote 
to  the  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  that  he  had  endeavored  to  approach 
the  alleged  Island  of  copper  in  his  batteau,  But  that  stress  of 
Weather  had  compelled  him  to  put  into  port,  his  Sail  having 
been  Tom  by  a  Squall. 

The  Sieur  La  Ronde,  the  Elder,  who  left  for  his  Post  in  the 
month  of  may,  wrote  us  from  sault  Ste  Marie  at  the  Entrance 
of  Lake  superior  that  he  was  waiting  for  the  miners  that  are 
to  be  sent  him  and  he  promises  that  if  they  arrive  we  shall 
receive  Information  next  year  of  everytbing  connected  with  the 
Mines.  A  few  Days  after  the  arrival  of  the  King's  Ship  we 
sent  the  Forsters,  father  and  son,  to  Missilimakinac.  They 
will  pass  the  winter  at  that  Post  and  next  Spring  They  wiU  be 
in  a  Pbsition  to  proceed  to  the  point  of  Chagouamigon  under 
the  orders  of  the  Sieur  La  Ronde.  We  have  written  that  officer 
to  make  a  profitable  Use  of  them,  to  make  them  inspect  the 
various  Places  where  be  has  discovered  copper  mines  and  to 

party.  This  took  place  on  an  island  in  the  Lake  of  the  Woods,  seven 
leagues  from  Fort  St.  Charles.  For  the  life  and  letters  of  Father 
Aulneau,  see  Jes.  Reh,  Ixviii. — Ed. 


7371        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Jonier  with  them  in  regard  to  what  is  proper  to  do  for  the 
;  success  of  His  Undertaking.  At  the  same  time  we  Explained 
x>  him  how  greatly  It  was  to  his  Interest  to  act  promptly.  If 
he  Tonnagane  mine  can  he  Worked,  the  peace  jnst  concluded 
"oetweeni  the  CWstinaiix  and  the  Sautenx  of  la  pointe  is  of  the 
greatest  advantage  as  regards  the  peaceful  exploitation  of  the 
mines.  But  with  respect  to  this  circumstance  as  well  as  to  all 
others  connected  with  those  Mines,  We  hope  that  the  Sieur  de 
la  Eonde  will,  next  year,  place  us  in  a  Position  to  send  An 
accurate  Eieport  thereof  to  his  Majesty.  We  cannot  at  present 
compel  him  to  build  a  second  Bark  at  Detroit,  as  he  bound  him- 
self to  do.  Until  he  is  more  certain  of  the  success  of  his  Enter- 
prise. He  would  thereby  be  forced  to  incur  Expense  which  he 
would  be  unable  to  meet  and  which,  moreover,  would  be  abso- 
lutely Useless  should  his  success  not  equal  his  Hopes. 


The  Sieurs  de  Beauhamois  and  hocquart  have  received  the 
Edict  his  Majesty  has  been  pleased  to  issue  in  favor  of  the 

Coureurs  de  bois.  This  Edict  has  been 
Amnesty  for  the  Begistered  in  the  records  of  the  Council 
Coureurs  de  bois.     and  published  in  the  usual  manner.     They 

have  sent  Copies  thereof  to  all  the  Posts 
of  the  upper  country  so  that  all  who  are  interested  may  be 
informed  of  the  same.  They  will  be  careful  to  see  that  the  new 
prohibitions  against  the  coureurs  de  bois  Are  Enforced. 


The  Benards  and  Sakis  have  not  struck  a  blow  since  the 

affair  of  the  Sieur  Des  ISToyelles.     Ota  the  contrary  they  have 

always  begged  for  their  lives  since  Then  and 

Benards  and     have  again  asked  the  same  this  year  through  the 

Sakis.  Outaouacs,    sinayos,    Kiskaoons,^  the  Poutoiiata- 

mis  of  the  river  St  Joseph,  the  folles  avoines, 

and  the  Puants  who  came  down  to  Montreal. 

1  These  belonged  to  Ottawa  clans;  see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvl,  pp.  30, 
120.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


The  Ciiaoiianons  must  have  gone  on  an  embassy  to  Detroit 
this  year.  Their  departure  was  delayed  solely  owing  to  the 
fact  that  they  were  waiting  for  the  Kiliskouakis, 
Ohaoiianons  Their  allies,  who  were  bringing  themj  Porcelain.* 
They  caused  themselves  to  be  announced  by  means 
of  two  branches  of  Porcelain  whereof  Mekinac,  the  great  chief 
of  the  Outaouacs  was  the  bearer. 

Ouiatanons        The  Sieur  de  Beauhamois  Has  nothing  to  add 
to  the  report  he  made  last  year  with  regard  to  the 
Ouiatanons.     Gentle  measures  have  bad  a  good  Effect  as  that 
nation  has  not  ceased  to  wage  war  against  the  Chicachas. 

The  post  in  the  sioux  country  has  been  EVacuated  by  the 
Sieur  de  St  Pierre.  Tbe  sioux  struck  the  sauteux  of  the  point 
of  Chagoiiamigon  in  the  month  of  May.  The  sauteux 
Sioux  raised  a  band  to  avenge  the  Blow  struck  at  them.  They 
Induced  the  puants  to  take  part  in  their  quarrel; 
this  compelled  the  Sieur  de  St  Pierre  to  abandon  his  Post  and 
to  bum  the  fort 

The  Sieur  de  la  Verandeire  has  come  down  to  Montreal  and 

reports  that  the  Cristinaux,   assiniboils  and 

Cristinaux,       Monsonis  savages  started   at  the  melting  of 

Assiniboils,  etc.  the  Snows  to  Avenge  the  blow  struck  at  the 

French  last  year. 
Iroquois        The  sonontouans  are  to  come  down  to  Montreal 
next  Spring. 


[Letter  of  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct  7,  1737.     Source, 
same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  808.] 

MoNSEiGNETTR — ^I  am  replying  alone  to  the  Letter  you  did 
us  the  honor  of  writing  to  us  jointly  on  April  16  last  with 
reference  to  Detroit  Monsieur  de  Beauhamois  will  do  like- 
wise and  we  have  made  an  agreement  to  that  effect.     I  have 

1  Probably  this  was  one  of  the  Shawnee  tribes,  which  is  ordinarily 
called  Kiskapocke.— Ed. 


1737]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

comni(unioatcd  to  him  ail  the  contents  of  this  Letter  which  I 
had  drafted  as  a  Joint  Letter. 

The  concessions  granted  at  that  post  are  in  Truth  an  Induce- 
ment to  the  habitants  to  till  the  Land  better  than  they  have 
hitherto  done,  But,  Monseigneur,  you  cannot  expect  any  marked 
progress  unless  a  strong  garrison  is  posted  there.  At  the  be- 
ginning it  should  consist  of  at  least  60  men  with  a  stationary 
commandant,  a  second  in  command,  a  third  officer,  a  fourth 
officer  to  act  as  Adjutant,  so  that  there  may  be  some  regularity 
in  the  service.  This  is  the  only  way  to  make  ourselves  re- 
spected by  the  savages  whose  Minds  are  being  turned  every 
Day  through  their  frequent  communications  with  the  Eiiglish 
to  whom  they  are  attracted  by  the  cheapness  of  the  Goods  for 
which  they  trade  with  them,  and  by  the  Brandy  which  is 
abundantly  distributed  to  them.  On  the  other  hand,  the  beaver 
trade,  which  for  a  long  time  to  cjome  will  still  be  the  most  valu- 
able source  of  profit,  will  be  destroyed  unless  we  endeavor  to 
control  the  savages  by  fear,  to  which  should  be  added  presents, 
the  better  to  attach  them  to  us. 

Of  those  60  soldiers  in  garrison  some  will  settle  on  the  Spot 
every  year  and  become  good  habitants.  And  they,  with  such 
voyageurs  as  may  likewise  settle  there,  will  in  a  few  years  con- 
stitute a  good  militia  force  capable  of  Overawing  the  Savages 
and  opposing  the  Enterprises  the  English  might  some  day  At- 
tempt against  that  Post — which  is  the  central  point  of  the  upper 
country  and  will  be  capable  of  rendering  assistance  to  all  the 
posts,  and  of  preventing  interruption  of  communication  between 
this  Colony  and  that  of  Louisiana.  We  have  jointly  represented 
the  necessity  of  increasing  the  number  of  troops  to  form  fresh 
Garrisons  and  to  strengthen  the  old  ones.  Such  increase  is  of 
the  greatest  importance  both  as  regards  the  safety  of  the  coun- 
try and  the  Interests  of  good  order,  the  maintenance  of  author- 
ity and  strict  police  in  the  Interior  of  the  Colony. 

It  is  true  that  there  are  but  few  regular  troops  in  new  Eng- 
land, but  Insubordination  and  Independence  reign  there,  an 
evil  to  be  foreseen  and  Avoided  in  the  [French]  Colonies  espe- 
cially in  this  one  where  the  population  is  beginning  to  be 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

numerous  and  Las  been  allowed  to  live  with  a  little  too  much 

The  proposed  plan,  according  to  what  you  write  us,  would 
for  the  present  consist  merely  in  Placing  a  stationary  com- 
mandant there.  To  me  it  seems  certain  that  the  officer  ap- 
pointed on  that  footing  and  for  whom  you  would  obtain  some 
favor  from  the  King  might  to  some  extent  contribute  to  the 
increase  of  that  Establishment  by  his  Example,  his  care  and 
his  efforts  to  urge  the  people  to  till  the  Soil;  But  he  will  not 
succeed  in  increasing  the  number  of  families  or  at  least  he  will 
experience  very  great  difficulty  in  doing  so.  Soldiers  alone 
began  the  Establishment  of  Detroit  when  Monsieur  de  La 
Mothe  Cadillac  commanded  there,  and  they  alone  can  maintain 
it  at  present.  The  majority  of  the  Voyageurs  are  too  busy  and 
too  fond  of  Trading  to  allow  us  to  hope  of  their  settling  there 
and  devoting  themselves  to  the  cultivation  of  the  Soil. 

A  commandant  at  Detroit  as  that  Post  is  at  present  Estab- 
lished could  not  live  there  unless  he  carried  on  some  trade. 
We  cannot  help  permitting  him  to  do  so  and  in  such  case  he 
extends  it  according  to  his  industry. 

We  might  farm  out  Detroit  and  even  derive  a  profit  of  from 
3000  to  4000  livres  per  annum  by  allowing  the  farmer  to  sell 
all  the  Brandy  he  wished.  In  such  case  he  would  undertake  to 
piay  all  the  present  expenses  of  the  post.  But  such  a  step 
would  entail  other  Drawbacks  Equally  detrimental  to  the  growth 
of  Detroit.  The  farmer  would  be  at  liberty  to  put  such  price 
upon  goods  as  he  might  think  proper ;  the  old  residents  who  are 
beginning  to  cultivate  their  Lands  would  soon  decide  to  abandon 
them,  And  it  is  certain  that  they  would  not  be  replaced  by 
others.  For  the  same  reason  the  Savages  would  take  a  dislike 
to  trading  with  the  French.  Finally  freedom  of  Trade  is 
absolutely  necessary  at  the  beginning  of  Establishments  of 
that  Kind,  and  the  one  proposed  herein  is  the  only  plan  I  deem 
suitable  for  the  carrying  out  of  your  Intentions. 

At  present  the  garrison  of  Detroit  consists  of  17  soldiers; 
the  Sieur  De  Koyelles  has  to  carry  thither  their  pay  and  uni- 


737]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

■onus  and  is  bound  to  defray  the  ordinary  Expenses  of  the 

I    Post. 

■  Jit  devolves  upon  Monsieur  de  Beauharnois  to  submit  to  you 
le  name  of  the  officer  whom  he  deems  most  suitable  for  the 
ippointment  as  well  as  the  rank  that  should  be  given  him. 
[  had  spoken  to  him  of  Monsieur  Peau  who  commanded  at 
Detroit  for  three  years  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  savages  and  of 
the  French,  and  to  whom  His  Majesty  should  give  the  rank  of 
King's  Lieutenant. 

You  will  see,  Monseigneur,  by  this  plan  that  it  would  cost 
the  King  6250  livres  per  annum  for  the  proposed  establishment, 
while  the  Commandant  and  officers  would  be  forbidden  to  carry 
on  any  Trade. 

There  is  one  consideration  that  may  become  of  Importance 
&a  regards  the  savages  if  the  plan  be  carried  out  It  would  be 
advisable  to  send  a  reinforcement  of  ten  soldiers  only  to  Detroit 
the  first  year;  of  ten  more  in  the  second,  and  so  on  in  the  fol- 
lowing years  until  the  number  of  60  is  reached  so  as  not  to 
cause  Uneasiness  amongst  the  savages  established  at  the  Post 
who  are  naturally  suspicious.  In  that  case  there  would  be  a 
reduction  in  the  item  of  3000  livres  shown  in  the  draft  in  con- 
nection with  the  Transport  of  the  pay  and  uniforms  of  the 
Garrison.  [ 

1  remain  with  the  most  profound  respect,  Monseigneur, 
Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant 

Quebec,  October  7th,  1737.  HocQUART 

1737:     THE  SIOUX;    DETROIT 
[Extracts  from  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister, 
dated   Oct.   14,   1737.     Source,   same   as   preceding   document,   but   fol. 



On  his  arrival  the  Sieur  De  St  Pierre  handed  me  a  Eeport 
on  what  has  happened  at  the  post  in  the  scioux  country.^     I 

1  See  next  document. — Ed. 

[  267  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

take  tlie  liberty,  Monseigneur,  of  Sending  It  to  you.  You  will 
see  that  there  is  no  likelihood  of  its  ever  being  possible  to  have 
any  Trade  with  that  Nation  and  that  he  acted  properly  in 
abandoning  his  fort ;  they  [the  garrison]  would  have  Been  Ex- 
posed daily  to  danger  of  perishing.  It  would  be  a  great  boon 
if  we  could  destroy  them  [the  Sioux]  because  they  occupy  the 
finest  Hunting  grounds.  That  officer  assured  me  that  if  the 
Cristinaux,  Monsonis,  and  Assiniboils  had  waged  War  Against 
Them  last  winter  they  would  have  defeated  them  all ;  that  they 
expected  this,  and  nearly  died  of  hunger  because  they  were 
afraid  to  hunt. 

The  Sieur  De  St  Pierre  told  me  that  all  the  Attentions  shown 
Them  by  the  scioux  in  the  spring  of  last  year  and  The  Eager- 
ness they  displayed  to  have  Frenchmen  amongst  Them  to  supply 
their  wants.  Were  intended  solely  to  divert  suspicion  from  the 
blow  they  were  meditating/  He  added  that  when  the  Sieur 
De  la  Verendrye,  the  younger,  Was  at  the  head  of  the  Mon- 
sonis, CWstinaux,  and  Assiniboils,  after  he  had  refused  to  lead 
them  those  ]N"ations  Went  Against  the  Seioux  of  the  woods 
instead  of  the  Maskoutins  Poiianes,  in  order  to  Bring  the 
French  into  their  party.^ 

I  am  greatly  mortified,  Monseigneur,  at  your  not  approving 
my  nomination  of  the  Sieur  De  I^oyelles  to  the  post  of  Com- 
mandant of  Detroit.  Had  I  known  your  intentions  sooner  I 
would  have  Sent  another.  I  cannot  however,  Monseigneur, 
Refrain  from  representing  to  you  that  that  officer  is  generally 
liked  by  all  the  French  and  savages,  and  that  I  have  reason  to 

1  The  reference  here,  is  to  the  attack  on  La  V6rendrye's  men  at  the 
Lake  of  the  Woods. — Ed. 

2  Two  years  before  the  massacre  (1736),  the  younger  La  Verendrye 
had  joined  a  war-party  of  the  Cree  and  Assiniboin  against  the  Sioux. 
In  the  council  he  was  proclaimed  leader,  an  honor  which  he  refused, 
and  took  no  part  in  the  hostilities.  It  was  thought,  nevertheless,  that 
his  massacre  was  an  act  of  revenge  on  the  part  of  the  Sioux.  The 
"Maskoutins  Poiianes"  were  the  Prairie  Sioux  (Maskoutepoels).  See 
Jones,  AuJneau  Collection  (Montreal,  1893),  pp.  76,  94.-^ Ed. 

[  268  ] 

1737]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Be  very  well  satisfied  with  the  reports  he  sends  me.  In  addi- 
tion to  his  zeal  for  the  service,  he  possesses  an  Eminent  quality, 
that  is  disinterestedness, — a  quality  so  necessary,  especially  at 
that  Place,  that  I  thought  I  could  not  do  better. 

I  have  Considered,  Monseigneur,  what  you  have  been  pleased 
to  write  me  regarding  His  Majesty's  views  with  reference  to 
that  post.  I  will  take  the  Liberty  of  expressing  my  Ideas  in  a 
private  Despatch. 

I  will  continue,  Monseigneur,  to  give  my  best  attention  in 
the  Selection  I  shall  make  of  the  Commandants  to  be  Sent  to 
the  Posts. 

I  remain  etc. 

Quebec,  October  14th,  1737. 


[Letter  of  St.  Pierre  to  Beauharnois.    Translated  from  a  transcript  in 
Margry,  Decouv.  et  etahl.,  vi,  pp.  575-580.] 

Belation  of  the  sievr  de  Saint  Pierre,  commandant  of  the 
post  in  the  Sioux  country,  appended  to  the  letter  of  Monsieur, 
the  marquis  de  Beauharnois. 

14th  October,  1737. 

On  the  6th  of  May,  1736,  fifty  four  Sioux  warriors  passed 
in  front  of  the  fort,  where  a  portion  of  them  stopped.  The 
sieur  de  Saint  Pierre  asked  them  whither  they  were  going. 
They  told  him  that  they  were  taking  back  a  female  slave  be- 
longing to  the  Puans,  who  had  sought  refuge  amongst  them. 
He  said  that  it  did  not  require  so  many  men  to  take  charge  of 
one  woman.  They  replied  that  they  were  going  to  hunt  turkeys, 
in  order  to  get  feathers  for  their  arrows.  The  Puans  did  their 
best  to  stop  them.  They  continued  their  route,  and  meeting 
two  Frenchmen  at  the  little  River  of  the  Illinois  in  the  Mis- 
sissipi  country,  they  killed  and  scalped  them.  While  the  sieur 
de  Saint  Pierre  was  erecting  another  fort,  about  25  leagues 

[  269  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

higher  up  than  the  first,  they  passed  on  their  way  hack  and 
danced  the  scalp  dance  for  four  days  without  saying  to  what 
nation  the  men  belonged  whom  they  had  killed.  The  Puans 
found  it  out  and  notified  the  French  in  the  fort. 

They  heard  of  the  defeat  of  the  French  of  the  post  of  de  la 
Verenderie^  on  the  23rd  of  Augiist  1736,  by  two  canoes  of 
Saulteux  of  la  Pbinte  who  brought  letters  from  the  sieurg 
ISTolan,  Legras,  and  Bourassa.^  They  told  them  that  the  major- 
ity of  those  who  had  struck  the  blow  were  Sioux  of  the  woods 
and  that  only  five  Sioux  of  the  Prairies  were  with  them. 
When  the  French  heard  this  news,  they  kept  on  their  guard. 

Oil  the  16th  of  September,  the  Sioux  came  to  the  fort,  to 
the  number  of  ten  men,  three  being  chiefs  with  a  Flag,  two  little 
girl  slaves,  57  livres  of  dried  beaver  flesh,  and  nine  deer-skins, 
which  they  delivered  to  the  sieur  de  Saint  Pierre  saying  that 
they  had  not  taken  any  part  in  the  attack  on  the  French  at 
the  Western  post,  and  by  that  word  they  begged  him  to  con- 
tinue to  give  them  what  they  needed  for  the  subsistence  of  their 
families.  He  replied  that  he  would  grant  their  request  until 
lie  had  news  from  the  great  Onontio;  that  he  had  nothing  to 
say  to  them,  except  that  he  would  inform  Onontio  of  the  step 
they  were  taking  in  sending  him  their  word ;  that  he  could  not 
rely  on  them  after  what  they  had  done.  He  also  spoke  to 
them  of  the  two  Frenchmen  whom  they  had  killed  on  the  Mis- 

On  the  following  day,  there  came  with  three  young  men  a 
chief  who  had  a  silver  seal  hanging  from  his  ear.     The  sieur  de 

iSee  ante,  pp.  261,  262. — Ed. 

2  These  were  well-known  voyaguers  and  Indian  traders.  Jean  Bap- 
tiste  Nolan  was  a  merchant  of  Montreal,  who  had  two  sons;  probably 
this  one  was  Charles,  born  1694,  died  1754.  Daniel  Legras,  the  son 
of  Jean,  was  interpreter  for  the  king;  he  was  bom  in  1698,  and  mar- 
ried at  Kaskaskia,  111.  There  were  a  number  of  voyageurs  by  the  name 
of  Bourassa,  but  the  most  noted  was  R§n6,  born  in  1688,  who  settled 
at  Mackinac,  and  whose  daughter  Charlotte  was  the  wife  of  Wiscon- 
sin's first  settler,  Charles  Langlade.  Bourassa  brought  news  of  the 
massacre  of  the  French  to  Quebec.  See  Jones,  Aulneau  Collection,  pp. 
93,  94.— Ed. 

[  270  ] 

1737]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Saint  Pierre  perceiving  it,  asked  him  where  he  had  got  it;  the 
chief  did  not  reply,  and  began  to  laugh.  The  officer  tore  off 
the  seal  with  the  ear,  telling  him  he  was  very  bold  to  appear 
before  him  with  such  a  thing,  and  had  him  turned  out  of  the 

On  the  18th  of  December,  they  [the  Sioux]  arrived  to  the 
number  of  thirty  six  men  with  their  families.  The  young 
ji  men  went  ahead,  and  set  fire  to  the  fort  of  the  P^ans.  The 
rfticfur  de  Saint  Pierre  asked  Ouakantape  whether  he  was  not 
content  with  having  struck  two  foul  blows  at  the  French,  with- 
out also  coming  to  insult  them  in  their  fort  by  burning  that  of 
the  Puans,  their  brothers.  He  replied  that  what  he  was  doing 
was  done  after  reflection  and  designedly.  Then  they  pulled 
up  the  stakes  in  Reverend  Father  Guignas's  garden,  burned 
them,  and  went  away. 

On  the  24th  of  January,  1737,  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning 
while  the  gates  of  the  fort  were  open  to  allow  of  wood  being 
carried  in,  forty  Sioux  entered  all  al;  once.  xMthough  he  had 
no  previous  knowledge  of  this,  when  the  sieur  de  Saint  Pierre 
was  informed  of  it,  he  had  the  gates  closed  and  said  to  them : 
*'Ho\v  came  you  to  enter  here  in  such  great  numbers  without 
warning,  and  what  is  your  design  ?  You  must  remember  that 
I  told  you  last  autumn  I  would  not  receive  more  than  ten  of 
you  at  a  time.  If  you  have  anything  to  say  to  me  I  will  not 
listen  to  you  until  you  have  sent  out  all  your  young  men." 
This  they  did;  after  which  they  proposed  to  him  to  urge  the 
traders  to  give  them  credit.  He  replied  that  he  would  not  do 
so,  because  he  could  not  forget  the  foul  blows  they  had  struck ; 
that,  nevertheless,  if  the  traders  wished  to  be  so  good  to  them, 
he  would  not  prevent  them.  The  Sioux  said  amongst  them- 
selves: ^^We  are  forty  to  twenty;  all  we  have  to  do  is  to  pil- 
lage.'' On  hearing  this,  he  had  them  put  out,  and  they  all 
went  away. 

On  the  18th  or  20th  of  March,  the  Sioux,  to  the  number  of 
thirty  men,  encountered  in  the  interior  at  the  head  of  Lake 
Superior  a  Salteanx  with  his  wife  and  two  children  all  of  whom 
they  killed  and  scalped.     When  the  Saulteux  heard  of  this, 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

they  raised  a  band  to  attack  them,  and  arrived  at  the  sieur  de 
Saint  Pierre's  post  on  the  21st  of  May.  They  went  to  the 
Puans  to  engage  them  in  their  quarrel.  The  sieur  de  Saint 
Pierre  did  all  he  could  to  prevent  their  attacking  the  Sioux, 
saying  that  they  exposed  the  French  to  be  massacred  because, 
as  they  had  come  to  the  fort,  it  would  look  as  if  the  latter  had 
induced  them  to  make  the  attack ;  that  if,  on  the  contrary,  they 
had  all  taken  a  roundabout  way,  the  Sioux  might  have  thought 
that  the  attack  was  made  by  warriors  who  had  started  from 
their  village  for  the  purpose  of  avenging  themselves.  They 
promised  him  that  they  would  go  back  the  next  day.  They 
did  not  do  so,  at  the  request  of  the  Puans  who  stopped  them. 
During  their  stay  five  Sioux  arrived,  and  entered  the  French 
fort  to  trade.  The  French  warned  them  that  a  band  of  Saul- 
teux  had  come  to  avenge  the  blow  inflicted  on  them.  At  night 
they  asked  to  escape,  and  the  gate  of  the  fort  was  opened  for 
them.  The  Saulteux,  who  were  aware  of  this,  lay  in  ambush 
for  them  on  the  way.  One  of  the  band  who  spoke  Sioux,  asked : 
'^Who  are  you?"  A  Sioux  recognizing  the  Saulteux's  voice, 
fired  a  gun  at  him,  and  broke  his  wrist  They  escaped  through 
the  woods. 

Oil  the  following  day,  the  Saulteux  started  early  in  the 
morning  to  return  home.  Two  hours  after  their  departure, 
twenty  five  Sioux  arrived,  who  were  informed  by  the  Puana 
of  what  had  occurred.  The  Sioux  wished  to  run  after  the 
Saulteux;  the  sieur  de  Saint  Pierre  opposed  it.  A  Saulteux 
who  had  married  amongst  the  Puans  started  to  go  and  warn 
them  of  the  arrival  of  the  twenty  five  Sioux.  The  Saulteux 
retraced  their  steps,  went  to  the  Puans  and  they  all  resolved  to 
destroy  them.  Le  Grelot,  the  chief  of  the  Puans,  told  a  French- 
man who  was  in  their  village  to  warn  the  sieur  de  Saint  Pierre 
of  what  was  going  on ;  but  the  warriors  had  already  started,  and 
he  could  not  frustr?.te  their  design.  He  notified  seventeen 
Sioux,  who  were  in  his  fort  of  the  plot  that  was  being  hatched 
against  them,  and  told  them  to  put  their  canoes  in  safety,  and 
to  warn  the  eight  men  who  were  outside.  Four  issued  from 
the  fort  to  go  to  their  people  and  to  the  canoes ;  they  found  the 

[  272  ] 

737]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


Puans  and  Saulteux  breaking  them  up.  After  this  act,  they 
fired  on  the  Sioux,  broke  the  thigh  of  one  who  fired  a  gun-shot 
through  the  body  of  a  Saulteux  and  killed  him.  The  Saulteux 
cut  him  to  pieces.  The  Sioux  fled  through  the  woods.  The 
Saulteux  came  to  the  fort  and  asked  the  sieur  de  Saint  Pierre 
for  the  thirteen  Sioux  who  were  there.  He  replied  that  he 
did  not  give  up  people  who  took  refuge  with  him.  He  kept 
them  for  two  days,  and  then  had  them  escape  at  night.  The 
Puans  came  to  tell  the  sieur  de  Saint  Pierre  that  they  could 
no  longer  remain  near  their  enemies;  that  the  Saulteux  had 
urged  them  to  commit  this  evil  deed,  and  at  the  same  time  they 
all  left  with  the  Saulteux. 

After  the  departure  of  the  Ptians  the  sieur  de  Saint  Pierre 
held  a  council  with  the  sieur  de  Linctot,  his  second  in  command, 
Reverend  Father  Gnignas,^  and  the  French  in  the  post  to  decide 
what  they  should  do.  They  told  him  that  there  was  nothing 
else  to  be  done  but  to  abandon  the  post,  bum  the  fort,  and 
escape,  because  they  ran  the  risk  of  being  any  day  massacred 
J)y  the  Sioux.  He  said  that  his  advice  was  to  stay;  and  that 
lie  could  not  think  that  after  the  favor  they  had  done  the  nation 
in  preventing  those  who  were  in  the  affray  with  the  Puans  and 
Saulteux  from  being  killed,  they  would  be  evil-minded  enough 
to  do  them  any  harm;  and  moreover  that  it  was  their  interest 
to  remain.     They  replied  that  they  would  rather  sacrifice  their 

iTKe  taLe  of  Father  Guignas  had  for  several  years  been  a  cause 
for  anxiety  among  his  Jesuit  brethren.  Father  Nau  wrote  in  1734: 
"The  war  is  still  carried  on  against  what  remains  of  the  Renard  na- 
tion, and  against  the  other  tribes  which  have  taken  them  under  their 
protection.  Father  Guignas  was  not  taken,  as  it  was  feared,  but  he 
has  had  much  to  suffer,  for  nothing  can  be  sent  him  safely.  For  two 
consecutive  years  the  provisions  sent  him  have  fallen  into  the  enemy's 
hands."  Aulneau  in  1735  wrote:  "We  are  much  afraid  that  father 
Guignas  has  been  taken  and  burned  by  a  tribe  of  savages  called  the 
rSnards;  but  in  this  unfortunate  country  we  should  set  little  value 
on  our  lives  which  are  so  often  in  peril."  And  again  some  weeks 
later:  "We  received,  a  few  days  ago,  news  of  father  Guignas;  since 
1732  he  had  not  been  heard  from.  He  is  in  a  helpless  state.  The 
hunger  he  has  had  to  endure,  the  imminent  danger  to  which  he  hai» 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

goods  than  their  lives;  and  this  compelled  the  said  sieur  de 
Saint  Pierre  to  evacuate  the  post  on  the  30th  of  the  month  of 


[Extract  from  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Oct.  16,  1737,  giving  news  of  the  conditions  at  the  various  posta. 
MS.  in  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada, 
Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  67,  c.  11,  fol.  180."] 


The  Sieur  Dfe  Vercheres,^  the  Commandant  at  Missilmak- 
inac,  Wrote  me  on  the  27th  of  last  Jvme  that  in  the  Vicinity  of 
his  fort  there  were  nearly  thirty  coureurs  de  hois  armed  with 
Swords,  guns,  and  Pistols  wherewith  to  fight  those  who  might 

been  continually  exposed,  of  being  massacred  by  the  sakis  and  th» 
renards,  and  numberless  other  hardships,  borne  heroically,  have 
brought  him  so  low,  that  even  the  savages,  who  have  little  pity  for 
us,  are  forced  to  look  upon  him  with  feelings  of  compassion.  Wo 
are,  however,  in  the  impossibility  of  attempting  anything  for  his  re^ 
lief,  owing  to  the  scarcity  of  missionaries."  Father  Nau  wrote  Oct.  2, 
1735:  "Father  Guignas  is  in  the  Sioux  country  at  a  little  french 
fort  with  but  six  men  with  Him.  Scarcely  a  month  ago  The  marquia 
de  Beauharnois,  governor-general  of  new  france,  sent  twenty-two  meu 
in  four  canoes  with  supplies  of  which  he  stood  absolutely  in  need, 
for  The  Sioux  refuse  to  provide  for  Him.  It  is  not  at  all  certain  that 
The  relief-party  will  reach  him  without  molestation,  their  route  lying 
close  to  the  country  of  the  renards."  Jes.  Rel.,  Ixviii,  pp.  233,  255,  257, 
281.— Ed. 

1  Jean  Jarret,  Sieur  de  Verch^res,  was  born  in  1687,  and  must  there- 
fore have  been  a  child  when  his  sister  Madeleine  so  bravely  defended 
her  father's  fort  against  the  Iroquois  (1696).  He  was  ensign  in  1710 
and  in  1747  had  earned  the  following  enconium:  "A  worthy  officer, 
who  has  often  commanded  in  the  upper  posts,  and  has  acquitted  him' 
self  so  well  that  he  has  always  been  employed  by  the  General,  when 
ever  his  services  were  required."  He  was  sent  at  that  date  to  com 
mand  at  La  Baye,  and  to  assist  in  putting  down  the  rebellion  at 
Mackinac.  In  1750  he  was  given  the  cross  of  St.  Louis;  and  in  17?2 
was  in  command  at  Fort  Frontenac,  dying  the  same  year. —  Ed. 


737]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

)ppose  their  passage;  that  those  people  had  many  Savages  on 
heir  side,  and  that  as  he  Is  not  strong  enough  to  stop  them,  he 
muses  a  careful  watch  to  be  kept.  He  writes  that  nothing  that 
^le  could  say  would  represent  the  Fact  as  bad  as  It  is. 

I  Had  determined,  Monseigneur,  to  ask  you  for  an  Amnesty 
.for  Them,  solely  in  consequence  of  what  you  had  done  me  The 
honor  of  writing  to  me  last  year,  that  His  Majesty  was  to  Send 
Troops  to  this  Colony.  I  intended  to  garrison  the  Posts  with 
them,  and  to  have  these  Coureurs  de  Bois  sent  down  after  the 
Proclamation.  I  think  however  that  many  will  Eetum,  when 
they  Hear  of  the  pardon  that  His  Majesty  has  Granted  them/ 
The  Outawais,  Sinagos,  and  Kiskacous,  with  the  folles 
avoines,  Poutouatamis,  and  Puants,  came  down  this  Year. 
The  Outawais  asked  that  the  lives  of  the  Sakis  be  spared,  and 
so  did  a  Chief  whose  brother  had  been  killed  by  that  nation. 
The  Poutouatamis  made  the  same  request  of  me,  and  the  folles 
avoines  for  the  Renards,  although  they  have  always  Been  their 
most  Cruel  Enemies,  saying  to  me  that  all  the  Evil  Hearts 
Had  been  destroyed.  The  Puants  joined  with  them  in  this 
request.  I  assembled  them  all  in  a  Council,  and  said  to  them: 
"My  Children,  since  you  ask  me  for  the  Lives  of  the  Renards 
and  Sakis,  and  assure  me  that  all  the  Evil  hearts  have  Been 
destroyed,  I  am  willing  to  grant  this  out  of  consideration  for 
you,  to  prove  to  you  that  I  Desire  to  see  you  tranquil  on  yoxtr 
Mats,  and  that  I  am  glad  to  give  you  the  means  of  hunting  in 
peace  so  that  you  may  provide  subsistence  for  your  families." 
I  sent  them  all  away  happy.  I  think  that  I  shall  have  the  Satis- 
faction of  seeing  them  United,  for  they  have  so  promised  me. 
Those  who  wished  to  be  Revenged  yielded  to  my  arguments. 

The  position  of  Affairs  did  not  permit  me,  Monseigneur,  to 
hesitate  for  a  moment  to  grant  them  what  they  Urgently  asked 

1  The  coureurs  de  bois  were  a  standing  menace  to  the  colony  and 
Its  fur-trade  monopoly.  Illicit  traders,  they  ranged  among  the  Indian 
tribes,  securing  furs,  and  frequently  selling  them  to  the  English. 
From  necessity,  amnesties  were  granted  them  in  1682,  1703,  and  1716. 
See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  index.  Compare  the  rebellion  of  their  do- 
scendants  under  Louis  Riel,  in  Manitoba,  in  1869  and  1885. — Ed. 
18  [  275  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

of  me,  all  tlie  more  so  that  it  Accorded  with  the  interests  of 
the  Service  and  of  the  Colony.  And  as  the  Renards  and  Sakis 
had  done  nothing  wrong  since  the  Sienr  de  iN'ojelle's  affair,  de- 
spair might  have  seized  them.  They  are  to  come  down  next 
year  to  thank  me  for  the  pardon  I  have  granted  them,  acoomi- 
panied  by  all  who  craved  Mercy  for  Them.  I  considered  it  a 
good  stroke  to  have  restored  peace  among  all  these  Nations,  who 
some  time  before  Were  far  from  being  in  accord.  This  cannot 
but  be  productive  of  much  good  in  the  whole  country. 

I  Sent,  Monseigneur,  their  Words  And  my  Replies  with 
the  necessary  Instructions  to  the  Sieur  de  Vercheres,  to  the 
Sieur  De  La  Martiniere,^  the  Commandant  at  la  Baye,  and  to 

the  Sieur  Dli  Lusignan. 


The  affair  of  tlie  Sauteux  of  the  Rivicro  aux  Sables"  who 
killed  a  Maskoutin  by  mistake,  was  Patched  up  by  the  Sieur 
de  iN'oyelles. 

A  party  of  hurons  who  went  last  year  on  the  war-path  Against 
the  Chicachas,  came  back  witli  four  Slaves  and  one  Scalp. 
They  gave  one  of  the  captives  to  the  Sieur  de  Noyelles  to  Eo- 
place  the  Sieur  De  Vinceunes.''  He  gave  him  to  the  Villages 
of  his  Post  and  they  burned  him,  so  angry  Were  they  against 
that  Nation. 

I  remain  with  very  profound  Respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant, 


Quebec,  October  IGth,  1737. 

1  Claude  Antoine  de  Berman,  Sieur  de  la  Martini^re,  was  the  soa 
of  an  eminent  judge,  councillor,  etc.,  of  the  same  name,  who  died 
in  1719.  The  younger  was  born  in  1710;  was  made  lieutenant,  later 
captain  of  troops;  received  the  cross  of  St.  Louis;  and  retired  on  half 
pay  in  1759.  He  married  an  English  girl,  Catherine  Parsons,  by  whom 
he  had  ten  children,  and  died  at  Quebec  in  1761.-^ Ed. 

2  Sable  River,  Michigan,  flowing  into  Lake  Michigan. — ED. 
sVincennes  was  captured  and  burned  by  the  Chickasaw  in  D'Artar 

guette's   unfortunate   expedition.     It   was   an   Indian   custom    to  "re- 
place" a  victim  of  war  by  a  prisoner  of  the  same  nation. — Ed. 

[  2^6  ]  ,^^ 

]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


[Elxtracts  from  two  letters  of  La  Ronde,  commandant  at  Chagouaml- 
gon,  to  Beauharnois.  MS.  in  archives  of  Ministdre  des  Colonies,  Paris; 
press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  69,  c.  11,  fol.  105."] 

Letter  of  June  28th 

MoNSiBUB — I  inform  jou  of  what  has  ooeurred  at  my 
Post  War  has  raged  very  bitterly,  and  the  Scioux  have  killed 
more  than  thirty  persons.  They  nevertheless  have  Sent  two 
Sauteux  women  whom  they  had  made  prisoners  to  sue  for 
Peace.  I  at  onoe  sent  oif  ten  Sauteux  with  two  Slaves,  and  I 
loaded  them  with  over  two  thousand  'Ecus'  worth  ^  of  presents  in 
order  to  have  Peace  concluded.  50  days  Had  passed  since 
their  departure,  when  I  embarked  to  go  and  visit  the  various 
Places  on  the  Lake,  And  I  think  that  Peace  wiU  be  made 
Between  Them,  all  the  more  since  they  are  allied  with  one 
another.  I  am  pressed  for  time  owing  to  the  departure  of  the 
courier,  and  this  prevents  me  from  giving  you  further  details 
which  I  shall  send  by  the  first  opportunity. 

Letter  of  July  22nd 

Monsieur — I  had  the  honor  of  writing  to  you  about  The 
attack  of  the  Sauteux  Upon  the  Scioux  last  year.  I  now  have 
the  honor  of  informing  you,  that  when  I  reached  Chagoiiam- 
igon,  I  greatly  blamed  the  Sauteux  for  having  struck  the  Soioux 
of  the  Lakes,  because  it  Was  the  Scioux  of  the  prairies  who 
had  killed  their  Chief  and  moreover  they  had  killed  some  of 
their  kindred.  They  replied  that  it  Was  true,  but  that  it  Was 
the  Lake  Scioux  who  had  killed  the  22  Frenchmen  in  the  !N"orth, 
and  that  they  wished  to  Avenge  their  death.  What  the  Savages 
said  Was  quite  true,  for  we  have  Had  Sun-dials  and  several 
other  things  belonging  to  the  Jesuit  Father;  there  was  only 

lAn  6cu  was  an  old  French  coin  worth  about  sixty  cents  of  our 
money. — Ed. 

[  2Yr  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


the  chalice  which  a  woman  had  thrown  into  the  River  because 
her  Child  Had  died/ 

I  told  the  Sauteux  that  they  must  make  Peace,  for  that  Other 
wise  they  would  Expose  Themselves  to  die  by  hunger  next 
winter.  Eight  days  afterward  the  Scioux  sent  back  a  Sauteux, 
whom  they  had  made  prisoner,  to  tell  his  people  that  though 
they  Had  Been  Killed  they  asked  for  Peace,  and  that  if  the 
Sauteux  would  Send  Five  of  their  Chiefs,  the  Scioux  would 
meet  them  half-way.  But  only  one  resolved  to  go  at  my  solici- 
tation, and  he,  moreover,  did  not  venture  as  far  as  the  rendez- 
vous, but  passed  the  winter  at  a  place  thirty  Leagues  from 

In  the  month  of  March,  two  Young  men  came  and  told  me 
that  their  Father  had  killed  a  moose  15  I^eagues  from  my 
Fort,  and  requested  that  I  should  Send  for  It.  I  despatched 
my  son  with  seven  men  to  bring  It  in.  He  did  so;  and  four 
hours  afterward  a  Band  of  100  Scioux  fell  upon  three  Cabins 
of  Sauteux  who  Were  at  that  place,  Killing  four  men  and  losing 
^re  of  their  own,  among  whom  Was  the  Chief. 

On  the  16th  of  April,  the  Scioux  sent  back  two  women,  whom 
they  had  captured  in  the  Raid,  to  ask  the  Sauteux  why  they 
Had  not  gone  to  the  rendezvous  as  they  had  been  asked  to  do; 
and  to  tell  them  that  it  Was  this  that  had  Led  the  Scioux  to 
attack  Them;  that  they  asked  once  more  for  that  Interview, 
and  named  the  same  Chiefs.  I  at  once  sent  eight  sauteux  An^', 
I  gave  two  Slaves.     They  marched  60  days  through  the  prairies 

iFor  a  photograph  of  a  French  sun-dial  of  this  period,  see  accom- 
panying plate,  and  another  of  more  elaborate  make  in  Wis.  Hist.  GolU,, 
xvi,  p.  64.  In  reference  to  the  relics  of  Father  Aulneau,  Father  Du 
Jaunay  wrote  to  Madame  Aulneau  from  Mackinac  in  1739:  "Finally 
the  portable  chapel,  and,  namely,  the  chalice,  which  was  plundered, 
had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  a  widowed  squaw,  who  had  several  grown- 
up sons,  the  pride  and  wealth  of  the  tribe.  In  a  remarkably  short 
lapse  of  time,  all  or  nearly  all  of  them  perished  in  her  sight.  This 
she  ascribed  to  the  chalice,  which  her  sons  had  given  her;  so  she  rid 
herself  of  it  by  throwing  it  into  a  river."  Jones,  Aulneau  Collection^ 
pp.  95,  96.— Ed. 


'ction^  i 



1738-41]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

without  meeting  the  Scioux.  They  Merely  found  their  cache* 
of  Beaver  skins  and  they  are  to  leave  their  mark  to  show  that 
they  have  Been  there.  I  have  no  doubt  that  I  shall  be  able 
to  restore  Peace  as  soon  as  I  return. 



[MS.  in  archives  of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-marl?,  "Can- 
ada, Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  75,  c.  11,  fol.  130.] 

Merrwrandwm  of  what  occurred  in  The  Affair  of  the  hurons 
of  Detroit  with  the  OutaouacSj  PoutoiXatarrds,  Sauteux  and 
Mississagues  of  that  Post  from  the  12th  of  August,  1738,  to 
the  12th  of  June,  17^1, 

By  a  word  of  the  hurons  of  the  12th  of  August,  1738,  ad- 
dressed to  their  brothers  of  the  Sault,  of  the  Lake,  and  of 
Lorette,'"^  to  Be  repeated  to  Monsieur  The  General,  they  say 
that  Sastaretsy^  tells  them  that  the  Outaoiiacs  have,  as  it  were, 
raised  the  hatchet  against  Them  and  have  asked  all  the  Nations 
of  their  language  who  dwell  on  the  Lakes  to  help  them  to  Ex- 
terminate them  [the  Hurons]. 

Monsieur  The  General  replied  to  that  word  on  the  21st  of 
September  following  and  Sent  Collars  and  presents  to  Mon- 
sieur De  IToyelle  to  quiet  this  affair  and  stay  the  Tomahawks. 

The  29th  of  January  1Y39,  Father  de  La  Eichardie  writes 
that  he  Knows  their  Minds;  that  it  does  not  seem  easy  to  re- 

iFor  descriptions  of  the  methods  of  making  caches,  see  Original 
Journals  of  Lewis  and  Clark  Expedition  (Thwaites's  ed.,  N.  Y.,  1904-05), 
ii,  pp.  136,  137.— Ed. 

2  These  were  the  Jesuit  mission  colonies  of  Sault  St.  Louis,  or 
Caughnawaga,  Lake  of  Two  Mountains,  and  Jeune  Lorette  near  Que- 
bec. For  their  history  see  Jes.  Ret,  index.  These  were  the  well-known 
"praying  Indians"  of  Canada. —  Ed. 

3  This  appears  to  have  been  the  hereditary  title  of  the  principal 
Huron  chief,  as  the  Jesuit  fathers  in  their  Relation  for  1659-61  speak 
of  a  chief  of  the  same  name.  The  chief  mentioned  in  the  text  died 
at  Quebec,  Aug.  4,  1747,  and  was  succeeded  by  another  with  the  same 
title.    See  N.  Y.  Colon.  Docs.,  x,  pp.  141,  162.— Ed. 

[  279  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


assure  them;  that  lie  has  a  well-founded  reason  to  fear  that — • 
although  the  hurons  have  apparently  acquiesced  in  the  Orders 
of  Monsieur  the  General  to  remain  at  Detroit — they  may  at 
the  first  alarm  go  either  to  the  Sonontouans,  as  they  have  been 
asked  to  do,  or  beyond  the  belle  Kiviere.^ 

The  1st  of  February  Monsieur  de  IToyelle  Writes  that  the 
Savages  Have  been  in  fear  of  one  another  throughout  all  the 
winter;  that  the  hurons  all  Went  to  winter  in  the  interior 
contrary  to  their  custom;  that  they  abandoned  their  clearings 
and  a  portion  of  their  Indian  Gbm;  that  there  was  a  rumor 
they  were  to  go  to  the  Tetes  plates;  that  they  told  him  they 
could  not  calm  the  Minds  of  their  wives  and  children  and  that 
they  would  always  be  in  a  state  of  dread  at  that  Post. 

Orontony,  the  great  Chief  of  that  ^ation,^  gave  him  branches 
of  Porcelain  to  be  Sent  to  His  Father  Onontio  on  behalf  of 
the  whole  village,  by  which  they  begged  him  to  grant  them  per- 
mission to  go  and  Settle  near  him,  as  they  could  no  longer  live 
in  peace  at  that  Place,  because  whenever  the  Tetes-plates  might 
make  an  Attack  on  the  Nations  of  Detroit  they  (the  Hurons) 
would  always  be  accused  of  having  a  share  in  it ;  and  to  Avoid 
being  some  day  reduced  to  cruel  Extremities,  they  reiterated 
the  request  they  had  made. 

The  First  of  May  Monsieur  De  Noyelle  Writes  that  he  Sends 
two  Collars  on  behalf  of  the  hurons.  By  the  first  they  beg  their 
Father  to  grant  them  a  tract  of  land  near  him  so  that  their 

iThe  Sonontouan  (Seneca)  were  the  most  westerly  of  the  Iroquois 
confederacy.  By  this  time  they  had  begun  to  remove  to  the  Allegheny 
River,  and  there  was  one  village  within  the  present  state  of  Ohio. 
"Belle  Riviere"  (beautiful  river)  was  the  French  appellation  of  the 
Ohio.— Ed. 

2  0nontony  (baptismal  name,  Nicolas)  was  the  leader  of  the  band 
of  Huron  who  removed  to  the  Sandusky,  and  after  making  an  alli- 
ance with  the  Iroquois  and  English  rebelled  against  French  authority 
(1747),  and  plotted  to  lorm  an  inter-tribal  conspiracy  to  destroy  De- 
troit. Failing  in  this,  he  removed  the  next  year  to  White  River,  and 
later  to  the  Ohio.  By  the  year  1751,  he  appears  to  have  been  no  longer 
living.  For  his  negotiations  with  the  English,  see  Weiser's  "Journal," 
in  Early  Western  Travels  (Cleveland,  1904),  i,  pp.  28-38.— Ed. 


738^1]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

[idves  and  Children  may  he  in  safety,  as  they  are  not  at  De- 
Itroit ;  that  if  he  had  not  [shown]  snch  Kindness  to  Them:  they 
^wonld  go  and  die  in  some  Remote  Spot. 

By  the  second,  they  also  beg  their  Father  to  give  them  an 

icer  to  go  down  with  them  to  protect  them  from  attack. 

The  Sieur  De  N'oyelle  adds  that  they  are  not  less  Fearful 
"than  they  Were  at  the  Beginning  of  the  affair,  that  nothing 
could  re-assure  them;  that  eight  Had  come  at  night  to  see  if 
their  fort  Was  burned  down;  that  they  Btad  concealed  them- 
§elves  in  Father  de  la  Richardie's  dwelling  whence  they  had 
sent  him  word  asking  him  to  go  and  speak  to  them. 

The  10th  of  May  1739,  Father  de  la  Bichardie  Writes  that 
the  Threats  of  one  Entatsogo,  a  Chief  of  the  Sault,  uttered  in 
connection  with  the  Peace  made  by  the  hurons  with  the  Tetes- 
plates  seemed  to  have  made  them  give  up  all  idea  of  going  to 
Settle  down  below,  [i.  e.  in  the  South]  ;  that  they  requested  him 
to  beg  their  Father  to  Excuse  them  if  they  did  not  go  down  to 
Ifontreal  as  he  had  ordered  the  Elders  to  do,  because  it  Was 
the  people  of  the  Sault  who  had  asked  them  to  do  so;  they 
charged  him  to  say  that  it  Was  not  the  Custom  amongst  savages 
to  beg  for  protection  or  for  an  asylum  in  their  fright,  but  that 
if  compassion  were  felt  for  them  it  was  the  duty  of  those  who 
had  pity  on  Them  to  come  and  console  them  on  their  Mat,  or 
even  to  light  a  fresh  fire  for  them  in  some  place  where  they 
might  be  considered  safe. 

The  15th  of  June,  Father  de  la  Richardie  writes  that  he  Was 
obliged  to  make  every  effort  to  influence  their  Minds  which 
Were  Fully  made  up  to  Listen  to  nothing  but  their  fear  and  the 
words  of  the  English  and  Iroquois,  which  seemed  to  have  some 
effect  especially  from  what  an  elder  told  him  in  private,  assur- 
ing him  that  the  English  and  Iroquois  were  taking  advantage  of 
the  hurons'  alarm  to  attract  them  to  one  of  those  two  ISrations; 
that  he  Was  compelled  to  make  Use  of  the  old  women's  influence 
to  put  a  stop  to  this,  and  was  obliged  to  tell  them  that  he  would 
die  rather  than  follow  them  amongst  the  Etnemy.  He  begs  Mon- 
sieur the  General — 'in  the  event  of  his  granting  the  hurons'  re- 
quest to  be  settled  on  his  land,  and  of  Monsieur  his  ^N'ephew  com- 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

ing  to  place  himself  at  their  head  to  Lead  them  to  the  place  of 
their  destination,  to  he  allowed  to  pass  the  winter  with  Them 
and  go  dowTi  early  in  the  spring.  [He  writes]  That  Detroit 
would  in  no  wise  suffer  hy  their  Removal  because  a  number  of 
Sauteux,  to  say  nothing  of  the  Chaoiianons,  would  willingly 
Settle  there  if  the  huron  Were  to  go  away. 

The  1st  of  October  1738  answered  in  1739. 

Words  of  the  hurons  addressed  to  Monsieur  The  general. 

By  the  first  [collar],  they  say  that  it  is  very  Important. 

By  the  second,  that  they  received  at  Missilimakinac  an  Em- 
bassy from  their  brothers  of  the  Sault,  and  of  the  Lake  by  which 
they  sent  them  word  to  come  and  live  near  Them,  and  as  a  rea- 
son for  this  they  said:  "My  brothers,  in  this  Place  you  are  in 
the  Midst  of  a  Multitude  of  Nations  that  like  you  not." 

That,  at  the  time  Monsieur  de  Vaudreiiil  Urged  them  to  leave 
as  soon  as  possible  Nations  that  hated  them  and  he  said  to 
them:  "come  and  live  near  Me;  you  will  find  a  safe  Asylum,  a 
Father  and  a  Protector." 

By  the  Pifth  word  they  said  that  they  assured  their  Father 
they  would  some  day  Carry  out  what  he  had  just  Advised  them 
to  do,  and  would  seize  the  first  pretext  that  should  arise  to  go  to 
him;  that  they  had  long  been  seriously  Thinking  of  fulfilling 
their  promises  and  of  withdrawing. 

By  the  seventh  word,  they  said  that  the  chief  reason  that 
induced  them  to  take  that  step  was  that  they  wished  to  calm 
the  Minds  of  their  wives  and  Children  which  were  so  disturbed 
that  they  could  live  in  safety  only  near  their  Father  Onontio; 
that  everybody  in  their  village  Was  of  that  opinion  and  they 
spoke  in  their  name;  that  only  three  persons  opposed  the  step 
but  they  Were  not  Listened  to. 

By  the  twelfth  word,  they  say  that  if  their  Father  does  not 
grant  their  request,  the  regret  they  will  feel  will  compel  them  to 
take  another  step;  that  their  resolution  is  taken  and  they  will 
go  and  die  in  the  first  place  they  may  come  to  rather  than  live 
in  that  country  where  their  wives  and  Children  could  not  ven- 
ture to  go  to  their  Work  without  Fearing  that  they  might  never 
return  at  night  to  sleep  in  their  Cabins. 

[  282  ] 

1738-41]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

By  the  Fourteenth,  they  say  to  their  Father  that  as  they  have 
always  Been  obedient  to  his  Orders  they  will  be  in  a  better  posi- 
tion to  Carry  them  out  when  near  him. 

By  a  ]^arrow  Collar,  they  beg  their  Father  not  to  refuse  their 
request,  holding  it  by  one  end  and  asking  him  to  hold  the  other 
so  that  he  may  have  the  kindness  to  bring  them  near  him  and 
thereby  calm  the  Minds  of  their  wives. 

By  a  Wide  Collar,  they  ask  their  Father  to  give  them  some 
one  to  lead  them  to  the  land  where  he  dwells,  that  they  may 
travel  in  safety  Through  the  Nations  they  fear. 

The  13th  of  June,  Words  of  Sastaretsy,  Tayatchatin  and 
Otontony  to  be  Sent,  to  Monsieur  the  General. 

By  the  second  word,  they  say  that  they  have  made  their  inten- 
tion known  in  the  Hope  that  by  their  Father's  answer  he  will 
have  compassion  on  their  condition,  and  if  he  has  pity  on  the 
huron,  will  bring  him  near  him. 

By  the  Fourth,  that  their  thought  Was  supported  by  two  Ct>l- 
lars  to  obtain  a  prompt  answer  to  the  prayer  addressed  their 
Father  to  be  allowed  to  dwell  near  him. 

By  the  Sixth,  they  say  in  these  terms:  "My  Father,  we  have 
always  had  the  intention  of  drawing  near  you  and  nothing  can 
Change  it." 

By  the  Seventh :  My  Father,  the  huron  Knows  not  what  it  is 
to  break  his  word,  nor  to  have  a  second  thought  succeed  a  first 
one  he  has  considered  reasonable.  Thus,  My  Father,  I  do  not 
Conceal  from  you  that  he  might  take  a  step  you  would  not 
approve  of  if  you  reject  his  word. 

By  the  IsTinth,  they  say  that  they  will  never  be  thoroughly 
firm  in  llieir  Eeligion  unless  they  separate  themselves  from  the 
INTations  that  are  not  Christian. 

By  the  tenth,  they  ask  to  Be  put  alone  in  the  Place  their 
Father  may  deem  suitable,  and  that  the  black  Gown  may  be 
with  Them  to  soothe  their  Minds,  as  he  has  already  done  when 
they  were  afraid. 

By  the  Fourteenth,  they  say  that  [they]  speak  in  the  name  of 
the  whole  Nation  and  tliat  no  evil  deed  can  be  done  amongst  all 
the  Nations  mthout  its  being  imputed  to  the  hurons.  This  leads 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

them  to  believe  beyond  a  doubt  that  if  their  Father  defers 
Bringing  them  near  him,  thej  will  despair  of  their  lives,  for 
they  Are  threatened  on  all  sides  and  they  regret  that  Compas- 
sion has  not  been  promptly  Felt  for  Them  that  they  may  be  pro- 

By  an  additional  word,  they  ask  Monsieur  De  !N'oyelle  and 
the  three  Black  Gowns  to  so  strongly  support  their  words  with 
their  Father  that  their  request  be  not  refused;  they  also  ask 
that  their  words  be  reduced  to  Writing  and  that  Nicolas^  alone 
be  admitted  to  the  private  Room  of  Monsieur  the  General. 

The  9th  of  July,  Another  word  of  the  hurons  by  which  they 
ask  Monsieur  De  Noyelle  to  Write  on  their  behalf  to  their 
Father  Oliontio  to  thank  him  for  his  kindness  in  granting  their 
request  and  to  assure  him  that  their  Nation  will  never  forget 
this  proof  of  the  protection  he  gives  their  wives  and  Children. 

Then  they  beg  their  Father  Onontio — in  the  Event  of  Mc- 
olas  who  has  charge  of  their  affairs,  allowing  himself  to  be  won 
over  to  Prevent  their  going  down —  not  to  alter  anything  of 
what  he  has  granted  them  to  have  them  dwell  near  him,  and 
that  they  have  fully  reflected  on  the  step  before  taking  it. 

The  same  Day,  Father  de  la  Eichardie  Writes  Monsieur  the 
general  that  his  words  have  Been  received  by  the  hurons  with 
great  acclamations  of  gratitude;  that  they  await  the  return  of 
iN'icolas  to  settle  all  matters. 

The  13th  of  the  same  Month,  Monsieur  De  Koyelle  Writes 
that  he  has  delivered  to  the  hurons  the  words  addressed  to  him 
by  Monsieur  the  general  and  that  they  Were  greatly  flattered 
by  them,  saying  that  he  continued  to  be  always  kind  to  them. 
He  added  that  they  had  not  altered  their  design  in  any  way. 

The  26th  of  July,  1740,  Monsieur  De  'Nojan  Writes  that  the 
Outaouacs  etc.  and  the  hurons  continue  on  the  qui  vive,  and  that 
he  will  strive  earnestly  to  reconcile  them. 

The  27th  of  the  same  Month,  He  Writes  that  since  his  last 
letter  he  has  seen  the  Chiefs  of  the  hurons  and  Outaouacs :  that 

1  Note  on  original  MS. :        This  is  one  of  the  three  Chiefs.    His  sav- 
age name  is  Orontony." 

[  284  ] 

1738-41]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

he  is  convinced  nothing  can  allay  the  uneasiness  in  which  the 
former  live ;  that  the  Outaoiiacs  v^ere  taking  steps  that  gave  rise 
to  much  Suspicion  amongst  the  weaker  ones ;  and  that  the  hurons 
Had  good  reason  to  ask  their  Father  for  an  asylum  where  they 
could  live  in  peace;  that  to  Induce  them  to  remain  at  Detroit 
was  to  Ecxpose  them  to  the  vengeance  of  the  others ;  that  not  to 
bring  them  to  Montreal  was  to  cause  their  destruction ;  that  the 
Iroquois  would  take  advantage  of  this  and  enter  into  an  alliance 
with  Them ;  that  whatever  precautions  were  taken  amongst  the 
Iroquois  and  the  Outaouacs  to  conceal  their  Intrigues,  their 
plots  nevertheless  betrayed  themselves  on  both  Sides  and  sus- 
picion was  growing. 

He  represents  that  the  migration  of  the  hurons  towards  Mon- 
treal will  secure  their  Preservation,  and  strengthen  the  Colony 
Against  the  IN'ations  that  might  oppose  its  growth ;  that  the  Evil 
has  become  aggravated.  As  always  happens  when  Minds  are 
filled  with  Distrust,  and  that  he  can  no  longer  flatter  himself 
that  he  can  succeed  in  reconciling  them. 

That  Detroit  will  lose  nothing  because  the  Chaoiianons  are 
ready  to  take  their  place  and  that  all  the  huron  Chiefs  Were 
determined  to  leave,  Knowing  the  Risks  they  ran. 

The  First  of  August,  Father  de  la  Richardie  writes  that  the 
hurons  are  always  on  the  qui  vive  concerning  the  Outaouacs  and 
Sauteux ;  that  News  circulated  by  the  very  people  of  those  Na- 
tions continually  keeps  up  their  alarm,  not  that  they  fear  for 
Themselves,  they  say,  because  such  an  admission  would  be  incon- 
sistent with  their  pride,  but  all  their  solicitude  is  for  their  wives 
and  Children  whom  they  do  not  consider  Safe  in  a  neighborhood 
such  as  that  of  Detroit. 

That  Mcolas  said  he  Was  proud  of  the  fact  that  to  the  huron 
Nation  alone  belonged  the  glory  of  never  having  shed  French 
blood ;  that  he  hoped  to  excite  his  Father's  Compassion  to 
Induce  him  to  put  him  under  his  wings. 

Father  de  la  Richardie  adds  that  their  Reluctance  to  go  down 
is  due  solely  to  the  fact  that  they  are  not  Removed  with  savage 
formalities  from  the  Place  where  they  now  are  and  settled 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

The  4tli  of  August,  Monsieur  De  ISToyan  writes  tliat  the 
hurons  still  persist  in  their  intention  to  remove  their  fire  else- 
where; that  they  beg  him  to  follow  them  and  go  and  live  with 
Them  on  the  tract  of  land  Monsieur  the  General  has  granted 
them ;  that  he  expected  the  Ohaoiianons  at  the  end  of  the  month 
who  intended  to  take  their  place,  and  that  they  were  asked  to  do 
so  by  the  Otitaouacs  who  would  be  delighted  with  this  Exchange. 

The  26th  of  August,  Father  de  la  Eichardie  writes  that  the 
hurons  have  in  nowise  changed  their  minds  about  Settling  near 
Montreal ;  that  the  only  thing  that  Hinders  the  Carrying  out  of 
the  plan  is  savage  vanity  that  does  not  wish  to  seem  to  flee,  and 
seeks  to  conceal  its  fear  by  saying  to  the  neighboring  ISTations 
that  they  are  being  Taken  from  their  fire  in  order  that  another 
may  be  kindled  for  them;  that  they  daily  urge  their  Com- 
mandant and  their  Missionaries  to  Induce  Monsieur  The  Gen- 
eral to  Send  a  word  by  which  he  will  Remove  them  from  Detroit 
and  settle  them  near  him ;  that  the  reason  and  the  truth  are  that 
they  wish  to  be  Removed  by  the  people  of  the  Sault  and  of  the 
Lake,  and  that  they  be  their  agents  to  exercise  the  gentle  pres- 
sure they  desire ;  that  Angoiiirot  alone,  with  three  or  four  other 
Cabins,  are  opposed  to  this  Migration,  and  it  will  not  be  diffi- 
cult to  Urge  them  to  it  if  the  plan  be  Carried  out;  that  they 
have  another  in  view  which  is  to  Establish  themselves  on  grosse 
isle  f  but  he  thinks  they  will  hardly  live  in  peace  there  more 
than  at  Detroit. 

The  16th  of  September,  Monsieur  De  IN'oyan  writes  that  the 
third  Chief  of  the  hurons,  named  Angoiiirot,  had  just  arrived 
from  Sandoske "  where  he  had  left  nearly  all  his  brothers  cutting 
down  trees  to  extend  their  Fields;  that  this  news  had  greatly 

1  Grosse  Isle,  the  large  island  at  the  mouth  of  Detroit  River,  still 
keeps  this  appellation, — Ed. 

2  The  location  of  the  village,  and  what  was  later  Nicolas's  fort,  in 
the  marshes  of  Sandusky,  is  not  fully  determined.  Probably  it  was 
on  the  shores  of  Sandusky  Lac  (or  Lac  Junandott),  at  Venice.  The  old 
French  Fort  Sandusky  was  destroyed  by  Indians  May  17,  1763;  but  was 
later  rebuilt,  apparently  on  the  same  site. — Ed. 



1738-41]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

afflicted  him  because  it  strengthened  him  in  the  conviction  that 
that  Kation  would  soon  lose  the  benefits  conferred'  on  them  by 
Christianity  unless  Monsieur  the  General  had  pity  on  them  and 
brought  them  near  him  and  that  such  removal  could  not  but  Be 
beneficial  to  the  Colony. 

The  17th  of  September,  Father  de  la  Eichardie  Writes  to 
Monsieur  the  general  that  he  Had  vainly  flattered  himself  that 
he  had  brought  back  the  hurons  who  Had  established  themselves 
at  the  little  Lake  ;^  that  most  of  them  Had  gone  to  Detroit  on  the 
approach  of  the  great  feasts,  and  Had  decamped  as  soon  as  they 
Were  over,  without  its  Being  possible  for  him  to  keep  them 
there ;  that  he  could  obtain  no  other  reasons  from  Them  except 
that  they  would  settle  down  as  soon  as  their  Father  would  have 
the  goodness  to  put  them  in  a  place  of  Safety,  for  they  could 
find  none  at  that  Spot  in  sight  of  the  Outaoiiacs  and  Sauteux; 
that  if  their  village  Were  near  the  French  they  would  not  be 
afraid  of  their  Enemies  attacking  them;  that  their  Father's 
Protection  would  shield  them  from  every  attack;  that  it  had 
happened  that  two  Outaoiiacs  and  Poutoiiatamis  had  devas- 
tated all  the  field  of  a  huron  woman,  that  one  of  them  had  fired 
at  her  and  killed  her  dog  in  front  of  her ;  that  on  the  same  day 
an  Outaouac,  knife  in  hand,  pursued  two  Children  thirteen 
years  of  age  as  far  as  a  cabin  in  the  field;  that  all  this  con- 
firmed their  just  fears. 

The  20th  of  April  1741,  Monsieur  De  ^oyan  Writes  to  Mon- 
sieur the  General  that  the  hurons  are  still  awaiting  a  Collar 
that  they  Hope  he  will  Send  them  to  bring  them  near  him  with 
savage  formalities ;  that  they  are  divided  in  opinion,  some  wish- 
ing to  Establish  themselves  on  grosse  isle,  while  the  others  will 
Hear  of  nothing  but  Montreal ;  but  that  all  are  in  favor  of  leav- 
ing Detroit,  and  that  it  is  to  be  feared  under  the  circumstances 
they  will  abandon  their  Country  and  their  Religion ;  that  they 
will  be  lost  imless  their  Father  saves  them  from  that  shipwreck, 

1 "  Little  Lake"  was  the  French  name  for  Sandusky  Bay,  now  Ron- 
deau Harbor,  on  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Erie.  The  reference  is  prob- 
ably to  some  temporary  settlement. — En. 

[  287  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol.  xvii 

and  tliat  they  will  soon  be  lost  if  he  does  not  hold  out  his  hand 
to  them.     He  adds  that  that  ISTation  is  not  one  to  be  neglected. 

The  22nd  of  the  same  Month,  Father  de  la  Richardie  writes 
to  Monsieur  the  General  that  there  is  no  change  as  Regards  the 
hurons,  Except  that  their  Desire  to  go  and  Settle  at  Montreal  has 
diminished  without  having  passed  away,  and  that,  to  speak  with- 
out equivocation,  they  are  convinced  they  are  not  wanted  there ; 
that  only  an  urgent  word  from  their  Father  Onontio,  with  a 
similar  one  from  their  Praying  brothers  can  draw  them  thither, 
and  even  then  he  would  not  guarantee  that  all  would  go,  although 
he  thinks  that  those  who  would  remain  at  Detroit  would  gradu- 
ally join  the  others. 

The  12th  of  June  1741,  Monsieur  De  !N"oyan  Writes  that 
some  presents  would  be  needed  for  the  three  I^ations  that  have 
to  Be  reconciled,  and  that  the  chief  item  is  a  collar  from  Mon- 
sieur the  general  to  grant  the  hurons  a  dwelling  place  near  him] 
otherwise  he  foresees  that  that  Kation  will  be  completely  lost 
to  us  owing  to  the  jealousy  the  others  have  of  it;  that  Detroit 
is  alarmed  because  it  is  alleged  that  two  large  bands  of  Tetes- 
plates  have  set  out  on  the  war-path. 


[Letter  from  Noyan  to  the  French  Minister.     Source,  same  as  preced- 
ing document,  but  vol.  70,  fol.  180.] 

Montreal,  October  5,  1738. 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  havo  Tcceivcd  with  all  possible  respect  and 
gratitude  the  Fresh  Marks  of  Kindness  wherewith  Your  Grace 
is  pleased  to  honor  me  by  appointing  me  commandant  at  Detroit. 

I  am  aware,  Monseigneur,  that  the  honor  of  Such  Confidence 
should  incite  Me  to  seek  the  Means  of  justifying  it  with  Tour 
grace;  And  in  Spite  of  My  slight  Capacity,  I  hope  that  my 
desire  to  be  Deserving  of  so  Marked  a  favor  will  enable  me  to 
do  what  you  expect  from  Me. 

I  am  unable,  Monseigneur,  to  propose  anything  to  Your  grace 
in  connection  With  the  establishment  of  that  post.     I  am  still 

[  288  ] 

1738]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

ignorant  of  tlie  means  you  intend  to  make  use  of  and  of  the 
Steps  you  order  me  to  adopt,  as  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Beau- 
hamois  has  not  done  me  the  honor  of  communicating  them  to 

That  post  is  greatly  disturbed  in  consequence  of  a  quarrel 
that  Arose  between  the  hurons  and  the  outaouas.  The  blood 
that  was  shed  in  it  leads  me  to  fear  lest  all  the  Savages  are  con- 
cerned in  it,  for,  Monseigneur,  those  two  languages  interest  all 
the  Nations  of  that  country.  This  year  again  those  two  I^ations 
had  asked  Me  to  command  them ;  the  outaouas  had  come  down 
for  That  purpose.  Here  is  a  suitable  opportunity  to  put  their 
friendship  to  the  test,  and  I  flatter  Myself  that  Your  grace  will 
have  sent  peace  there  when  I  reach  the  place.  Hitherto,  Mon- 
seigneur, attempts  have  been  made  to  find  in  the  flood  of 
brandy  that  has  Poured  through  that  Wretched  post,  reasons  for 
concealing  under  the  pretext  of  the  interests  of  the  Colony  the 
avidity  of  Sordid  lucre  gained  by  the  Commandants  in  opposi- 
tion to  the  laws  of  honor  and  of  religion.  I  beg  Your  grace  to 
give  Me  orders  to  the  contrary,  authorizing  me  to  punish  the 
guilty  and  which  may  keep  me  Myself  in  Check  should  I  be  so 
Wretched  as  to  endeavor  to  make  My  fortune  by  Such  shameful 
Means.  By  this  Alone,  Monseigneur,  shall  I  be  able  to  main- 
tain order,  to  make  Myself  feared  and  esteemed  by  the  French 
and  the  Savages,  and  succeed  in  placing  on  a  firm  basis  the 
establishment  your  grace  orders  me  to  begin.  I  will  send  you 
an  accurate  and  faithful  Report  every  year  if  God  be  pleased 
to  grant  me  My  Health  that  has  been  Greatly  weakened  by  three 
most  painful  operations  Performed  since  the  Month  of  April. 
My  zeal  for  the  service  has  not  Suffered  from  this,  and  I  feel 
that  I  have  still  sufficient  strength  to  Withstand  the  unavoid- 
able fatigue  and  trouble. 

I  remain  with  the  most  profound  Respect,  Monseigneur, 
Your  grace's  most  humble  and  most  obedient  servant 



Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


[ESxtract  from  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Oct.  5,  17S8.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  69,  fol. 



The  precautions  I  had  taken  to  enable  the  two  Miners  to  reach 
the  Copper  Mines  have  Been  unavailing,  owing  to  the  Voya- 
genrs  who  conducted  them  having  been  obliged  to  ]>iit  back 
through  stress  of  Weather,  And  to  the  Season  Being  too  far 
advanced,  which  compelled  them  to  winter  in  Montreal.  They 
proceeded  Early  last  spring  to  Chagoilamigon  And  the  Sieur  de 
La  Ronde  Wrote  me  on  the  28th  of  June  and  22nd  of  July  that, 
as  he  was  returning  from  IN'avigating  the  Lake,  he  made  an 
Attempt  to  approach  the  island  that  is  said  to  Be  of  Copper  but 
a  Terrible  Squall  prevented  him  from  reaching  it.  On  his 
arrival  at  Sault  Ste  Marie  (on  the  24th  of  June)  he  learned  that 
the  Miners  had  passed  14  days  previously  under  the  guidance 
of  the  Sieur  Guillory.  He  Hoped  to  meet  him  along  the  Lake 
shore.  He  wrote  that  this  mishap  had  caused  him  chagrin,  inas- 
much as  the  Sieur  Guillory  did  not  know  the  Places  as  he  did ; 
that  iRevertheless  he  Was  assisted  by  a  Savage  who  Undertook  to 
take  him  to  one  of  the  Mines  where  the  Sieur  de  la  Ronde  had 
Been.  He  adds  in  his  Letter  of  the  28th  of  July  that  when  the 
Miners  returned  to  the  Sault  Ste  Marie,  he  asked  them  what 
they  thought  of  that  mass  of  Copper  (which  is  doubtless  La 
Roche  [the  Rock]  already  mentioned).^  They  replied  that 
it  Was  a  Mass  that  had  been  carried  by  the  ice  to  that  spot 
on  the  shore.  Thereupon  when  the  Sieur  de  La  Ronde  told 
them  he   would   show   them   similar   masses   more  than   fifty 

1  Since  the  earliest  exploration  of  Lake  Superior,  the  French  had 
knowledge  of  a  large  mass  of  copper  near  the  mouth  of  the  Ontonagon 
River.  It  is  described  in  the  Jesuit  Relation  for  1666-67  (Thwaites'a 
ed.,  1,  p.  267;  liv,  p.  161)  and  was  popularly  known  as  "La  Roche."  In 
1843  this  mass,  weighing  between  6,000  and  7,000  pounds,  was  trans- 
ported to  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  where  it  was  found  to  be  95  per 
cent  pure  copper. — ^Ed. 

[  290  ] 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Leases  from  there,  they  admitted  that  this  might  Be  so, 
and  that  the  masses  might  have  been  detached  from  some 
mountains.  The  Sieur  de  La  Ronde  Then  proposed  that 
they  Embark  with  him  in  order  that  he  mi^ht  Take  them 
to  the  Places  where  the  Mines  Were  situated  And  Amongst 
others  to  those  in  the  Tonnagane  E^iver.  At  first  they  raised 
some  difficulties  because  their  engagement  Expires  on  the 
first  of  May  1739,  And  they  would  be  unable  to  get  Home  by 
that  date.  But  the  Sieur  de  La  Bonde  having  disposed  of  all 
objections  by  promising  to  pay  them  for  the  exjra  time  they 
would  be  with  him,  they  agreed  to  go  whither  he  might  wish  to 
take  them.  The  idea  of  the  Sieur  de  La  Blonde  is  to  make  them 
Inspect  generally  all  the  Places  on  the  Lake  where  he  knows 
of  Copper  Mines  being  situated  and  to  take  advantage  of  the 
stay  of  the  miners  at  that  Place  to  obtain  all  the  Information  he 
can  from  them  so  that  when  he  communicates  thje  same  to  me  I 
may  be  in  a  Position  to  Beport  to  you  thereon.  Monsieur  hoc- 
quart  And  I  have  the  honor  to  Send  you  the  report  made  by  one 
Guillory,  the  younger,  who  arrived  from  that  Country  on  the 
14th  of  the  month  of  August  last. 


1  remain  with  very  profound  Bespect,  Monseigneur,  Your 

very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant 

Quebec,  October  5th,  1738. 


[Letter  of  De  Noyan  to  the  French  Minister,     Source,  same  as  pre- 
ceding document,  but  vol.  70,  fol.  190.] 

MoNTBEAL,  October  18,  1738. 

Monseigneur — Hitherto  I  had  flattered  Myself  that  Mon- 
sieur The  Marquis  de  Beauhamois  and  Monsieur  hocquart 
would  have  added  to  the  favor  your  grace  has  conferred  on  Me 
tliat  of  communicating  to  Me  Your  Lordship's  Orders  Bespect- 
ing  The  Establishment  of  detroit 
19  [  291  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

After  Writing  on  two  occasions  to  Monsieur  de  Beaucours* 
that  lie  would  send  Mm  the  court^s  intentions  with  Eegard  to 
Me,  Monsieur  the  Marquis  De  Beauhamois  instructed  Monsieur 
de  longueuiP  at  Quebec  to  write  Me  that  he  had  not  Carefully 
examined  Your  Lordship's  letter  when  he  wrote  to  Monsieur  de 
Beaucours ;  that  he  had  received  no  orders  to  send  Me  to  detroit 
But  Merely  a  project  proposed  by  Your  grace  to  which  he  would 
send  an  answer,  and  therefore  that  the  matter  was  not  settled. 
Thus,  Monseigneur,  it  has  been  sought  to  deprive  Me  of  the 
honor  I  should  have  had  in  proving  that  I  was  fit  for  the  posi- 
tion, and  in  justifying  Your  grace's  choice  of  me  as  a  disin- 
terested Person.  In  truth  I  am  unable  to  reply  because  I  am 
equally  ignorant  Both  of  Your  Lordship's  plan  and  of  the 
objections  to  it. 

!N'evertheless,  it  is  easy  to  see  that  Your  Lordship's  Kindness 
toward  me  causes  Much  embarrassment  and  jealousy  here. 
Monsieur  de  Koyelles  finishes  His  three  years  in  the  Month  of 
May  next,  and  the  appointment  of  a  Kew  commandant  is  under 
consideration.  If  Monsieur  the  general  intended  that  I  should 
be  the  person,  he  would  do  me  the  honor  of  notifying  Me. 
Arrangements  have  to  be  made  to  obviate  expense ;  I  have  there- 
fore reason  to  think  that  he  is  at  Least  Surprised  that  Your 
Lordship  should  have  cast  your  eyes  Oti  Me. 

It  Seems  to  Me  that  Your  grace's  project,  whatever  it  may 
Be,  should  not  occasion  any  trouble;  and  that  the  person  whom 
you  have  honored  with  Your  confidence  should  be  sent  there: 
Either  giving  him  the  post  as  it  stands  until  Further  orders, 
directing  him  to  keep  account  of  the  emoluments  in  order  to 
render  an  exact  account  thereof  to  the  Court;  Or,  Messieurs  de 

1  Josu6  Dubois  de  Berthelot,  Sieur  de  Beaucourt,  came  to  New  France 
as  an  engineer  in  the  troops.  He  assisted  at  the  fortifications  of  Que- 
bec in  1691,  and  again  in  1712.  He  became  a  famous  partisan  leader, 
heading  expeditions  against  the  Iroquois  in  1693,  and  in  Queen  Anne's 
War  (1702-13).  In  1730  he  was  governor  of  Three  Rivers,  and  later  of 
Montreal,  which  latter  office  he  held  until  about  1748. — Ed. 

2  This  was  Charles  Le  Moyne,  second  baron  de  Longueuil;  see  antCr 
p.  10,  note  2.— Ed. 

[  292  ] 

From  Suite's  Histoire  des  Canadiens-Frangais 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

eaiihamois  and  hocquart  would  receive  tlie  proceeds  of  the 
licenses  and  other  emoluments  of  the  post,  have  the  officer  con- 
veyed there  and  supply  His  !N'eeds  until  Further  orders  from 
Your  grace. 

It  has  not  depended  on  Me,  Monseigneur,  for  I  have  had  the 
onor  of  writing  to  them  and  of  assuring  them  that  I  would  be 
ready  at  any  time  to  carry  out  Your  grace's  orders  and  theirs. 

I  have  learned  indirectly  that  Messieurs  the  Marquis  de  Beau- 
hamois  and  hocquart  found  that  the  post  of  detroit  would  N"o 
longer  Be  of  any  advantage  to  the  commandant.  I  do  not  think, 
Monseigneur,  that  they  had  such  anxiety  with  regard  to  Me. 
I  flatter  Myself  that  My  disinterestedness  is  Known  to  them: 
But  how  can  a  post  where  one  Serves  the  King  Well  cease  to  be 
an  advantageous  one,  when  the  King  rewards  Services  and  Your 
Lordship  is  the  dispenser  of  favors. 

All  such  posts  will  ever  be  advantageous  ones  to  Me,  And  I 
venture  to  offer  Your  grace  the  Heart  Least  affected  by  interest 
and  the  most  Sensitive  to  honor. 

Nevertheless,  convinced  as  I  Am  that  it  is  Your  Lordship's 
intention,  while  promoting  the  public  Welfare,  to  Allow  or  to 
give  the  officer  sufficient  for  an  honorable  livelihood,  I  crave 
Your  grace's  permission  to  enter  into  details  regarding  That 

The  sum  of  500  livres  is  paid  for  each  license,  10  or  12 
of  which  are  issued  yearly  besides  those  of  the  Mis- 
sionaries and  of  The  officer  Second  in  command.  This 
yields  at  least  ....     5,000  livres 

The  King  has  always  given  to  the  commandant  the  powder 
Required  for  the  whole  post,  and  which  he  has  always 
caused  to  be  sold  to  the  French  and  Savages.  This 
favor  is  worth,  per  annum  .  .  .     1,500  livres 

Hitherto,  for  the  maintenance  of  Good  order,  it  has  been 
enacted  that  the  Commandant  should  have  a  Bureau 
where  he  has  caused  all  the  wine  and  brandy  Re- 
quired by  the  French  to  be  sold.  This  also  brings 
him    in,    per    annum        ....     2,000  livres 

8.500  livres 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

Here  we  have  eight  Thousand  five  hundred  livres  that  can  be 
obtained  from  the  post  Without  engaging  in  trade.  In  some 
years  as  many  as  14  and  15  canoes  go  there,  But  their  IN'umber 
is  always  uncertain. 

If  it  be  Your  Lordship's  intention  to  lower  the  price  of  the 
licenses  with  the  object  of  settling  the  post,  it  Will  be  easy  to  do 
so  by  making  it  Known  that  every  voyageur  who  takes  up  a  lot 
of  land  at  detroit,  shall,  in  Consideration  of  the  sum  of  250 
livres  per  canoe,  have  the  exclusive  right  of  going  down  to 
Montreal  for  Merchandize;  and  I  shall  See,  Monseigneur,  that 
the  conditions  in  this  respect  Be  complied  with.  When  the 
habitants  of  the  place  shall  Trade  alone  and  by  them  Selves  it 
will  Be  profitable  to  them,  and  the  Savages  will  get  what  they 
Keed  at  a  Much  Cheaper  Rate. 

!N"ever1ihele«s,  Similar  licenses  might  be  granted  at  the  same 
price  to  the  voyageurs  of  Montreal,  when  the  residents  do  not 
want  them. 

According  to  this  plan  the  licenses  will  not  yield  more  than 
2500  or  3000  livres  for  it  must  be  observed  that  Trade  is  ruined 
when  more  goods  go  up  than  can  be  disposed  of. 

for  license  .....     2,500  livres 

profit  on  the  powder  ....     1,500  livres 

profit  from  the  Bureau  ....     2,000  livres 

I  believe,  Monseigneur,  that  discipline  and  good  order  require 
that  the  Commandant  should  Alone  have  the  distribution  of  and 
the  profits  from  the  two  last  mentioned  items,  which  Are  not 
included  in  the  trade.  Such,  if  I  may  venture  to  express  My 
Opinion  to  your  grace,  is  the  Surest  and  easiest  way  of  settling 

But  if  Your  Lordship  wish  that  the  Same  price  be  charged 
for  the  licenses,  and  that  everything  the  post  can  yield  be 
derived  from  it  in  order  that,  after  the  officers  are  paid,  the  Sur- 
plus Be  remitted  to  be  employed  as  Your  grace  may  deem  best, 
I  will  keep  So  accurate  an  account  thereof  that  you  Will  be 
Satisfied  with  my  obedience. 

I  Also  hope,  Monseigneur,  that  Your  grace  will,  for  the  first 

[  294  ] 


1738]        French  Regime  In  Wisconsin 

year,  Leave  matters  on  the  present  footing  in  order  to  Meet  My 
Travelling  expenses  And  the  cost  of  conveying  such  N^ecessaries 
as  Might  Be  charged  for — vy^ith  this  difference  that  I  will  have 
no  Goods  for  trading  taken  np,  And  that  I  will  account  to  Your 
Lordship,  both  for  the  expenses  and  for  the  revenues  of  the  post 
so  that  Your  grace  may  dispose  of  the  surplus. 

The  officer  Second  in  command  has  two  licenses  or  .  1,000  livres 

The  interpreter  has  one  license  or         .                 .  .  500  livres 

The  Missionary  of  the  French  has         .                 .  .  500  livres 

The  Missionary  of  the  Huron s  has  two  licenses    .  .  1,000  livres 

3,000  livres 

They  always  dispose  of  their  licenses  to  Voyageurs,  and 
Xcither  the  King  i^or  the  Commandant  ha"^'6  any  expense  to 
incur  in  That  respect. 

The  presents  the  commandants  are  obliged  to  give  Are  very 
considerable,  But  if  Your  Lordship  will  have  the  powder  given 
Me  at  the  price  it  costs  the  King  in  France,  and  will  have  the 
Goodness  to  allow  me  room  for  four  tons  of  freight  on  the 
King's  Ship  for  the  conveyance  of  the  wine  and  Brandy  I  shall 
iNTeed,  I  will  ask  no  compensation  for  all  the  presents  I  Shall 
be  obliged  to  give  the  Savages  with  the  exception  of  some  extra- 
ordinary occasions  in  connection  with  which  I  will  take  the 
liberty  of  submitting  My  representations. 

Thus,  Monseigneur,  If  Your  grace  grants  Me  3000  or  2500 
livres  On  the  licenses  with  tAvo  or  three  Thousand  pounds  of 
powder  at  the  price  His  Majesty  pays  for  it  in  France,  and  the 
right  of  the  Bureau  [sales-room]  which  Seems  to  Me  essential 
to  the  Commandant  who  must  be  responsible  for  His  post,  I  will 
find  the  sum  of  five  or  Six  Thousand  livres  both  for  my  Living 
expenses  and  for  presents  to  the  Savages  which  amount  to  more 
than  1500  livres  a  year. 

I  ask  no  other  Obligation  from  the  voyageurs  than  to  bring 
Me  200  pounds  weight  for  every  canoe  carrying  5000  pounds. 

Moreover,  Monseigneur,  I  Am  but  too  highly  honored  by 
Your  grace's  selection  of  me.  I  Shall  always  be  content  with 
whatever  you  may  be  pleased  to  order  Me.     When  My  dis- 

[  295  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


interestedness  and  My  zeal  Become  known;  to  you  I  shall  Be 
more  tlian  amply  rewarded.  Whatever  may  Be  Your  views 
Eespecting  that  post,  I  hope  to  carry  them  out  on  all  points  that 
may  depend  on  Me.  There  remains  but  one  thing  miore  for  Me 
to  desire  and  that  is  that  Your  Txirdship  should  believe  Me  incap- 
able of  doing  anything  contrary  to  Your  orders,  to  My  honor 
and  to  My  duty,  Elven  were  the  most  Brilliant  fortune  to  depend 
on  it  And  what  fortune,  Monseigneur,  can  compare  in  My 
eyes  with  The  honor  of  Your  confidence. 

I  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
grace's  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant 

Chauoy  de.N'oyan- 

[Letter  of  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart  to  the  French  Minister,  dated 
Oct.  22,  1738.  Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  69,  fol. 

Monseigneur — We  have  received  the  letter  you  did  us  the 
honor  of  Writing  to  us  on  the  23rd  of  April  last  with  reference 
to  the  Post  of  Detroit. 

Of  the  plans  that  each  of  us  individually  submitted  last  year 
to  you,  Monseigneur,  you  approve  only  the  Appointment  of  a 
Stationary  Commandant;  you  reject  all  the  rest  and  you  are 
pleased  to  Explain  to  Us  a  third  project  that  has  been  proposed 
to  you  which  you  Deem  more  Suitable  and  which  you  order  us 
to  discuss  together  and  to  Report  thereon.     This  we  do. 

We  both  agree  with  regard  to  the  Stationary  Commandant 
who  is  to  have  no  interest  whatever  in  the  Trade  carried  on  at 
the  Post,  and  to  whom  a  suitable  remuneration  will  be  accorded 
out  of  the  proceeds  of  the  Licenses.  There  would  be  no  objec- 
tion to  allow  all  indigent  families  to  go  and  Settle  at  that 
Post  if  the  free  permits  to  be  granted  them  for  conveyance  there 
with  goods  did  not  on  the  other  hand  diminish  the  number  of 
Permits  that  are  bought  and  the  proceeds  whereof  barely  suffice 
to  meet  the  ordinary  expenses  of  the  Post.  The  same  difficulty 
arises  as  regards  taking  from  the  proceeds  of  the  Licenses  the 



738]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

assistance  and  facilities  to  be  granted  those  families  for  their 

The  right  to  Trade  that  it  is  proposed  to  give  the  Kesidents  at 

e  Post   in   Preference   to  the  voyageurs  of  Montreal   Is   a 

privilege  those  Kesidents  have  never  asked.     The  number  of 

permissions  to  go  and  Trade  at  Detroit  is  not  absolutely  limited 

nd  whenever  those  same  Residents  have  applied  for  Permits 

ese  have  always  been  granted  them  on  the  same  footing  as  the 
voyageurs  from  Montreal.  But  to  Further  compel  the  Resi- 
dents when  they  take  out  Licenses  to  have  a  certain  number  of 
arpents  of  land  cleared  and  cultivated  every  year,  would  be  to 
impose  an  additional  burden  on  them  and  indirectly  to  give  the 
preference  of  the  Trade  to  the  voyageurs  from  Montreal.  We 
would  Also  observe  that  if  it  Be  proper  for  the  growth  of  the 
Post  to  send  families  there,  it  Is  Equally  important  that  such 
families  Should  devote  themselves  to  the  Cultivation  of  the  land 
the  produce  whereof  will  enable  them  to  procure  what  they  need 
from  the  voyageurs  of  Montreal  who  will  supply  their  wants. 

Here  is  a  fourth  project,  Monseigneur,  which  we  consider 
approaches  Your  views  the  most  closely,  since  there  can  be  no 
question  of  an  increase  of  the  garrison. 

In  the  present  State  of  affairs  the  proceeds  of  the  licenses 
granted  amounts  every  year  to  the  sum  of  6650  livres  on  an 
average,  including  500  livres  paid  by  the  two  Gunsmiths,  And 
150  livres  by  private  individuals  who  reside  within  the  Inclos- 
ure  of  the  fort.  This  sum  of  6650  livres  will,  if  you  order  it,  be 
Employed  in  paying  the  expenses  set  forth  in  the  annexed  State- 
ment wherein  Is  Included  a  sum  of  3000  livres  for  the  gratuity 
to  be  given  the  stationary  Commandant;  in  consideration  of 
that  amount  he  shall  be  forbidden  to  carry  on  any  Trade. 

The  cost  of  transporting  the  pay  And  uniforms  of  the  Gar- 
rison is  not  included  in  the  Statement  and  to  meet  that  expense 
Monsieur  de  Beauharnois  might  grant  2  or  3  free  permits  to 
Voyageurs  of  Montreal  who  would  undertake  such  transport. 

It  will  also  be  Advisable  to  oblige  the  other  Voyageurs  or  per- 
sons in  Charge  of  Canoes  to  carry  Each  150  pounds  Weight  of 
provisions,  utensils  or  implements  for  the  Commandant  as  is 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

done  at  present.  The  custom  will  also  be  continued  of  granting 
a  free  permit  for  a  Canoe  or  half  a  Canoe  to  the  Missionary  of 
the  Savages,  the  Chaplain,  the  Interpreter,  the  Surgeon  And 
tihe  Sub-delegate.  By  this  arrangement  the  Trade  that  the 
Commandant  has  hitherto  been  allowed  to  carry  on  will  inure 
to  the  benefit  of  the  general  Trade  of  that  Post,  and  it  may 
happen  that  a  larger  number  of  Voyageurs  will  apply  for  the 
purchase  of  licenses.  This  will  increase  the  actual  proceeds  of 
the  Post  and  in  such  Case  the  Surplus  will  be  Employed  in 
facilitating  the  transport  of  some  families,  in  providing  for  their 
subsistence  And  in  assisting  them  at  the  Beginning  of  their 
Settlement  at  Detroit  either  for  carrying  on  Trade  or  for  the 
first  clearing  of  the  Lands  that  will  be  Granted  to  them. 

The  Sieur  [N'oyan  Wrote  to  both  of  Us  separately  from  Mon- 
treal a  short  time  ago.  He  claims  to  be  cured  of  the  operation 
performed  last  spring  on  his  left  Breast,  and  he  Considers 
himself  in  fit  Condition  to  proceed  to  his  destination  at  Detroit 
next  spring.  Monsieur  de  Beauhamois  will  give  him  orders  to 
that  effect.  He  will  therefore  Appoint  him  Commandant  on  the 
footing  We  propose  to  you,  pending  the  receipt  of  your  orders. 

We  remain  with  very  profound  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servants, 


Quebec,  October  22nd,  1738.  Hocquabt 

1738:     THE  BEAVER  TRADE 

[Letter  of  Beauhamois  to  the  French  Minister.    Source,  same  as  pre- 
ceding document,  but  vol.  69,  fol.  147.] 

Monseigneur — The  Syndics  And  Directors  of  the  Company 
of  the  Indies  have  Written  to  me  that  you  had  caused  E<e- 
p roaches  to  be  addresoed  to  them  in  Connection  with  the  falling 
off  in  the  Beaver  trade  which  yon  deemed  to  be  due  to  them. 
They  begged  me  to  write  you  that  they  were  not  responsible  for 
this  a<5i  tliey  had  ever  striven  to  promote  it.     I  can  assure  you^ 


P    1739T 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Mcmseigneur,  that  the  falling  off  Was  due  to  the  bad  quality 
of  the  Scarlet  cloth,  And  to  the  low  price  of  Beaver  skins.  Aa 
soon  as  I  Eepresented  this  to  them  they  Sent  out  better  doth 
And  raised  the  price  of  that  Fur;  this  has  contributed  not  a 
little  to  increase  this  year's  Eeceipts. 

I  remain  with  very  profound  Eespect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant 

Quebec,  October  20th,  1738. 

1739:     MEMOIR  OF  LA  RONDE 

[MS.  in  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Can- 
ada, Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  65,  c.  11,  fol.  173."] 

Statement  of  the  services  rendered  to  his  Majesty  hy  Monsieur 
de  La  Eande  Denis ^  Knight  of  the  Royal  and  Military  order 
of  St.  Louis  J  first  Captaiyi  and  Commandant  of  the  Troops 
of  the  Detachment  of  Marine,  from  1687  to  the  year  1739, 

1687     He  was  made  a  guardsman  in  the  Marine^  and  served 

,  in  the  Department  of  Rochefort  until  1689.     He  served  with 

Vice-Admiral  Monsieur  de  Gabaret,   Chief  of  the  Squadron, 

1689  in  the  "St  Michel"  on  board  of  which  he  took  king 
James  to  Ireland,  and  in  the  same  Campaign,  he  was  present  at 
the  Battle  of  Bantry,^  and  at  the  capture  of  an  Ostend  privateer, 
mounting  18  Guns,  which  we  took  with  Boats  commanded  by 
Monsieur  Du  Tare. 

1690  He  served  in  the  "Courageux,"  "Commanded  by  Mon- 
sieur Reale;  and  was  at  Brest  with  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de 
Sevigny  Montmeron;  he  was  also  present  at  the  Battle  of  la 

1  Equivalent  to  midshipman. — Ed. 

2  James  II  landed  at  Kinsale,  Ireland,  March  12,  1689.  The  English 
were  defeated  by  the  French  in  the  naval  battle  of  Bantry  Bay  in  May 
of  the  same  year. — Ed. 

3  The  battle  of  "la  Manche"  is  known  to  English  historians  as  that 
of  Beachy  Head,  in  which  a  French  fleet  of  ten  vessels  defeated  tfye 
allied  Dutch  and  English  fleet  of  fifty-six  ships.— Ed. 

[  299  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


1691  In  llie  "Excellent"  witli  Monsieur  Dn  Rivan  huet,  on 
which  he  cruised  in  tlie  Channel  throughout  the  winter,  and 
served  during  the  Cruise  on  the  high  seas. 

1692  In  the  "Envieux"  with  Monsieur  Bonaventure,  doing 
duty  as  Ensign  during  the  Cruise  to  Canada,  and  thence  along 
the  Coast  of  new  England. 

1693  In  the  "Suzanne  Frangoise"  with  Monsieur  Bonaven- 
ture on  a  voyage  to  Acadia,  during  which  he  served  as  first  Lieu- 

1694  In  the  "Entendu"  with  Monsieur  Duquesne,  when  we 
went  to  the  Mediterranean  Sea  and  captured  Palamos  and 

1695  In  the  "Envieux"  with  Monsieur  Bonaventure,  on 
board  of  which  he  ranked  as  Ensign,  and  went  to  Acadia  where 
they  fought  an  English  frigate,  and  thence  to  Placentia.  Here 
he  found  Monsieur  Belair,  a  post  Captain,  who  commanded  the 
"fourbe"  and  whose  Lieutenant  had  been  killed  in  an  engage- 
ment that  took  place  during  the  voyage  from  France.  He  there- 
fore took  Monsieur  de  la  Eonde  Denis  in  his  place,  and  during 
the  Run  home  he  took  an  English  Ship  mounting  16  Guns,  the 
Command  whereof  was  given  him.  On  approaching  the  French 
coast,  he  met  an  English  Squadron,  which  captured  him  and  took 
him  a  prisoner  to  Ireland. 

1696  He  remained  thirteen  Months  in  the  prisons  of  Ireland. 

1697  He  sailed  in  the  "Vespre"  Commanded  by  the  Cheva- 
lier de  Ghartrier  in  Monsieur  d'Iberville's  Squadron,  which 
sailed  for  Hudson's  Bay.  He  held  the  rank  of  Lieutenant.  They 
captured  the  forts;  sank  the  admiral's  ship;  took  one  ship  and 
put  the  remainder  of  the  Squadron  to  flight.^ 

1698  In  the  "Envieux"  on  board  of  which  he  held  the  rank 
of  Ensign.  They  went  into  all  the  harbors  of  Acadia,  and 
thence  to  Placentia. 

1699  In  the  "Meuport"  with  Monsieur  de  Cfeurbon  St. 
Ijcger,  cruising  along  the  Coast  of  AcaHia  against  free-booters. 


iThis  feat  of  Iberville's  Is  well  desbribed  by  Garneau,  Histoire  de 
Canada  (Montreal,  1882),  i,  pp.  368-371.— *  Ed. 

[  300  ] 


1739]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

He  held  the  rank  of  Ensign,  and  had  Charge  of  the  Ship  by  the 
King's  orders,  owing  to  his  thorough  Knowledge  of  that  coast. 

1700  In  the  "Renommee"  with  Monsieur  d.'Iberville,  sail- 
ing to  the  Mississipi.  He  held  the  rank  of  Ensign,  and  for  five 
months  he  was  in  the  river  engaged  in  surveying  it  in  obedience 
to  Monsieur  d'Iberville's  orders/ 

1701  His  Majesty  gave  him  the  Command  of  the  "Enflame" 
to  sail  to  the  Mississipi  with  Munitions."  The  Cruise  occu- 
pied 17  months. 

1702  In  the  "Loire,"  Commanded  by  the  Chevalier  de 
Gabaret,  on  board  of  which  he  was  second  in  command,  sailing 
to  Canada,  to  take  Monsieur  de  Beauharnois,^  the  intendant, 
there ;  and  during  the  Voyage  they  captured  an  English  Ship  at 
night.  He  was  dangerously  wounded  in  the  Shoulder,  and  was 
compelled  to  remain  in  Canada,  as  he  was  not  cured  when  the 
Ship  sailed. 

1703  He  returned  in  the  "seine"  commanded  by  Monsieur 
The  Chevalier  de  Beauhamois  doing  duty  as  second  Lieutenant 
during  the  Voyage. 

1704  In  the  "seine"  with  Monsieur  The  Chevalier  de 
Meaupou,  sailing  to  Canada  on  board  of  which  he  was  second 
Lieutenant.  Lhiring  the  Voyage  they  met  the  Virginian  fleet 
consisting  of  five  war-ships  which  attacked  us  and  after  an  En- 
gagement lasting  17  hours,  as  our  rigging  was  all  shot  away,  and 
we  had  six  feet  of  water  in  our  Hold,  we  were  captured  and 
taken  to  England.* 

1705  In  the  "Profond"  with  Monsieur  Cauvet  sailing 
to  Acadia,  on    board  of   which    he   was  second  in    command 

iThis  was  Iberville's  second  voyage  to  the  Mississippi.  He  arrived 
at  his  colony  at  Biloxi,  Dec.  12,  1699,  and  spent  the  next  five  months 
exploring  the  Mississippi  River. — Ed. 

2  The  "Enflamm6"  arrived  at  Biloxi  colony  with  provisions,  etc.,  the 
last  of  May,  1701. — Ed. 

3  Francois  de  Beauharnois,  intendant  of  New  France  from  Septem- 
ber, 1702,  to  September,  1705.— Ed. 

4  The  "Seine"  was  a  store  ship  of  40  guns,  and  had  on  board  20 
officers,  2,000  small  arms,  and  much  ammunition.  The  English  colo- 
nists were  rejoiced  at  its  capture. — E4. 

[  301  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

during  tiie  Voyage,  and  on  his  arrival  he  took  Command,  by  His 
Majesty's  order,  of  a  frigate  mounting  14  Guns  that  the  King 
had  caused  to  be  Built  for  the  purpose  of  cruising  Along  the 
Coast  of  new  England. 

1707  While  in  Harbor  on  board  the  King's  frigate  the 
^^Biche,"  ready  to  sail  on  a  cruise,  an  English  fleet  sailed  into 
Port  Royal  to  besiege  it.  He  was  Compelled  to  run  the  frigate 
aground  beneath  The  fort,  and  was  detached  by  Monsieur  de 
subercasse  at  the  head  of  130  men  to  oppose  the  passage  of  the 
little  River  which  the  Enemy,  to  the  number  of  1500  men, 
were  to  cross.  He  impulsed  them  twice,  but  was  compelled  ta 
give  way  to  superior  force,  and  he  Retreated  to  the  fort,  fighting 
every  foot  of  the  ground.  Throughout  the  siege,  he  commanded 
the  Royal  Bastion,  which  faced  the  Enemy,  and  when  the  siege 
was  raised,  he  embarked  on  the  frigate  to  carry  the  news  to  the 

1708  He  Commanded  the  ^'Venus^  which  sailed  in  the 
depth  of  the  winter  to  Acadia  with  Munitions  of  war,  and  he  ar- 
rived there  at  the  Beginning  of  April.  Thence  he  went  to 
Cruise  along  the  coast  of  new  England  where  he  captured  several 
prizes,  and  went  to  Placentia  to  dismantle  the  vessel. 

1709  He  served  under  Monsieur  de  St  Ovide  De  Brogliand 
with  the  rank  of  second  Comm^ander.  He  had  160  men  to 
go  and  capture  the  English  ooast.  They  succeeeded  very  well 
for  on  the  first  of  January  they  took  fort  St  John  where  they 
found  more  than  a  thousand  men  under  arms,  both  Troops  and 
settlers.  In  the  Spring  they  blew  up  all  The  forts;  they  held 
the  Coast  to  ransom,  and  conveyed  all  the  artillery  in  the  "Ve- 
nus" to  Placentia.^     He  took  to  Quebec  the  governor,  the  offi- 

1  This  was  the  expedition  commanded  by  Colonel  March,  which  sailed 
from  Boston,  May  13,  1707,  and  made  a  fruitless  assault  on  Port  Royal. 

Daniel  d' Auger  de  Subercasse  came  to  Canada  in  1687,  and  after 
military  service  in  various  parts  of  the  colony,  received  the  appointment 
of  governor  of  Acadia  in  1705.  In  1710  he  surrendered  Port  Royal  to 
the  English. — Ed. 

3  La  Ronde  was  a  volunteer  in  this  Newfoundland  expedition,  which 
was  planned  by  St.  Ovide,  king's  lieutenant  at  Placentia,  and  nephew 

[  302  ] 

1739]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

cers,  and  soldiers  of  the  garrison  of  St  Jokn,  and  Landed  them 
over  to  Monsieur  The  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil,  by  whom  he  was 
detained  during  the  whole  Summer  to  Command  the  Marine  for 
the  Defence  of  Quetx^c,  which  was  threatened  with  an  attack. 
After  this  he  conveyed  provisions  to  the  Garrison  and  Colony  of 
Placentia,  which  without  that  succor  would  have  died  of  hunger 
during  the  winter.  All  these  voyages  were  performed  in  very 
bad  weather,  and  nearly  caused  his  death  several  times. 

1710  He  sailed  on  the  "Loire"  for  Acadia.  When  he 
reached  Placentia,  he  learned  that  Acadia  was  taken,  and  this 
compelled  him  to  remain  at  Placentia  by  order  of  Monsieur  de 

1711  He  w^as  sent  by  Monsieur  de  Costebelle,  the  gov- 
ernor, to  Boston  for  the  purpose  of  secretly  securing 
neutrality  between  its  people,  and  that  of  Canada  in  order  there- 
by to  diminish  the  aid  that  new  England  might  give  for  the 
Conquest  of  new  France;  and  he  would  have  succeeded  in  this 
had  it  not  been  for  the  Mishaps  that  occurred,  and  whereof  his 
Majesty  was  fully  informed  by  the  Said  Sieur  de  Costebelle, 
who  several  times  placed  His  life  in  danger. 

1712  He  received  an  order  from'  the  King  to  settle  L'Isle 
Koyale;^  he  went  in  the  "Samezelac"  with  Monsieur  de  St 
Ovide  de  brogliand. 

1713  During  the  winter  he  was  engaged  in  roaming  the 
depths  of  the  forests  and  the  Lakes  of  that  island  a  Map  whereof, 
made  by  the  sieur  de  Couhaigne  sub  engineer,  he  gave  to  the  Com- 
mandant of  Louisbourg.  After  this,  he  was  ordered  to  go  to 
Port  Poyal,  to  les  mines  and  Beaubassin  on  the  coast  of  Acadia 
to  Prevent  the  settlers  from  submitting  to  English  domination, 
because  those  places  do  not  form  part  of  nova  Scotia  or  Acadia 
according  to  the  Former  limits  defined  by  the  treaty  of  Utrecht. 

of  the  former  governor,  De  Brouillan.  The  expedition  is  described  by 
Charlevoix,  History  of  New  France  (Shea  ed.,  New  York,  1871),  v,  pp. 
212-215.— Ed. 

1  After  the  loss  of  Acadia,  the  French  tried  to  replace  that  colony 
by  another  on  Isle  Royale  (now  Cape  Breton  Island).  Costabelle  waa 
the  first  governor,  but  was  replaced  in  1713  by  St.  Ovide.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

He  succeeded  so  well  that)  these  people  there  agreed  to  never  take 
the  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  King  of  Grea+  Britain,  and  to  re- 
main faithful  to  the  King  of  France,  their  sovereign.^ 

1714  On  his  return  from  Acadia  in  the  Month  of  January^ 
he  was  ordered  to  go  to  France,  to  carry  despatches  from  Mon- 
sieur de  Costebelle  to  the  Coui-t.  He  was  unfortunately  wrecked 
on  Reaching  the  Coast  of  Brittany,  whence  he  posted  to  Ver- 
sailles. There  he  found  that  he  had  been  appointed  Command- 
ant of  the  port  of  Toulouse,  where  he  arrived  after  encountering 
great  difficulties,  and  continued  to  serve  unil  1720. 

1720  He  received  a  command  from  the  King  to  go  and  serve 
in  Canada.  As  he  was  about  to  start,  he  was  Ordered  by 
Monsieur  de  St  Ovide  de  Brogliand  to  follow  the  sieur  de  Gode- 
ville,  the  officer  Commanding  the  fleet  of  Pisle  St.  Jean,  to  help 
to  settle  that  island.     This  resulted  in  his  remaining  there  by 

1721  the  King's  Order  during  1721,  to  act  as  second  in  Com- 
mand in  the  said  island.^ 

J.722  He  was  Ordered  by  the  King  to  replace  the  sieur  de 
Godeville  in  tlie  Command,  which  he  was  unable  to  do  as  Mon- 
sieur de  Beaucourtjthe  Lieutenant  of  L'Isle  Royale,had  received 
a  similar  order. 

1723  Monsieur  The  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil  thought  proper 
to  send  him  by  land  to  Boston  on  the  5tli  of  October  to  repre- 
sent to  the  governor  of  that  place  the  injury  that  he  did  to  the 

1  After  the  treaty  of  Utrecht,  the  French  claimed  that  the  clause 
ceding  Acadia  "with  its  former  limits;"  meant  only  that  portion  of  the 
peninsula  upon  which  Port  Royal  stood.  Minas  and  Beaubassin  were 
by  that  interpretation  still  on  French  soil.  For  further  description 
of  this  embassy,  see  documents  cited  by  Richard,  Acadia  (New  York 
1895),  i,  pp.  83-87.  This  frank  avowal  by  La  Ronde  of  the  purpose 
and  success  of  his  embassy  undoubtedly  lessens  the  weight  of  the  con- 
tention that  the  British  authorities  treated  the  Acadians  with  undue 
severity,  even  at  this  early  period  of  English  sovereignty. — Ed, 

2 Isle  St.  Jean  (now  Prince  Edward's  Island)  was  in  r7l9  ceded  to 
a  French  nobleman,  who  formed  a  company  to  settle  it.  After  a  brief 
trial,  the  enterprise  proved  abortive,  and  a  permanent  settlement 
was  not  made  until  after  the  fall  of  Louisburg. — Ed. 


1739]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Abenakis  by  taking  possession  of  all  their  lands.^  He  had  great 
trouble  in  reaching  there,  owing  to  the  season  which  was  far  ad- 
vanced, and  he  carried  out  the  orders  and  instructions  that  he 
had  received  to  the  satisfaction  of  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Vau- 
dreuil.^  But  that  journey  and  most  of  those  that  preceded  it 
were  very  costly  to  him,  for  his  Expenses  were  never  reimbursed, 
and  he  never  received  any  allowance  either  from  the  Court  or 
from  the  governors  who  sent  him. 

1727  He  was  appointed  by  Monsieur  The  Marquis  de  Beau- 
hamois  Commandant  at  Chaoiiamigpn,  600  Leagues  from  Que- 
bec. On  arriving  at  that  post  he  withdrew  from  the  tribe  of 
savages  there,  who  are  the  Sauteux,  a  Collar  which  they  had 
received  from'  the  jroquois  by  the  hands  of  an  Olitaois  Chief 
called  Le  feu  bleu,  and  by  which  they  had  agreed  to  destroy  the 
entire  French  nation.  On  handing  me  that  Collar,  they  begged 
me  to  carry  it  myself  to  their  father,  which  I  did;  but  I  was 
unable  to  bring  them  the  answer,  as  they  had  requested  me  to  do, 
because  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Beauharnois  did  not  deem  it 

1728  He  remained  on  garrison  duty  in  the  town  of  Quebec, 
which  he  would  not  have  done  had  he  not  received  orders  to 
that  effect,  for  during  the  whole  time  that  he  has  served  the  King 
he  has  sought  every  occasion  to  make  himself  deserving  of  pro- 

1734  He  went  to  discover  the  Mines  of  Lake  superior  and 
of  the  other  Lakes,  and  he  remained  there  until  1736,  as  may 
be  seen  by  the  journal  Sent  by  him  to  Monseigneur  the  Comte  de 

[The  remainder  of  this  memoir  is  a  duplicate  of  the  succeeding  re- 
port of  La  Ronde  (pp.  309-311),  entitled,  "Continuation  of  the  Discov- 

1  This  was  connected  with  the  war  between  the  Abenaki  and  Massa- 
chusetts (1721-25),  the  most  dramatic  feature  of  which  was  the  kill- 
ing of  Father  Rasle,  the  Jesuit  missionary.  See  Charlevoix,  History 
of  New  France,  v,  pp.  206-282,  for  the  French  side  of  this  event;  and 
Palfrey,  History  of  Neu;  England  (Boston,  1875),  iv,  pp.  434-444,  for 
the  English.— 'EId. 

2  See  evidence  in  regard  to  this,  ante,  p.  20.— Ed. 

[  305  ] 


[Extract  of  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister.  MS. 
In  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada, 
Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  71,  c.  11,  fol.  38."] 

You  will  see,  Monseigneur,  by  the  Extract  from  the  Letter  of 
the  Sieur  De  la  Ronde  dated  the  I7tli  February  last  which  I  Had 
The  honor  of  Sending  you  on  the  14th  August,  by  the  report 
made  to  me  by  the  Sieur  Charly  St  Ange  which  I  also  Had  the 
honor  of  Sending  you  on  the  4th  September  with  the  private  dec- 
laration made  to  me  by  the  Miners  And  by  what  Monsieur  Hoc- 
quart  And  I  have  the  honor  of  Writing  to  you,  that  four  Copper 
Mines  have  Been  found  in  the  Tonnagane  Eiver  and  the  Riviere 
HiToire,  which  they  state  to  contain  an  abundance  of  ore.  They 
are  to  have  the  honor,  Monseigneur,  of  Reporting  to  you.  thereon 
And  of  bringing  you  some  marcasite  from  those  mines. 

Annexed  hereto  is  a  Statement  of  the  distribution  of  the  li- 

I  remiain 

Quebec,  October  4th,  1739.  BeaUHARNOIS 

[Extract  from  a  letter  of  La  Ronde.  commandant  of  Point  Che- 
quamagon,  to  Beauharnois,  dated  Feb.  17,  1739.  MS.  in  archives  of 
MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol. 
71.  c.  11,  fol.  102."] 

Monsieur — I  have  Sent  to  Conduct  the  Miners  to  the  Tona- 
gane  River,  with  orders  to  explore  all  those  that  Issue  from  that 
Region,  and  empty  into  Lake  Superior.  They  found  in  the  fork 
of  the  river  Masses  of  Copper  in  clayey  and  Sandy  Soils,  and 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

ery  of  the  Mines,"  as  far  as  the  sentence  "I  brought  them  back  in  my 
vessel  to  sault  Ste.  Marie,"  when  the  memoir  closes  as  follows:]  j 

1736  Whence  I  took  them  to  Quebec  where  they  made  their 
report  to  Monsieur  the  general  and  Monsieur  The  intendant 
on  what  they  had  seen. 

1739]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

they  said  that  these  Masses  Were  only  fragments  that  had  come 
from  the  Mountains.  They  found  three  Mines  of  this  Metal 
in  the  Kocks,  of  which  two  are  on  the  Kiver  St.  Anne,  which 
is  Seven  Leagues  distant  from  the  Tonagane,  to  The  west-south- 
west. They  said  that  they  Were  similar  to  tliose  in  their  own 
country,  that  is  to  say,  good  and  rich ;  and  that  there  is  one  of 
the  two  in  which  they  believe  that  silver  can  be  found,  though 
rhey  do  not  guarantee  This ;  even  if  there  is  none,  the  Copper 
will  prove  good.^  They  say  that  these  Mines  are  better  than 
Mountains  of  pure  Copper,  because  the  furnace  will  be  run  con- 
stantly, because  the  expense  of  Cutting  the  Copper  is  Consid- 
erable, and  they  Will  produce  marcasite^  in  melting  it;  Tlie 
Mines,  they  say,  are  at  the  end  of  the  Lake  f  the  country  is  fine, 
the  woods  very  favorable,  and  the  Waterfalls  in  the  River  are 
very  well  adapted  to  furnish  power  for  their  furnaces. 

The  Third  mine  is  on  the  Black  River,  right  on  the  shore  of 
the  Lake,  where  they  have  found  the  same  advantages  as  on  the 
other  River.  It  is  fifteen  Leagues  from  Tonagane,  toward  the 
fiame  Point  of  the  compass. 

I  have  had  the  Miners  take  specimens  of  Ore  in  several  sacks, 
which  they  are  to  show  you.  They  wish  to  Carry  them  off  to 
their  country,  saying  that  we  have  no  one  in  Canada  Capable 
of  Assaying  them. 

1  This  appears  from  the  location  to  be  the  present  Iron  River,  al- 
though no  early  maps  have  been  found  with  this  designation;  but 
in  one  authority  Iron  River  is  spoken  of  as  the  "river  where  silver 
may  be  found."  The  reports  of  the  early  geologists,  also,  indicate  that 
some  silver  was  found  in  this  region.  See  Foster  and  Whitney 
(op.  cit.) — ^Ed. 

2  This  word  appears  several  times  in  connection  with  the  copper 
mines.  It  means  iron  pyrites.  La  Ronde,  as  Be  says,  not  being  fa- 
miliar with  minerals,  has  probably  used  this  word  without  knowing 
its  meaning.  It  has  been  translated  into  "ore,"  "mineral,"  etc.,  ac 
cording  to  the  sense  of  the  sentence.  Monsieur  Oboltki,  our  [Quebec] 
mining  engineer,  has  kindly  looked  over  my  translation  of  the  part 
regarding  the  mines. —  CKAWFonn  Lindsay,  translator. 

3  The  expression  here,  "au  bout  du  Lac,"  means  where  the  lake 
ceases  and  the  river  begins;  that  is,  at  the  mouth  of  the  river. — Ed. 

20  [ 307  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

When  the  ice  melts,  I  will  Send  my  son  to  Tonagane  with  the 
Miners  to  explore  the  right  branch,  where  there  is  a  Cliff  which 
has  a  Vein  of  Copper  of  which  I  have  gotten  a  Piece.  I  am  per- 
suaded, Monsieur,  that  this  News  will  give  you  pleasure. 

[Letter    of   La   Ronde    to    the    French    Minister,  dated  Oct.  18,  1739. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  65,  c.  11,  fol.  166.] 

Monseigneur — I  thought  that  I  could  not  avoid  leaving  my 
post  of  Chagouamigon  to  bring  back  to  Quebec  the  German 
Miners  whom  you  were  good  enough  to  send  me  for  the  purpose 
of  seeking  the  Copper  Mines  that  were  thought,  beyond  a  doubt, 
to  exist  around  Lake  Superior  and  in  other  places,  for,  previous 
to  their  arrival,  several  masses  of  almost  virgin  Copper  were 
found  in  various  Places,  such  as  have  already  been  presented  to 

You  will  observe,  Monseigneur,  by  the  continuation  of  my 
journal,  which  I  have  the  honor  of  sending  you,  the  careful 
searches  that  I  caused  them  to  make  and  the  Description  of  the 
four  different  Mines  that  we  have  found,  specimens  of  Ore  from 
which  I  have  handed  to  Messieurs  de  Beauharnois  and  Hocquart 
to  be  sent  to  you  with  the  Labels  indicating  the  Places  where 
Ihey  were  found,  so  that  you  may,  Monseigneur,  order  Assays  to 
be  made  to  ascertain  which  are  the  richest,  in  order  that  I  may 
thereby  decide  upon  the  steps  that  I  should  take  to  have  them 
thoroughly  Worked,  If  they  be  worth  the  trouble.  These  Miners 
assure  me  that  they  are  as  good  as  any  of  those  that  are  Worked 
in  Germany.  They  will  also  have  the  honor  of  Describing  them 
to  you  themselves,  for  I  am  sending  them  baek  to  France  with 
that  Object,  after  having  fully  remunerated  them ;  but  Experi- 
ence will  always  be  the  best  test, 

I  take  the  liberty,  Monseigneur,  of  sending  you  a  statement 
of  all  my  services  since  1687.  If  I  am  fortunate  enough  to  se- 
cure your  kind  attention  to  them,  you  will  observe,  Monseigneur^ 
how  painful  it  is  for  me  that  I  should  have  been  completely  over- 
looked.    If  my  continual  application  to  the  faithful  performance 

[  308  ] 


1739]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

of  my  duties  during  53  years  has  not  profited  me,  I  implore  you, 
Monseigneur,  to  take  steps  tO'  enable  my  present  long  service  to 
benefit  my  Cliildren,  who  will  always  make  themselves  worthy  of 
the  honor  of  your  protection,  whenever  you  may  be  pleased  to 

nfer  advancement  on  them.     The  eldest  is  a  man  27  years  of 
ge  who  is  a  second  Ensign ;  the  second  is  23  years  old,^  a  Cadet 
ith  aiguillettes  since  that  rank  has  been  established  in  Canada, 
and  w4io  left  last  spring  for  the  war. 

All  these  just  reasons  lead  me  to  hope,  Monseigneur,  that  you 

ill  listen  favorably  to  the  requests  of  a  father  who  is  still  pre- 
pared to  shed  the  last  drop  of  his  blood  in  the  service  of  the  King 
and  who  has  always  inspired  all  his  Children  with  the  same  sen- 

I  remain  with  very  profound  Respect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant, 

La  Eonde  Dei^ys 

Quebec,  October  18th,  1739. 

Continuation  of  the  Discovery  of  the  Mines  by  Monsieur  de  la 
Ronde  Denis. 

1736  On  my  arrival  at  Quebec,  I  reported  my  discovery  to 
Monsieur  The  Marquis  de  Beauharnois,  and  I  begged  Mm, 
jointly  with  Monsieur  The  intendant,  who  was  going  to  France, 
to  ask  Monseigneur,  The  Comte  de  Maurepas,  to  send  out  skilled 
Miners  from  the  Mining  country  to  find  the  main  lode  for  we 
found  only  masses  of  virgin  Copper  in  rich,  red,  and  sandy  soils. 
Monsieur  The  intendant  took  with  him  about  500  pounds  in  the 
King's  ship,  and  Monsieur  the  general  sent  a  piece  weighing 
about  80  pounds  by  a  ship  that  sailed  for  havre  de  grace. 

1737  I  went  back  to  my  post,  pending  the  arrival  from 
France  of  the  Skilled  Miners  whom  I  had  asked  for.     This  did 

1  These  were  Philippe  and  Pierre  Frangois  Paul.  The  elder  son  was 
still  ensign  in  1748,  and  returned  to  Chequamegon  in  that  year.  Ap- 
parently, he  retired  as  ensign  on  half-pay.  The  younger  was  made 
ensign  in  1742,  and  lieutenant  in  1753,  being  killed  at  Quebec  In 
1760.— Ed. 

[  309  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

not  prevent  mj  making  searches  for  mines  on  all  the  Rivers,  dur- 
ing the  Autumn,  winter  and  spring.  I  found  nothing  but  masses 
of  Copper.  Had  I  had  any  knowledge  of  Minerals,  I  should 
certainly  have  had  no  need  of  Miners. 

1738  I  returned  in  ray  vessel  to  Sault  Ste  Marie,  and  I  in- 
teniied  during  Tlie  Voyage  to  land  on  The  island  where  the 
virgin  Copper  is  said  to  be  [Isle  Royale]  ;  but  I  encountered  a 
gale  from  the  West  south  West,  which  veered  round  to  West 
North  West,  and  the  sea  was  as  high  as  on  the  banks  of  New 
Foundland.  I  decided  to  scud  under  my  Foresail,  for  I  could 
carry  no  other  Sail.  I  certainly  ran  250  leagues  in  two  days 
and  a  half.  When  I  reached  Sault  St©  Marie,  I  was  never  more 
surprised  than  when  I  learned  that  eight  days  before  twO'  German 
Miners,  father  and  son,  had  passed  through  there  on  their  way 
to  join  me  at  Chagouamigon,  so  that  I  might  take  them  to  the 
places  where  I  had  found  those  Masses  of  Copper.  I  remained 
quietly  at  sault  ste  Marie  awaiting  their  return. 

I  was  nevertheless  uneasy  for  I  saw  no  one  who  could  take 
them  there.  When  they  returned  at  the  end  of  a  month,  I  asked 
them  what  they  had  se©n  and  they  told  me  that  they  had  found 
nothing  but  nodules  of  Copper  (this  is  what  w©  call  Masses), 
but  no  main  lode.  I  told  them  that  they  must  re-embark  with 
me.  Thereupon  they  said  that  Copper  was  not  found  in  earth 
but  in  Rock.  I  replied  that  they  had  come  from  too  great  a  dis- 
tance to  allow  of  their  returning  so  soon;  that  I  would  find 
Rocky  bluffs  for  themj  in  the  neighborhood  where  we  could  cer- 
tainly discover  the  main  lode ;  which  I  did. 

When  I  reached  Chagouamigon  I  found  war  ra^ng  more 
fiercely  than  ever  between  the  sautenx  of  my  post  and  the  sioux 
of  the  Lakes.  I  decided  to  remain  at  my  post  to  endeavor  to  re- 
store peace  between  those  two  nations,  and  I  sent  my  eldest  son 
with  six  Frenchmen  and  two  savages  in  a  good  Canoe  propelled 
by  eight  paddles  to  take  the  Miners  to  the  Tbnagane  River. 
They  found  in  the  bottom  of  that  River  some  more  Nodules  of 
Copper,  but  no  Mines. 

On  leaving  this  River  they  entered  the  River  Ste  Anne  six 
leagues  to  the  West  of  Tonaga.     At  its  entrance  thev  found  two 


1739]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Copper  Mines ;  one  to  the  right,  the  other  to  the  left,  which  they 
state  to  be  as  good  as  any  mines  in  their  country,  and  that  the 
waterfalls  are  very  good  for  supplying  the  motive  power  for  the 
furnaces ;  that  the  land  is  very  well  fitted  for  Cultivation  and 
the  timber  very  suitable  for  Building  forts,  Houses,  Magazines^ 
and  forges ;  while  the  stone  is  excellent  for  furnaces. 

On  their  return  they  found,  six  leagues  farther  to  the  west 
in  the  Riviere  noire  [Black  River],  a  mine  that  they  report  to  be 
very  good ;  and  they  returned  to  pass  the  winter  at  the  fort. 

1739  Early  in  the  spring  a  savage  named  I'Esperance,  the 
bastard  son  of  a  Frenchman,  showed  me  a  piece  of  copper  that 
he  had  taken  from  a  Rock  at  the  T'onagane  River  about  a  gun- 
shot from  the  great  Mass  of  Cbpper  that  lies  there,  and  which 
the  Miners  saw. 

When  the  ice  had  melted,  I  sent  my  son  with  a  Canoe  Manned 
by  six  French  and  two  Savages  to  examine  the  said  Rock.  They 
reported  that  this  Rock  was  a  very  good  mine.  Consequently 
this  makes  four  that  they  know  of.  I  brought  them  back  in  my 
vessel  to  sault  ste  Marie. 

I  sent  my  vessel  back  to  Chagouamigon  under  the  command  of 
my  son,  with  a  cargo  of  provisions,  and  I  put  on  board  of  it 
twelve  Carpenters  and  Sawyers  to  erect  buildings  at  the  River 
Sle.  Anne,  where  there  are  two  mines,  one  to  the  right  and  the 
other  to  the  left  of  the  River.  The  miners  claim  that  they  join 
under  the  bed  of  the  River.  I  o>rdered  my  son  to  go  there  with 
his  workmen  as  soon  as  he  reached  the  post  of  Chagouamigon  and 
to  build  a  very  strong  fort  with  Barracks,  good  Magazines,  and 
a  suitable  forge  at  the  place  where  the  Miners  said  that  this 
should  be  done  to  take  advantage  of  the  water-Falls,  and  I  also 
ordered  him  to  collect  stone  for  the  furnaces. 

He  also  has  men  for  the  purpose  of  making  Charcoal,  and 
they  are  likewise  to  make  Flumes  in  order  to  carry  water  tO'  the 
furnaces  to  make  blast  furnaces  of  them  on  the  German  System. 
After  this  I  resolved  to  return  [to  Quebec]  in  my  Canoes  with 
the  Miners. 

They  told  me  that  all  along  the  grand  River  they  had  found 
several  veins  of  ore  which  they  call  mother  lodes.     They  say  that 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. xvu 

there  is  a  very  good  one  at  the  Chaiidieres  40  leagues  from  Mon- 
treal, and,  there  is  no  portage  to  be  made  throughout  that  dis- 
tance. There  is  only  the  Long  saut^  up  which  the  canoes  have  to 
be  taken  by  Tracking  and  poling,  and  in  going  down  the  loaded 
canoes  run  the  rapid  in  the  middle  of  the  river.  There  are 
I^epissing  savages  who  live  on  the  spot  and  who  act  as  pilots. 
But  without  making  use  of  that  tribe  we  have  very  good  French- 
men who  are  just  as  skilful  as  they  at  this  work.  I  think  that 
a  settlement  should  be  established  on  the  River  Ste  Anne,  and 
that  it  would  be  advisable  to  brinp*  out  miners  from  Germany, 
founders,  Carpenters,  and  blacksmiths;  of  these  we  shall  need 
eight  Miners,  two  founders,  a  Carpenter,  a  mason,  and  a  black- 
smith, and  they  must  come  from  the  Mines  of  Germany  so  that 
they  may  be  thoroughly  conversant  with  what  they  have  to  do, 
and  all  should  be  for  the  River  Ste  Anne.  With  regard  to  the 
Charcoal-burners  and  wood-Clitters  we  shall  find  enough  of  them 
in  Canada.  We  shall  also  require  two  Additional  Miners  to  be 
stationed  at  the  Chaudiores  with  four  good  men  from  among 
those  salt-smugglers^  who  come  from  France,  and  they  should  be 
put  at  the  spot  where  the  lode  is  to  strip  it  and  if  it  should  be  a 
good  one,  as  there  seems  no  reason  to  doubt,  it  would  be  easy  to 
Work  it  at  less  expense  than  that  on  Lake  superior,  and  we  could 
have  as  many  men  there  as  we  would  wish  owing  to  the  facility 
with  which  Provisions  could  be  sent  there  from  the  Montreal 

I  must  now  speak  of  the  Steps  to  be  adopted  for  Working  the 
Mines  of  Lake  Superior,  which  are  near  one  another.  I  shall 
have  to  build  a  vessel  of  SO  tons  at  Detroit,  and'  freight  it  with 

iThe  Grand  River  is  the  Ottawa,  then  the  usual  route  from  Canada 
to  the  West.  The  Chaudiores  and  the  Long  Sault  are  localities 
thereon — the  latter,  about  45  miles  above  Montreal,  and  six  miles  in 
length,  navigation  around  it  is  now  secured  by  means  of  the  Grenville 
canal. — Ed. 

iSalt  was  a  government  monopoly,  and  those  who  were  detected 
smuggling  it  into  France  were  transported  to  Canada,  and  used  in 
manual  labor.  Nau  describes  the  wretched  condition  of  these  trans- 
ported convicts,  in  Jes.  Reh,  Ixviii,  p.  229. — Ed. 

[  312  ] 

1739]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

provisions  and  cattle  for  the  Ciolony  at  the  Mines.  I  shall  bring 
the  said  vessel  to  the  foot  of  the  saut  Ste  Marie,  and  I  shall  re- 
embark  the  Effects  and  cattle  in  my  vessel  which  is  above  the 
saut,  at  a  distance  of  half  a  league  from  the  other,  which  I  can 
do  both  by  land  and  by  water. 

I  have  already  at  that  place  a  mare  and  two  good  Horses  which 
are  now  working  at  the  Mines  establishment,  and  when  the  cattle 
arrive  The  Colony  will  be  flourishing;  for  there  are  no  better 
lands  nor  meadows  throughout  Canada,  and  there  is  an  abund- 
ance of  the  same,  while  the  Climate  is  very  mild,  the  place  being 
on  the  461h  degTce  of  Latitude.^ 

My  intention  would  be  on  starting  from  saut  Ste.  Marie  to  go 
to  a  Riiver  near  Machidache,  which  can  be  ascended  for  a  dis- 
tance of  about  five  Leagues  and  in  which  there  is  sufficient  water 
for  the  vessel  of  80  tons  that  I  shall  build.  In  this  River  there 
is  neither  current  nor  rapid.  After  this  we  go  by  land  about 
eight  leagues.  The  Road  is  quite  practicable  for  Carts  and 
close  to  the  village  of  the  Missisagiies  we  come  to  Lake  odontario ; 
the  barks  on  this  lake  go  to  la  galette  where  you  take  Bateaux 
du  Cent  to  go  down  to  Montreal,  and  by  this  means  avoid  a  por- 
tion of  Lake  Huron,  Lake  St.  Clair,  and  Lake  Herie,  which  is 
very  shallow  and  has  no  harbors."  Starting  from  the  Niagara 
portage  at  a  distance  of  six  leagTies  there  is  a  Rapid  called  the 

iln  reality,  it  is  about  on  the  47°  of  latitude.— Ed. 

2  La  Ronde  is  here  describing  the  Toronto  portage  from  Georgian 
Bay,  by  way  of  Matchedash  Bay,  the  Severn  River,  Lake  Siracoe,  and 
the  land  route  to  the  site  of  Toronto,  where  there  was  a  Mississagua 
village.  David  Boyle,  of  the  Provincial  Museum  at  Toronto,  thinks 
the  river  without  current  or  rapid  must  be  Holland  River,  but  that 
the  whole  passage  is  obscure.  La  Ronde  probably  reported  this  from 
hearsay,  rather  than  actual  observation.  La  Galette  was  at  the  exit 
of  Lake  Ontario.  The  phrase  "Batteaux  du  Cent"  has  given  rise  to 
various  explanations.  Benjamin  Suite  thinks  that  without  doubt  it 
meant  boats  that  would  carry  packages  of  one  hundred  pounds  weight, 
the  ordinary  birch  bark  canoe  holding  "pieces  de  cinquante" — that 
is,  of  fifty  pounds  weight.  Crawford  Lindsay  thinks  it  is  probably 
intended  for  "Bateaux  des  Cente,"  or  "Bateaux  de  descente" — those 
for  descending  the  rapids. — Eu, 

[  313  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvii 

Rapide  plat  which  is  not  navigable  for  vessels.  We  shall  also 
avoid  the  Niagara  portage,  which  is  four  leagues  in  length  and 
in  which  there  are  tiiree  hills  not  practicable  for  Carts.  There- 
fore I  see  no  other  Eoad  for  bringing  down  the  products  of  the 
Mines  than  by  the  River  I  have  mentioned,  and  the  said  portage 
may  be  called  Torontaux  as  there  are  three  on  that  tongue  of 
land;  and  by  this  means  a  long  Journey  will  be  avoided  and  we 
shall  be  saved  the  necessity  of  building  vessels  and  consequently 
ccnsiderable  expense.^ 

[The  following  "Relation  made  by  John  Adam  Forster,  father  and 
son,"  dated  1739,  is  translated  from  a  transcript  in  Macalester  College 
library,  published  in  Macalester  College  Contributions,  series  1,  No.  4, 
p.  114.] 

1st  They  have  been  to  the  Tonagua  river  to  visit  the  rich  cop- 
per mine  from  which  specimens  have  been  sent,  but  they  found 
only  one  piece  of  rock  from  said  mine  which  could  truly  contain 
a  thousand  pounds  weight  of  copper ;  besides,  there  did  not  seem 
to  be  any  absolute  indications  of  a  mine  at  that  place;  but  in 
returning  toward  Lake  Superior,  at  a  distance  of  a  league  and  a 
half  from  there,  they  found  a  vein  or  lode  from  which  this  piece 
could  have  been  taken,  as  the  vein  contained  a  little  pure  copper, 
in  the  matrix,  from  which  they  cut  and  carried  off  as  much  as 
they  could,  without  the  proper  tools. 

One  could  never  see  a  mine,  apparently  finer,  and  it  is  certain 
that  if  one  wished  to  start  in  the  business  and  invest  money  there, 
a  great  return  in  copper  might  be  hoped  for. 

2nd.  At  Orinial  river,  five  leagues  from  the  first  place,  they 
found  a  fine  appearing  slate  mine  where  were  five  layers,  one 
above  another,  and  many  signs  of  a  copper  mine,  from  which 
specimens  have  been  sent  your  Highness,  which  will  show  by  as- 
saying whether  it  is  good  or  not. 

3  Considerable  interest  was  awakened  in  Canada  by  the  discovery  of 
these  mines.  Father  Nau  wrote  to  Madame  Aulneau,  Oct,  12,  1739: 
"An  inexhaustible  mine  of  copper  has  been  discovered  on  the  shores 
of  lake  Superior,  700  leagues  from  here;  but  the  profits  will  never  be 
very  great,  owing  to  the  immense  expense  of  transporting  the  copper." 
Jes.  Rel.,  Ixix,  p.  39. — ^Ed. 


1739]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

In  tlie  same  place  is  found  a  vein  or  lode  where  copper  can  be 
recognized  in  the  matrix  and  which  is  very  hopeful. 

3rd.  At  Black  river,  nine  miles  from  there,  in  the  same  direc- 
tion, is  found  a  good  mine  of  coppery  slate  in  one  layer  only,  but 
a  foot  and  a  half  deep,  which  would  pay  being  worked. 

4th.  At  the  Lake  Nepucin  portage  there  are  six  veins  or  lodes, 
which  are  magnificent,  and  altliough  no  mine  has  been  remarked, 
it  is  highly  probable  that  in  working  there  it  would  be  found. 


[Letters  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  June  30, 
and  Oct.  12,  1739.  MSS.  in  archives  of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris; 
press-mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n„  vol.  71,  c.  11,  fol.  35,  52-58."] 

MoNSEiGNEUR — The  Sieur  Marin^  arrived  here  on  the  25th 
of  this  month,  with  two  SqIoux  And  a  P'uant.  He  reports  that 
the  Kenards  And  Sakis  have  not  dared  to  go  and  Establish  them- 

iThere  appears  to  have  been  more  than  one  French  officer  of  this 
name,  and  the  sketch  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  v,  pp.  116,  117,  has  confused 
two  different  persons.  Pierre  Paul,  Sieur  Marin,  was  born  in  1692, 
and  married  Marie  Josette  Guyon  in  1718.  In  1727  he  was  one  of 
the  trading  company  at  the  Sioux  post,  and  in  1730  among  the  Folles 
Avoines  in  Wisconsin.  After  spending  1739-40  at  Rock  River  and 
La  Baye,  he  made  application  in  1741  to  go  to  France,  and  to  securo 
an  ensigncy  for  his  son.  In  1745,  he  commanded  an  expedition  against 
Saratoga  and  in  1747  was  in  command  at  St.  Joseph  River.  In  1750, 
he  was  sent  to  re-occupy  the  post  among  the  Sioux,  and  remained  there 
until  1752,  when  he  was  summoned  to  take  command  of  the  Ohio 
country,  and  led  a  large  force  thither  to  build  Fort  le  Boeuf.  He  died 
at  this  latter  place  in  1753,  and  was  succeeded  by  St.  Pierre.  His  son 
Joseph,  ensign  in  1748,  lieutenant  in  1756,  was  also  a  "noted  French 
partisan."  In  1749  he  was  in  command  at  Chequamegon;  in  1752 
he  relieved  his  father  among  the  Sioux  and  at  La  Baye;  made  an  at- 
tack on  a  convoy  from  Fort  Oswego  in  1756;  and  the  next  year  dis- 
played great  valor  at  Fort  William  Henry.  He  was  taken  prisoner 
at  the  fall  of  Quebec,  and  went  to  France  to  live.  The  Marin  (Morand) 
reported  living  in  Wiconsin  after  1763— Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  ill,  p.  211 — 
was  probably  a  half-breed. —  Ed. 

[  315  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

selves  at  la  Baye,  because  some  ill-disposed  Freacli  had  told 
them  that  I  was  Sending  a  large  body  of  soldiers  to  Eiat  them 
up.  He  reassured  them  By  telling  them  that  this  Was  for  the 
purpose  of  destroying  tiie  Chicaehas.^  They  answered  that,  if 
they  did  not  see  the  war  club  coming  down  Upon  Their  heads, 
they  would  no  longei*  Listen  to  evil  speeches.  The  Sgioux,  in  the 
name  of  Six  villages  and  of  all  their  young  men,  begged  Him  to 
forget  the  Bad  Actions  committed  by  their  Warriors,  assuring 
Him  that  this  would  not  happen  again,  and  that  they  wished  to 
oome  down  to  bring  their  Bodies  to  the  Father  of  all  the  Nations, 
and  to  ask  his  Mercy. 

The  Sieur  Marin  has,  Monseigneur,  restored  Peace  and  tran- 
quility in  all  those  quarters,  which  is  very  favorable  for  the  Se- 
curity and  re-establishment  of  the  Posts. 

I  am  with  very  great  Kespect,  Monseigneur,  Your  very  humble 
and  very  obedient  Servant, 

Montreal,  June  30th,  1739. 

Monseigneur — I  Had  The  honor  of  informing  you,  in  a  com- 
munication of  June  30th  last — of  which  I  subjoin  a  Duplicate — ■ 
of  The  arrival  of  the  Sieur  Marin  at  Montreal,  on  the  25tli  of 
the  same  month,  with  two  scioux  And  a  Puant.  Monsieur  Hoc- 
quart  And  myself  have  Had  the  honor  of  reporting  to  you,  in 
the  Royal  memoir,  various  items  relating  to  his  expedition  And 
his  departure. 

You  will  find  enclosed,  Monseigneur,  the  words  of  the  Scioux 
to  the  Sieur  Marin,  at  the  River  of  the  Swan  on  the  Mississippi ; 

iThis  was  the  Canadian  expedition,  commanded  by  Baron  de  Lon- 
gueuil,  which  left  Montreal  June  30,  1739,  to  go  to  the  assistance  of 
Bienville,  governor  of  Louisiana,  in  his  attack  upon  the  Chickasaw. 
They  proceeded  by  way  of  the  Ohio  to  Fort  Assomption  (Memphis, 
Tenn.),  where  they  rendezvoused  with  the  southern  wing;  the  west- 
ern, commanded  by  C61oron  and  St.  Pierre;  and  that  from  Illinois, 
commanded  by  Buissoni^re.  For  a  graphic  account  of  this  expedition 
related  by  a  participant,  see  Claiborne,  Mississippi  (Jackson,  1880), 
pp.  64-85. — ^Ed. 


1739]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

those  which  have  Been  addressed  to  me  by  the  chiefs  who  came 
down ;  My  Replies ;  The  Words  of  the  Puants ;  those  of  the  Ren- 
ard  Chiefs  on  The  other  Side  of  the  Mississippi;  those  of  the 
Sakis,  and  of  a  Fox  Chief  In  private  with  four  Warriors ;  And 
those  of  the  Sakis  and  Eenards  Together.^  By  these  you  will 
be  able  to  judge,  Monseigneur,  what  we  may  expect  from  all  the 

The  Affair  of  the  Eenards,  who  killed  a  Frenchman  in  Ilinois, 
I  found  a  very  delicate  one.  The  Sieur  Marin  has  told  me  that 
it  was  a  mistake.  And  that  he  expected  that  that  N'ation  would 
Deliver  up  the  murderer  to  him,  to  be  brought  to  Me  this  Spring. 
I  left  him  free  to  act,  within  his  Instructions,  according  to  The 
circumstances  of  the  Case,  And  the  furtherance  of  the  service. 
You  are  aware,  Monseigneur,  that  in  the  present  conditions  no 
otber  decision  was  possible.  I  have  Been  informed  that  this 
Frenchman  Was  a  Soldier,  who  had  deserted  from  Fort  Chartres, 
and  was  making  his  escape.  The  Sieur  Marin  has  assured  me, 
Monseigneur,  that  he  would  bring  with  him  next  Summer  sev- 
eral scioux  Chiefs,  as  the  favorable  reception  accorded  by  the  !N'a- 
tions  among  whom  they  passed  to  the  two  who  came  down  w^ould 
Induce  The  others  to  descend. 

The  Sieur  De  Celoron  Writes  me,  June  13  last,  that  the  two 
S'oioux,  whom  the  Sieur  Marin  brought  with  him,  were  extreme*- 
ly  well  received  in  the  village  of  the  Outaois,  who  said  that  they 
would  do  with  pleasure  everything  that  their  father  Onontio 
might  desire,  in  order  to  give  tranquillity  to  the  country.  He 
adds  that  the  Scioux  were  much  delighted  by  this  Reception. 

If  it  is  possible,  Monseigneur,  to  succeed  in  making  this  N^a- 
tion  obedient  again,  it  Will  be  a  great  advantage  to  the  upper 
Country,  And  to  the  colony.  I  am  sure  that  the  Sieur  Marin 
will  do  all  in  his  power  to  succeed  in  this.  And  I  have  enough 
Confidence  in  him  to  believe  that  he  will  accomplish  it. 

As  Regards  the  Renards  And  Sakis,  the  Matter  appears  to  me 
a  more  difficult  one,  because  La  Baye  is  no  longer  as  fertile  as  it 
Was,  And  because  they  regard  the  Placo  with  suspicion  on  ac- 

iThe  first  three  are  missing  from  the  speeches  that  follow,— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

count  of  the  Things  that  have  happened  there.     If  we  absolutely 

can  not  bring  them  to  the  decision  to  re-establish  themselves 
there,  we  will  Choose  a  Place  for  them  in  the  vicinity,  where 
they  can  live.  I  have,  however,  g'iven  orders  to  the  Sieur  Marin 
to  make  every  Effort  to  Induce  them  to  do  as  we  desire,  And  to 
make  them  come  down  with  the  Scioux  And  the  Puants.  !N'ext 
spring,  I  shall  have  The  honor,  Monseigneur,  of  sriving  yon  an 
Account  of  everything. 

I  am  with  the  greatest  respect,  Monseigneur,  Your  very  hum- 
ble and  very  obedient  servant 

Quebec,  Oct.  12th,  1739. 

Woi'ds  of  the  Puants  to  the  Siewr  Marin,  assigned  to  Roch  River 
on  the  Mississippi,  November  17,  1738. 

My  Father,  we  have  learned  that  you  Had  arrived,  which  has 
Led  us  to  Tell  you  what  Has  happened  in  the  Course  of  The 

While  we  Were  down  at  Montreal,  The  Kenards  with  some  Sa- 
kis  made  War  on  the  Ilinois  and  killed  a  Frenchman.  The 
Chief  of  the  Band  Is  a  Renard. 

We  have  come  to  tell  you,  that  if  we  did  not  wait  for  you  at 
the  Rock  River,  it  is  because  we  fled  in  the  direction  of  the  Ili- 
nois, for  fear  that  the  Scioux  might  come  and  attack  us. 

We  have  learned  that  our  Kinsmen,  the  Sakis  and  Renards, 
had  a  desig'n  to  effect  a  reconciliation  with  Them,  And  that  they 
did  not  want  peace  with  us.  This  is  what  forced  us  to  go  so  far 
to  escape  them. 

My  father,  this  does  net  Prevent  us  from  Listening  to  your 
words  And  from  doing  everything  that  our  father  Onontio  de- 
sires of  us. 

Words  of  two  Renard  Chiefs  of  the  Band  which  is  on  the  other, 
side  of  the  Mississippi,  November  28,  1738. 

My  Father,  we  have  come  to  Inform  you  of  the  mischief 
which  our  people  have  done  to  the  French  of  the  Ilinois:  they 


1739]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

have  killed  one  of  Them,  which  causes  us  much  grief  and  Em- 
barrasses us  greatly. 

^  I  will  tell  you,  my  Father,  that  we  have  no  share  in  this  wicked 
.affair,  And  that  none  of  our  young  men  were  concerned  in  it. 
All  were  of  the  Band  of  Mekaga,  who  has  gone  down  to  Mon- 
treal, to  see  our  Father  Onontio. 

We  have  learned  that  he  Is  not  pleased  with  our  Being  here; 
but  we  are  not,  however,  doing  any  wrong  here,  as  we  have  only 
come  here  to  provide  for  our  families  who  would  meet  with  hard- 
ships elsewhere. 

You  have  perhaps  been  told,  my  Father,  that  we  see  the 
Scioux, — this  is  only  for  the  purpose  of  Keeping  them'  from  at- 
tacking the  French  And  our  allies.  They  have  told  us  that  they 
Were  very  soi*ry  because  of  the  bad  things  which  their  young 
naen  have  done,  And  that  if  they  believed  that  you  w^ould  be  will- 
ing tO'  Listen  to  them  they  would  com^  to  see  you. 

My  Father,  we  are  ready  to  do  the  will  of  Onontio,  And  to 
return  to  our  former  Territory,  but  we  have  not,  as  he  has,  the 
same  authority  over  our  young  warriors.  We  are  going  to  I^abor 
with  them,  And  I  hope  tliat  this  Spring  you  will  have  reason  to 
Be  satisfied. 

Words  of  the  Sakis,  on  January  22,  1739. 

My  Father,  we  have  not  failed,  on  our  arrival,  to  say  to  all 
our  people  that  our  Father  Onontio  wished  that  we  should  re- 
kindle our  fire  at  La  Baye,  our  former  Village.  The  majority 
would  not  Like  to  go  there,  as  they  say  that  the  Puants,  wHo 
passed  The  Sumimer  there.  Had  great  difficulty  in  subsisting, 
and  that  there  are  no  longer  any  Crops,  fishing  or  hunting  to  be 
had  there,  because  it  is  a  soil  that  can  no  longer  produce  any- 
thing. Being  Stained  with  French  blood  and  with  our  own. 
However  we  are  going  to  try  to  Persuade  them  to  move  this 
Spring,  And  to  Listen  to  the  word  of  Our  Father. 

Words  of  Mekaga,  a  Renard  chief  with  four  imrriors,  on  Janu- 
ary 31. 
My  Father,  if  I  have  so  long  delayed  in  coming  to  see  you,  it 
is  because  of  the  shame  And  grief  that  I  feel  because  our  young 

[  319  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

men  liave  killed  a  Frenchman  in  the  Ilinois,  while  I  Was  at 
Montreal,  to  see  Our  Father  Onontio. 

When  I  arrived  at  my  village,  I  became  very  angry,  And  if  I 
had  not  Been  restrained,  I  do  not  know  what  I  should  have  done. 
I  said  to  my  people :  "You  Are  dog^ ;  while  I  go  to  beg  for  your 
lives,  you  kill  a  Frenchman."  They  told  me  that  they  did  not 
Know  him,  as  they  had  shot  from  a  great  distance,  And  that  it 
Was  a  mistake. 

I  will  tell  you,  My  Father,  that  I  did  not  fail  to  make  known 
to  all  my  village  that  Our  Father  wished  that  we  should  re-kindle 
our  fires  at  La  Baye.  Some  are  opposed  to  this,  but  I  Hope  in 
the  Course  of  The  winter  to  persuade  them  to  go  there. 

Words  of  the  Sakis  and  Renards  at  Rock  River  on  May  10. 

My  Father,  you  know  in  what  manner  we  spoke  to  you  this 
winter.  We  Had  resf-lved  to  do  what  Our  Father  Onontio  De- 
manded of  Us,  to  go  and  re-kindle  our  fire  on  our  Former  land 
at  La  Baye,  but  to-day  we  see  clearly  that  we  are  dead.  We 
await  the  Thunder  which  hangs  above  our  heads  ready  to  Crush 
us.  We  have  been  warned  of  this  by  many  French  and  savages, 
who  have  told  us  that  our  Father  wished  to  kill  all  of  us,  And 
that  he  was  Sending  a  Considerable  Army  Composed  of  French 
And  of  all  His  Children  the  Iroquois,  Abenakis,  hurons,  Algon- 
kins.  And  Nepissingues. 

There  is,  my  Father,  a  folle-avoine  named  Ouoilechase,  who 
has  assured  us  that  we  Were  dead.  And  that  you  had  come  to 
take  us  to  La  Baye,  while  waiting  for  The  army  to  arrive ;  And 
that,  if  you  had  not  Wished  to  Destroy  us  all  Together,  Mekaga 
and  the  others  who  went  down  to  Montreal,  Would  not  have  re- 

My  Father,  it  is  in  vain  for  you  to  deny  this  thing,  it  is  im- 
possible to  get  It  out  of  The  Minds  of  our  young  men,  and  we 
expect  every  day  the  Blow  of  the  war-club.  In  spite  of  this,  we 
remain.  You  leave  us  in  great  anxiety.  If  this  does  not  happen, 
we  will  no  longer  Listen  to  Evil  speeches;  And  we  will  Here- 
after do  everything  that  our  Father  Onontio  wishes. 


French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

[Monsieur  de  Bauharnois  to  the  Minister.] 

[Quebec,  6th  November,  1739.] 
^  "The  Sieur  Doiiville  de  la  Saussaye'  charged  with  my  orders 
'  amongst  the  Ohaoiianoiis  for  The  Execution  of  my  Project  which 
I  Had  The  honor  of  communicating  to  you  in  my  despatch  of 
the  9th  of  October  last,  arrived  here  yesterday  afternoon  bring- 
ing the  News  of  the  Wreck  of  the  Bark,  on  the  5th  of  October 
While  returning  from  ]Sriagara.-  He  Was  fortunately  able  to 
assist  all  the  ship-wrecked  party  whom  he  brought  to  fort  Froni- 
tenac.^  It  is  believed  that  nothing  will  be  lost.  As  he  cannot 
return  before  next  spring  owing  to  the  Season  Being  too  far  ad- 
vanced, he  has  sent  an  Express  to  Them  (the  Chaouanons)  to  in^ 
form  them  of  his  having  put  back.  I  have,  through  this  oppor- 
tunity, received  several  Letters  from  the  upper  Country. 

Konsieur  de  la  Buissonniere  Writes  me  on  the  2nd  of  July 
last  that  he  had  just  received  the  Letters  I  had  sent  him  for 
Messieurs  Be  Bienville  And  Salmon  and  that  he  had  at  once 
despatched  an  officer  to  bear  my  packages  to  i^ew  O'rleaiis.*  He 
tells  me  that  Monsieur  De  Bienville  has  changed  the  date  of  the 
Rendezvous,  And  that  he  was  to  start  from  the  French  river, 

1  Philippe  Dagneau  Douville,  Sieur  de  la  Saussaye,  was  born  in  1700, 
and  entered  the  colonial  army,  holding  several  appointments  in  the 
upper  country.  He  was  especially  employed  among  the  Shawnee  until 
1743,  and  later  in  the  councils  at  Quebec.  In  1759,  after  abandoning 
Toronto  (Fort  Rouille),  where  he  was  commandant,  upon  the  loss  of 
Fort  Niagara,  he  retired  from  the  service.  One  of  his  sons  was  killed 
on  the  Ohio  in  1757.'--Ed. 

2 Note  on  original  MS.:  "Extract  with  the  King's  memorial  of  what 
it  states  regarding  the  wreck  of  the  bark." 

3  Fort  Frontenac  was  built  by  the  governor  of  that  name  in  1673, 
and  two  years  later  granted  as  a  seigniory  to  La  Salle.  During  King 
William's  War  (1689-97),  it  was  abandoned  and  partially  destroyed 
(1689),  being  restored  in  1695.  After  this  it  was  maintained  until 
captured  by  the  English  in  1758.  The  site  of  the  fort— sometimes 
called  Cataraqui,  from  its  Indian  name — ^was  the  present  city  of 
Kingston.— Ed. 

4Alphonse  de  BuissoniSre  succeeded  the  unfortunate  D'Artaguette 
as  commandant  at  Fort  Chartres,  in  Illinois,  which  was  a  dependency 
of  the  Louisiana  government,  where  Jacques  Le  Moyne,  Sieur  de 
Bienville,  was  governor,  and  Salmon  intendant. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol 


a  supply  Post  where  goods  are  stored,  on  the  15th  of  October  at 
the  latest/ 

Monsieur  De  Ctelorcn  writes  me  from  the  Kiakiqui"  on  the 
12th  of  August  that  his  party  consisted  of  143  picked  men,  40  of 
whom  were  French,  And  that  he  eixpected  to  increase  it  by  more 
than  30  men  In  passing  through  the  Maskoutins. 

The  Sieur  De  E'oyelle  writes  me  on  the  26th  of  August  that 
all  Is  quiet  at  detroit ;  that  he  had  reason  to  flatter  himself  that 
this  would  continue  And,  for  his  part,  he  would  spare  no  effort 

The  Sieur  do  Blainville  Writes  me  from  Missilimakinac^  on 
the  28th  of  September  that  everything  was  Equally  quiet  at  that 
Post,  And  The  Sieur  de  Tonty  writes  me  that  the  Folles  Avoines 
are  to  go  down  to  Montreal  next  year. 

This,  Monseigneur,  is  a  ship-wreck  that  causes  great  trouble 
to  the  Sieur  de  la  Saussaye  in  his  affairs.  He  says  that  the  loss 
will  amount  to  at  least  three  thousand  Livres.  He  is  deserving 
of  all  your  kindness  on  this  occasion. 

He  has  reported  t^)  me  that  the  Sieur  Douville,  his  brother,* 
Had  started  from  Niagara  toward  the  end  of  September  to  take 
the  presents  for  the  Outaouais  to  Detroit 

I  remain  etc. 
Quebec,  November  6th,  1739.  Beauhabnois 

1  The  rendezvous  here  mentioned  was  for  the  army  about  to  set  forth 
on  the  second  expedition  against  the  Chickasaw.  The  temporary- 
fort  was  at  the  mouth  of  St.  Francis  River  (not  Riviere  des  Francais, 
as  the  Paris  MS.  has  it),  where  that  river  flows  from  Arkansas  into 
the  Mississippi. — Ed. 

2  This  was  Pierre  Joseph  C^loron,  commandant  at  Mackinac  (1737- 
42),  for  whom  see  ante,  p.  207.  TheTheakiki  (Kiakiqui)  River  was  the 
present  Kankakee,  south  branch  of  the  Illinois.  There  was  an  import- 
ant portage  to  this  river  from  Lake  Michigan  and  St.  Joseph  River,  near 
the  present  South  Bend,  Indiana.  C61eron  had  probably  started  from 
Fort  St.  Joseph,  near  the  site  of  Niles,  Mich. — ^Ed. 

3  This  was  the  younger  Celeron,  Jean  Baptiste,  Sieur  de  Blainville, 
for  whom  see  ante,  p.  207.  He  commanded  at  Mackinac  in  his  brother's 
absence. — ^Ed. 

*This  was  probably  the  Dagneau  Douville,  who  commanded  among 
the  Miami  in  1747-48,  and  was  sent  out  from  Fort  Duquesne  in  1756 
on  a  foraging  expedition.  He  attacked  a  blockhouse  fort  on  th<» 
Cacapon,  in  Hampshire  County,  Va.,  but  was  slain  in  the  assault— Ed. 

[  322  ] 




1740]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


[Speech  of  the  Sioux  to  French  commandant  MS.  in  archives  of 
Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  pressmark,  "Corresp.  gen,,  vol. 
74,  0.  11,  fol.  85."] 

Words  of  two  Siotix  Chiefs,  Ninsotin  or  two-hearts,  Ouor 
hachas,^  and  eight  Warriors.  To  the  Sieur  Marin  at  Rock 
River,  March  9,  llJfO. 

My  Father,  we  Have  Come  in  the  name  of  our  Chiefs  and 
old  men,  to  inform  jou  of  the  mischief  which  our  people,  who 
Were  waiting  for  jou  at  the  portage  of  the  Ouisconsin,  have 
done  to  the  Outaouaos. 

My  Father,  this  outrage  was  committed  only  on  account 
of  the  bad  News  which  the  Renards  brought  us.  They  told 
us  that  our  people,  whomi  you  had  taken  last  year  to  Montreal 
to  ask  their  lives  of  our  Father  Onontio,  and  to  ask  him  to 
receive  us  among  the  numiber  of  his  Children,  had.  been  put 
to  death  On  arriving  there.  In  spite  of  this.  My  Father,  our 
people  waited  a  week  Longer  to  learn  if  this  report  Was  true. 
Aft^r  that,  there  came  an  Outaouac  C'anoe,  in  which  there 
was  a  man  and  a  woman  who  landed  peaceably.  Our  people 
asked  them  if  they  had  not  some  news  of  you  and.  of  those 
who  Had  gone  down  mth  you  to  seo  our  Father  Onontio. 
The  Outaouac  woman  answered  that  they  had  no  other  news 
to  tell  them;  except  that  their  people  had  been  burned  on  ar- 
riving   at    Montreal.     Immediately    three    or    four    of   their 

iThis  is  the  earliest  known  mention  of  Wabashaw,  the  first  of  three 
Sioux  chiefs  of  the  same  name.  He  was  leader  of  the  largest  band  of 
that  tribe,  and  had  a  village  near  the  present  site  of  Winona,  Minn. 
He  was  a  devoted  adherent  of  the  British  in  the  Revolutionary  War, 
who  spoke  of  him  as  a  chief  of  "singular  and  uncommon  abilities." 
Receiving  a  commission  nominating  him  as  general,  he  took  part  in  the 
expedition  against  St.  Louis  in  1780,  and  went  several  times  to  Quebec, 
there  being  given  flags  and  medals.  His  coming  was  always  recognized 
at  Mackinac  by  a  salute  of  honor.  His  son  Wabashaw  succeeded  him, 
taking  part  on  the  British  side  in  the  War  of  1812-15,  and  joining  the 
Americans  in  the  pursuit  of  Black  Hawk.  He  died  in  1835.  A  grand- 
son of  the  same  nam,e  was  prominent  in  1848. — Ed. 

21  [  323  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

young  kinsmen  arose,  and  crushed  the  Otitaonacs  with  blows 
of  their  Avar-clubs.  This,  m^  Father,  is  the  manner  in  which 
this  outrage  came  to  pass.  We  have  not  come  her'e  for  the 
purpose  of  hiding  anything  from  you,  nor  to'  Excuse  those 
of  our  people  who  have  done  this  grievous  deed.  We  have 
eoone  here  to  deliver  up  our  Bodies;  we  are  ready  to'  undergo 
all  the  penalties  that  we  deserve.  We  beg  you  to  infortn  Our 
Father  Onontio  of  this.     This  is  all  that  we  have  to  say  to  You. 


[Speeches  of  the  Foxes,  Sauk,  "Winnebago,  Ottawa,  and  Menominee, 
to  Governor-general  Beauharnois,  June  20,  1740.  Source,  same  as  pre- 
ceding document,  but  fol.  86.] 

Le  Moine  speahing  for  the  Sakis  arid  Renards  through  a  Slave. 

My  Father,  I  am,  Hired  by  the  Sakis  and  Renards.  What 
I  am  going  to  say,  dties  not  come  from  me. 

My  Father,  it  Is  true  that  there  are  ill-disposed  Men  in 
our  Village.  This  has  !not  Prevented  !me  from  comling  ^to 
see  you.     I  have  Listened  to  none  of  their  speeches. 

My  Father,  when.  I  resolved  to  come  and  see  you,  I  said 
to  Monsieur  Marin  that  I  had  no  conveyance;  I  begged  him 
to  give  me  passage. 

My  Father,  I  have  always  Listened  to  you,  and  I  have  not 
doubted  for  a  moment  all  that  you  have  formerly  said  to  me. 
Monsieur  Marin  told  us,  last  summer,  that  we  Had  gone  too 
Far  away  from,  our  Lands,  and  that  we  must  go  nearer. 

My  Father,  I  told  Monsieur  Marin  that  we  had  chosen  a 
Place  where  Food  Was  Abundant. 

My  Father,  I  trust  always  to  You,  and  I  do  not  See  any 
others  upon  whom  I  can  count,  since  it  is  you  who  give  us  life- 

My  Father,  I  come  here  to  ask  our  lives  of  you.  You  Aje 
the  master.  We  put  our  wives  and  our  Children  under  your 

[  324  ] 


1740]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


'  My  Father,  we  can  ask  of  you  nothing  that  is  more  precious 
than  life.  We  ask  it  of  you  to-day  In  promising  to  Be  faith- 
ful to  you. 

Protect  us  in  order  that  we  may  live  in  Peace. 

My  Father,  what  I  have  just  said  to  you  Is  said  in  the  nam.© 
of  the  Sakis  and  Rewards.  I  beg  you  to  Listen  to  what  I  say 
through  this  Slave. 

Words  of  a  Puaivt,  hy  a  String  of  Porcelain 

My  Father,  I  have  come  with  my  Kinsmen,  the  Sakis  and 
Renards.  Our  Chiefs  Were  ashamed  and  did  not  dare  to  Come 
among  you.  But  I  have  come  to  tell  you  that  I  have  Been  killed 
by  my  allies  who  are  here.  I  have  not  a  bad  Heart,  however, 
and  I  leave  everything  to  your  justice. 

Words  of  an  Outaouac 

I  do  not  come  here^  My  Father,  for  anything  bad  but  for 
somelthing  good.  I  was  killed  and  my  sister  and  my  brother 
likewise,  last  autumn.  On  Entering  the  Lands  [of  the  Sioux]- 
^  My  Father,  I  have  always  Had  a  Desire  to  go  and  avenge 
myself  for  the  Outrage  done  me.  At  the  very  time  that  I  was 
thinking  of  this.  Monsieur  Marin  arrived,  who  told  me  to  re- 
main quiet,  to  weep  over  my  dead,  and  to  await  fromi  you.  My 
Father,  the  justice  that  is  due  me. 

After  Monsieur  Marin  Had  calmed  me,  I  remained  quiet 
wating  until  I  Should  see  you. 

How  should  the  Scioux  have  done  othenvise  than  kill  us? 
They  strike  everywhere.  They  killed  four  Re<nards  last  fall. 
In  spite  of  this  we  have  had  no  evil  thoughts.  And  we  wish  to  do 
the  will  of  our  Father. 

Our  brothers,  the  Sauteux,  always  traverse  our  country  when 
they  go  to  make  war  On  the  Scioux.  This  displeases  us.  They 
Sow  Terror  and  fear  in  our  villages.  They  have  a  shorter  road 
from  Their  country  without  passing  through  our  Territory. 

Words  of  the  foUes-avoines 

It  is  without  any  purpose.  My  Father,  that  we  combe  here.  It 
is  only  in  order  to  see  you,  as  well  as  our  young  people  who  are 

[  325  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

here.  We  Are  glad  to  have  Heard  what  our  brothers  have  just 
said,  and  will  report  it  in  our  village. 

Mj  Father,  if  all  that  has  just  been  said  is  sincere,  it  pleases 
us  greatly,  because  it  can  lead  only  to  good  Results. 

My  Fathei^,  it  gives  us  great  pleasure  to  Have  come  to  see 
you  and  to  Listen  to  your  words,  although  we  Are  destitute  of 

My  Father,  all  of  us,  both  old  and  young,  have  great  joy  in 
seeing  you.     We  Hope  that  your  breasts  will  flow  In  owe  favor. 


[Letter  of  De  Noyan,  commandant  at  Detroit,  to  the  French  Minister. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  89,  c.  11,  fol.  194.] 

Detroit,  August  6,  1740. 
MoNSEiGNETjR — It  would  be  useless  for  me  to  undertake  to 
give  Your  Grace  a  fair  and  accurate  report  on  the  condition  of 
this  post,  on  the  advantages  that  might  be  derived  from  it  and 
the  measures  that  should  be  taken  to  have  a  considerable  settle- 
ment here.  I  have  not  been  here  long  enough.  One  hundred 
resident  families  can  be  counted  here  both  in  the  town  and  in 
the  country,  that  is  to  say  about  as  many  traders  as  farmers. 
The  latter  till  the  soil.  But  the  small  market  they  find  for  their 
produce  compels  them  to  be  content  with  harvesting  what  suf- 
fices for  their  needs.  The  former,  who  are  certainly  too  numer- 
ous, far  from  making  Trade  flourish,  ruin  themselves  owing  to 
the  low  price  to  which  they  have  reduced  their  goods  which  are 
sold  at  the  prices  they  cost  in  Quebec.  They  try  and  see  wh ) 
can  sell  them  cheapest  to  get  more  Furs  from;  the  Savages. 
Nevertheless,  the  cost  of  transport  is  considerable.  Hence  it 
follows.  Men  Seigneur,  that  as  they  cannot  meet  their  engage- 
ments to  the  Montreal  merchants  who  supply  them,  their  goods 
and  houses  are  sold  every  day  for  tho  benefit  of  the  latter  who 
have  more  mortgages  in  detroit  than  detroit  is  worth.  Outside,  i\ 
the  Savages  threaten  to  withdraw ;  the  hurons  live  ever  in  dis-  '' 



'       1740] 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

trust  of  Ike  Outavas.  And,  as  the  latter  are  Much,  more  numer- 
ous, the  former  have  taken  a  firm  resolution  to  retire  to  Mon- 
treal ;  detroit  will  lose  nothing  by  this  as  the  Chaouenons  are  to 
take  tlieir  place.  If  I  cannot  prevent  this  migration  of  the 
hurons,  I  hope  at  least,  Monseigneur,  to  avert  the  consequences 
of  the  proximity  of  two  nations  hostile  to  one  another  and  to 
make  them  live  in  peace. 

Your  gi^ace  was  good  enough  to  grant  me  a  concession 
between  Madame  dargenteuil  and  the  Gentlemien  of  the  Quebec 
Seminary/  Monsieur  Hocquart  alone  finds  objections  to  it 
which  I  do  not  very  well  understand  and  which  Monsieur  the 
Marquis  de  Beauharnois  has  not  raised.  Permit  m©  therefore, 
Monseigneur,  to  repeat  my  application  to  you. 

I  took  the  liberty  last  year  of  asking  Your  grace  for  a  Oroas 
of  St  Louis.  Monsieur  the  marquis  de  Beauhomois  was  good 
Enough  to  support  my  request,  and  I  hope,  Monseigneur,  you 
will  not  refuse  me  That  mark  of  distinction  in  the  position  in 
which  you  were  pleased  to  place  me  amongst  nations  that  hold 
in  consideration  only  those  who  wear  a  decoration.  Such  a 
favor  will  leave  me  but  little  to  desire,  will  crown  all  the  Kind- 
ness your  grace  has  shown  me,  and  carry  to  the  highest  degree 
the  infinite  gratitude,  the  most  submissive  devotion,  and  the 
profound  respect  with  which 

I  remain,  Monseigneur  Your  Grace's  very  humble  and  very 
obedient  servant 


1  Madame  d'Argenteuil  (Marie  Louise  Denys)  was  the  widow  of 
Pierre  D'Ailleboust,  Sieur  d'Argenteuil  (see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  pp. 
253,  263),  brother-in-law  of  Claude  de  Ramezay  (see  ibid.,  p.  300). 
The  seigniory  of  Argenteuil  was  granted  (1680)  to  Charles  Joseph 
d'Ailleboust,  Sieur  de  Musseaux,  Pierre's  father;  it  extended  along  the 
Ottawa  River,  below  the  Sault,  in  the  present  county  of  Argenteuil. 
Pierre  died  of  apoplexy  in  1711,  and  the  title  to  the  seigniory  passed 
to  his  wife's  family. 

The  Quebec  seminary,  established  by  Laval,  first  bishop  of  Quebec, 
for  the  training  of  young  men  for  the  priesthood,  was  richly  endowed 
with  lands;  among  these  was  the  island  of  Jesus,  which  is  probably 
referred  to  here. — Ed. 

[  327  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 


[Extract  from  a  letter  of  Father  de  la  Richardie,  Jesuit  missionary 
at  Detroit,  to  Father  St.  P6,  dated  Detroit,  Aug.  26,  1740.i  Source, 
same  as  preceding  document,  but  vol.  74,  c.  11,  fol.  268.] 

Reverend  Father — An  Outaouacs  who  goes  to  Choueghen 
[Oswego]  for  Brandy  gives  me  an  opportunity  of  sending  this 
letter  which  I  address  to  Monsieur  de  Boucherville,  the  Com- 
mandant of  Niagara.^  Perhaps  I  shall  Write  you  another  in 
a  few  days.  I  shall  do  so  if  a  party  of  Bandits  from  the  Sault 
come  back  from  the  Chicaohas  with  some  captives.  I  expect 
their  arrival  from  day  to  day.  As  the  Affairs  of  the  liurona 
are  those  respecting  which  you  are  anxious  for  the  fullest  d> 
tails,  I  will  give  them. 

There  is  no  Change  in  their  project  of  going  to  Settle  near 
you.  The  only  thing  that  Hinders  the  Carrying  out  of  the 
project,  is  Savage  vanity  that  does  not  wish  to  appear  to  flee, 
and  seeks  to  Conceal  its  fear,  by  saying  to  the  neighboring  N'a- 
tions,  that  they  are  being  Taken  from  their  fire,  in  order  that 
another  may  be  Kindled  for  them.  I  am  urged  daily  to  Induce 
Monsieur  the  General  to  Send  a  message  by  which  he  will  Re- 
move them  from  here  and  settle  them  near  him.  This  is  but 
a  pretext.  The  Truth  is  that  they  wish  it  to  be  the  people  of 
the  Sault  or  of  the  Lake.  The  latter  are  no  friends  of  mine 
as  you  may  imagine.  Thus,  if  Monsieur  The  General  wishes 
to  Grant  their  Prayer,  the  people  of  the  Sault  must  be  their 
Agents  and  their  deputation  miust  come  here  next  spring  to  exer- 
cise the  gentle  pressure  that  is  desired.  The  Dmnkard 
Angouirot  alone,  with  three  or  four  Cabins,  is  opposed  to  this 
Removal.  It  will  not  be  difficult  for  me  to  Urge  them  to  it  if 
it  is  to  be  effected.  If  Monsieur  the  General  does  pot  approve 
this  project,  here  is  a  second  one  that  I  am  directed  to  submit 
to  him.     It  is  that,  to  allay  their  continual  alarms,  he  allow 

iFor  sketch  of  Father  Richardie,  see  ante,  p.  102.  Saint  Pe  was  at 
this  time  superior  of  the  Canadian  missions,  with  headquarters  at  Mon- 
treal.    See  sketch,  ante,  p.  253. — Ed. 

2  For  sketch  of  Boucherville,  see  ante,  p.  36. — Ed. 

[  338  ] 

mo]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

them  to  establish  themselves  three  leases  from  here  on  an 
island  called  grosse  isle/  There,  they  say,  as  they  will  see 
no  more  Oiitaouaes,  they  will  be  a  little  more  in  peace.  Xot- 
withijtanding  the  Labors  entailed  by  a  !N'ew  Establishment  I 
am  in  accord  with  their  desires,  convinced  as  I  am  that  their 
destruction  is  manifest,  and  will  never  be  due  to  anything  but 
their  proximity  to  and  their  mingling  with  the  French  and 
faithless  nations.  I  beg  therefore  that  their  fate  be  decided 
one  way  or  the  othei*  next  spring  so  that  I  may  set  to  work  in 
earnest  and  gather  them  together.  The  majority  dwell  at  the 
little  Lake  [Kondeau  Harbor]  and  come  here  only  on  the  ap- 
proach of  the  great  feasts.  All  have  promised  me  to  leave  it  for 
either  of  the  residences  although  I  think  they  will  be  hardly 
more  in  peace  on  the  Island  in  question  thmn  here.  Please  send 
a  positive  answer  by  the  Sailors  of  the  Niagara  Bark. 


[Letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Oct.  1,  1740. 
Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  80.] 

MoNSEiGisrEUR — I  havc  received  The  Letter  you  did  me  The 
honor  of  Writing  to  me  on  the  2nd  of  May  last.  The  Sieur 
Marin  arrived  in  Montreal  on  the  16th  of  June  with  the  Chiefs 
of  the  Sakis,  Renards,  Puants,  Outaouacs  and  folles  avoines. 
As  Mbnsieur  Hocquart  and  I  have  Had  The  honor  of  informling 
you  in  the  reply  to  the  King's  memorial,  he  was  unable  to  Bring 
the  Scioux  with  him,  owing  to  the  attack  they  had  made  on  the 
Outaouacs,  and  that  which  the  latter  had  made  on  Them  with 
the     Sauteux.     You    will     observe,    Monseigneur,    by     their 

iSee  description  of  Grosse  Isle  (Grand  Isle)  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi, 
p.  366.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

Speeches,'  that  they  came  to  that  officer  on  the  9th  of  March  at 
the  Riviere  a  la  Koche,^  to  surrender  their  Bbdies  and  beg  their 
lives  of  me.  He  replied  that  he  could  decide  nothing  without 
Knowing  my  will.  I  Conferred  with  the  Sieur  Marin  on  the 
matter  and  told  him  to  re-establish  peace  in  the  Posts  as  far  as 
he  could  and  to  Induce  the  Scioux,  if  possible,  to  come  down 
next  Spring;  that  this  Was  the  true  way  to  obtain  peace,  and 
that  that  Nation  would  find  no  obstacles  in  the  road,  as  they  had 
covered  the  dead  of  the  Outaouacs  and  re^assured  their  Minds. 
I  have  no  intention,  Mcnseigneur,  of  founding  New  Establish- 
ments in  their  country  unless  I  am  Sure  of  success. 

You  will  see,  Monseigneur,  by  the  speeches  of  the  Saki& 
and  Rienards,  that  they  seem  disposed  to  do  nothing  Wrong  in 
future.  Their  fear  of  Monsieur  de  Longueuil's  Detachment 
has  Been  completely  dissipated.^  Nevertheless,  the  Sieur  De 
Noyan  Wrote  me  on  the  4th  of  August,  as  a  piece  of  News  cur- 
rent amongst  the  Savages,  which  he  did  not  credit,  that  the 
Renards  at  the  time  they  were  Sending  their  Chiefs  and  Eldera 
to  Montreal  with  fine  messages  of  obedience  and  submission^ 
passed  by  the  belle-Riviere  [Ohio]  and  stayed  with  the  Iroquois. 
Had  this  Been  true,  I  think  I  should  have  Been  informed  of  it. 

The  Sieur  Marin  Was  dangerously  111  all  Winter  and  a  part 
of  the  Spring ;  this  Prevented  him  from  Carrying  out  the  orders 
I  had  given  him  in  his  instructions  with  reference  to  the  soldier 
whom  the  Renards  killed  Last  Year  in  the  Ilinois  country. 
As  that  Nation  Had  come  to  me  to  beg  for  their  lives  and  assure 
me  of  their  fidelity,  I  thought  it  would  not  be  advisable  in  the 
presence  of  all  the  Savages  to  revive  a  Matter  that  was  past  and 
gone,  and  rgarding  which  they  had  offered  Excuses,  saying  that 
it  Was  a  Mistake.  Had  he  brought  me  the  murderer  as  he 
Hoped  to  do,  While  gi-anting  him  his  life,  I  would  have  re- 
proached them  for  their  Evil  deed  and  made  them  feel  my  good- 
ness to  Them,  for  the  Nature  of  the  Savages  Necessitates  great 

iRock  River,  an  Illinois-Wisconsin  tributary  of  the  Mississippi.  The 
same  name  was  often  given  to  the  Great  Miami. — Ed. 
2  See  ante,  p.  316,  note. — Ed. 

[  330  ] 

mo]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

In  the  Memorial  of  the  King  we  Had  The  honor  of  Telling 
you  the  reasons  that  Prevented  the  Ohaouanons  from  eonimg 
do^vn  this  year.  They  are  to  come  next  spring.  I  have  sent 
an  answer  to  the  Messages  they  Sent  me,  by  Vincent  Poudret,' 
who  will  start  from  Montreal  shortly  to  take  it  to  them.  I  shall 
know  what  I  am  to  think  with  regard  to  their  Migration. 
What  the  Sienr  De  Noyan  writes  me,  that  as  soon  as  the  hnrons 
leave,  the  Ohaouanons  will  come  and  take  their  place,  leads  me 
to  Hope  that  I  shall  have  no  difficulty  in  inducing  them  to  do  so, 
as  they  Are  very  docile.  And  the  individual  named  Chartier" 
seems  very  well  disposed. 

I  shall  now,  Monseigneur,  have  The  honor  of  Relating  to 
you  all  that  has  taken  place  in  Connection  with  the  hurons  and 
Outaouacs  of  Detroit  since  last  year.  You  will  see  by  our  reply 
to  the  King's  Memorial  that  it  seems  impossible  to  quiet  those 
Nations  and  to  calm  their  Minds.  Father  De  la  Richardie 
Wrote  me  om  the  10th  of  May,  that  he  spent  seven  months  at 
Sandoske  with  the  former ;  that  the  threats  of  Entatsogo,  the 
Chief  of  Sault  St.  Louis,  uttered  in  Connection  with  the  Peace 
made  by  the  Hurons  with  the  Tetes-plates,  seemed  to  have  taken 

^Born  in  October,  1694;  son  of  Antoine  Poudret,  a  baker  of  Bou- 
cherville.— Ed. 

2  This  is  an  early  mention  in  French  documents  of  the  well-known 
Shawnee  trader  and  leader,  Peter  Chartier.  He  has  generally  been 
supposed  to  be  a  half-breed;  but  his  father,  Martin  Chartier,  was  set- 
tled as  a  glover  in  Philadelphia  before  1707.  In  1717,  Martin  received  a 
grant  of  500  acres  upon  the  Susquehanna  in  behalf  of  his  son  Peter, 
who  began  trading  with  the  Shawnee  there,  and  received  a  Pennsyl- 
vania license  in  1730.  When  the  tribe  removed  to  the  Allegheny  (about 
1728),  Chartier  went  with  them,  and  built  a  trading-post  first  on  Char- 
tier's  Creek  below  Pittsburg,  later  at  Chartier's  Old  Town  about  twenty 
miles  above  the  forks  of  Ohio.  He  became  dissatisfied  with  his  treat- 
ment at  the  hands  of  Pennsylvania  authorities,  and  made  overtures  to 
the  French,  and  by  1745,  according  to  orders  of  Governor  Beauhamois, 
had  removed  his  band  in  the  direction  of  the  Wabash.  He  was  re- 
warded with  a  French  commission,  but  his  subsequent  career  is  not 
known.  Habitants  of  that  name  (Pierre  Chartier)  were  living  In  Illi- 
nois in  1790. — Ed. 

[  331  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xTii 

away  from  them  all  inclination  to  Setitle  near  them  [at  Sault 
St.  Louis].  They  told  him  to  beg  me  to  Excuse  them  if  ihej 
did  not  go  down  to  Montreal  and  to  let  their  brothers  in  Prayer 
know  that  the  Custom  Amongst  Savages  Is  not  to  go  and  beg 
for  protection  and  an  asylum  whilst  in  fear ;  that  if  Com,passion 
were  felt  for  them^  it  was  Their  duty  to  come  and  Console  them 
and  kindled  a  fresh  fire  in  a  Place  where  they  could  be  Deemed 
in  safety. 

The  Sieur  De  N"oyelle  wrote  me  on  the  7th  of  June  last  that 
he  had  found  a  sure  way  to  Induce  the  Hurons  to  live  in  union 
with  tlie  Olitaouacs  and  Sauteux  and  secure  tranquillity  at  De- 
troit, but  that  it  had  been  taken  from  him,  And  that  the  Sieur 
de  Sabrevois,^  who  Was  a  Witness  thereof,  would  Inform  me 
of  it.  I  asked  him  today  what  the  Sieur  De  Noyelle  had 
wished  to  give  me  to  Understand.  He  told  me  that  he  had  rep- 
resented to  the  Hurons  that  in  order  to  exonerate  themselves 
in  the  eyes  of  the  Outaouacs  and  Sauteux  with  respect  to  the 
treachery  whereof  they  accused  them,  they  had  nothing  else  to  do 
but  make  war  on  the  Tetes-plates  and  bring  back  Slaves  of  that 
N^ation  to  deliver  over  to  the  Outaouacs ;  that  they  would  then 
be  In  Position  to  tell  them  that  they  had  Had  no  share  in  what 
had  occurred,  since  they  Themselves  had  attacked  their  En- 
emies. The  Matter  wias  Concluded  and  settled  and  40  War- 
riors were  ready  to  start  when  the  plan  Was  frustrated  by  an 
imderground  Collar.  I  beg  you,  Monseigneur,  to  excuse  me 
from  mentioning  him  who  gave  it.  What  is  certain  is  that  the 
Hurons  told  it  to  the  Sieui-  D»e  Noyelle  In  the  presence  of  the 
Sieur  De  Sabrevois. 

The  Sieur  De  I^oyan  wrote  me  on  the  19th  of  July  that  he 
expected  to  succeed  in  reconciling  those  two  l^ations  and  that 
he  would  Spare  no  effort  to  do  so;  that  the  Sieur  De  NoyeUe 

1  Either  Clement  Sabrevois  de  Bleury  (1702-1781),  or  Christophe  Sa- 
brevois de  Sermonville  (born  1701),  both  sons  of  Jacques  Charles  Sa- 
brevois de  Bleury  (see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  xvi,  p.  311).  "Captain"  Sabre- 
vois was  commandant  at  He  Perrot  (1746),  succeeded  C§loron  at  Fort 
St.  Frederic  (1747),  and  took  part  in  the  siege  of  Fort  William  Henry 
(1757).— Ed. 


|i740]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

had  put  tliis  matter  in  a  fair  way  to  success  as  well  as  all  things 
that  Were  in  The  order. 

In  his  letter  of  the  26th  of  the  same  month,  he  says  that  the 
Hurons  and  Outaouacs  are  continually  on  the  qui-vive,  and  in 
another  dated  the  Following  day  he  writes,  Mcnseigneur,  all 
that  we  have  Had  The  honor  of  Explaining  to  you  in  the 
memorial  to  the  King. 

Father  De  la  Richardie  writes  me  on  the  1st  of  August  thait 
the  hurons  continue  to  live  with  the  Outaouacs  and  Sauteux, 
in  fear,  not  for  Themselves,  as  their  pride  makes  themJ  say,  but 
solely  for  their  wives  And  Children  whom,  they  do  not  consider 
In  safety  in  a,  neighborhood  such  as  Detroit;  that  they  are 
divided  into  three  villages,  And  that  their  Roluctance  to  go 
down  is  due  solely  to  the  Savage  formalities  for  erffeoting  their 
Removal  from  that  Spot  not  having  been  observed. 

In  another  Letter  of  the  4th  of  August,  the  Sieur  Dfe  N'oyan 
writes  me  that  the  hurons  persist  in  their  intention  to  Remove 
their  fire  elsewhere,  that  they  solicit  him'  to  follow  them  and  to 
live  mth  Themi  in  the  land  I  have  promised  them^  andi  that  the 
granting  of  that  favor  to  them  depends  on  me  as  well  as  on  him. 
He  expected  the  Chaouanons  about  the  end  of  the  month;  they 
were  to  take  the  place  of  the  hurons  Having  been  asked  to  do 
so  by  the  Outaouacs  who  would  be  delighted  at  the  Change. 

The  Sieur  D'e  la  Perade^  Writes  me  from  tliat  Post  on  the 
6th  of  August  that  the  Miamis  asked  him.  to  be  allowed  to  go 
down  next  Spring,  and  that  all  the  Outaouacs  Had  come  back 
from  the  Tetes-plates  where  they  had  not  done  much,  having 
found  two  Villages  of  that  Nation  abandoned,  which,  thev  al- 
leged, had  Been  warned  by  the  hurons ;  that  the  majority  of  thr 
Outaouacs  Being  intoxicated,  there  were  some  hurons  mingled 
amongst  Thenu  who  were  seen  to  issue  fromi  the  Woods; 
one  of  the  former  ran  up  at  full  speed  saying  that  a  huron  had 
killed  his  brother  by  firing  a  Bullet  through  his  Body ;  that  at 
the  instant  the  rallying  cry  was  raised;  that  the  Sieur  De 
^N'oyan  told  the  Outaouacs  not  to  set  themselves  in  motion  on 

iSee  ante,  p.  223,  note  1. — Ed. 

[  333  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

the  word  of  a  dnuiken  man,  and  when  the  French  arrived  thej 
would  bind  the  hiirons  who  Were  in  their  Village;  that  others 
amongst  the  latter  said  they  were  going  to  take  up  Arms;  that 
the  Sieur  De  ^Nojan  appeased  them  all  and  it  Was  high  time. 
The  News  was  not  true. 

You  must  think,  Monseigneur,  from  the  Eieports  I  have  The 
honor  of  sending  you,  that  it  seems  impossible  to  reconcile  those 
people,  and  that  sooner  or  later  some  unfortunate  affair  will 
take  place  that  might  give  rise  to  trouble  in  the  Colony.  This 
decides  me  to  Send  next  Spring  my  nephew  (who  Was  adopted' 
as  a  Chief  at  Sault  St.  Louis  and  at  the  Lake  of  two  Mount- 
ains) to  place  himself  at  the  head  of  the  chief  men  of  those 
villages  in  order  to  go  and  remove  the  hurons  with  the  savage 
Ceremonies  they  Insist  upon.  I  will  send  with  him  the  Sieur 
Duburon,^  whom  they  like  very  much,  and  if  the  Sieur  De 
Noyan  persists  in  asking  to  return  with  Tbem,  I  will  grant 
him  permission  to  do  so.  I  will  inform  him  of  all  this  if  i 
can  find  The  opportunity. 

We  Had  The  honor  of  notifying  you  in  the  memorial  to  the 
King  of  The  arrival  in  Montreal  of  45  Iroquois  of  the  five  'Nar 
tions  who  seem-  very  well  disposed.  The  Sieur  De  Joncaire  re- 
ported to  me  what  the  N^^ontaeue  [Onondaga]  did  with  refer- 
ence to  the  100  Tetesr-plates  who  were  to  go  over  to  Them.  He 
reported  to  me  that  they  Did  not  reach  the  Village  of  the  for- 
mer, who  miet  tbem  on  the  Way,  killed  several  of  them  and  put 
the  others  to  flight ;  that  many  war  parties  have  gone  there ;  that 
he  will  Urge  them,,  as  far  as  he  can  to  continue  to  strike  at  that 
Nation,  and  that  whatever  the  English  may  do  to  get  them  to 
make  Peace  with  Them,  he  does  not  think  they  can  succeed. 

You  will  Find  annexed,  Monseigneur,  the  speeches  of  the 
Scioux,  those  of  the  Sakis,  Ilenards,  Puants,  Outaouacs,  and 
folles-avoines,  with  my   answers;  those  of  the  Five  Iroquois 

iJean  Joseph  Feray,  Sieur  Duburon,  was  born  in  Brittany  in  1679» 
came  to  Canada  as  a  sergeant  in  the  troops,  and  was  promoted  to  ofll- 
cial  rank  in  1727.    He  died  at  Quebec  in  1752.— Ed. 


1740-41]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

IsTations  and  my  answers,  with.  The  Extract  from  the  Council 
held  at  Orange. 

I  remiain  with  very  profound  Respect,  !MJonseigneur,  Your 

very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant. 

Quebec,  October  1,  1740. 

1740:     PETITION  OF  LA  RONDE 
[Denys  de  la  Ronde,  the  elder,  to  the  French  Minister,  dated  Quebec, 
Oct.  12,  1740.     Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  216.] 

[Summary: — He  represents  that  he  is  the  senior  officer  in 
the  colony,  after  Monsieur  de  Beaumont.  As  a  reward  for  53 
years  service,  he  asks  to  be  panted  the  brevet  rank  of  major  of 
the  troops,  to  which  the  senior  captain  of  the  companies  is  enti- 
tled, and  which  bis  predecessors  enjoyed. 

He  likewise  asks  the  minister's  protection  for  his  four  sons 
who  are  also  in  the  service,  the  eldest  of  whom,  commanding 
at  Chagouamigon  in  the  petitioner's  absence,  is  30  years  of  age 
while  the  youngest  is  18].^ 

[Memoir  on  the  Indians  and  their  relations,  unsigned. 2    MS.  in  ar- 
chives of  Minist^re  des  Colonies,  Paris;  press  mark,  "Canada,  Corresp. 
g6n.,  vol.  76,  c.  11,  fol.  263."] 

Our  Iroquois  had  entered  into  Tbe  peace  miade  with  the  Ohi- 
cachas  at  fort  assumption,'''  by  giving  porcelain  both  in  Shells 

iMemoranda  on  original  document:  "No — as  regards  the  rank  of 
major  which  the  King  does  not  wish  re-established.  A  commission  of 
Second  Ensign  to  his  eldest  son." 

2  At  the  close  of  the  document  is  the  signature  "Boubersheur,"  but 
this  is  probably  Beaucourt,  and  relates  only  to  the  fortification  of  Mon- 
treal (part  here  omitted)  of  which  he  was  commandant. — ^Ed. 

3  This  was  the  treaty  made  with  the  Chickasaws  in  April,  1740.  The 
Iroquois  were  those  of  the  missions,  frequently  known  as  the  "praying 
Iroquois." — Ed. 

[  335  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

and  Collars ;  but  on  returning,  tliey  met  some  Cihicaoha  Hunters 
of  whom  they  killed  more  than  twenty  The  Cliicachas  did  not 
fail  to  seize  upon  the  first  occasion  that  offered,  which  was  a 
large  Boat  going  up  the  river,  which  they  destroyed,  killing  or 
capturing  the  whole  party.  There  were  some  Negroes  among 
them,  of  whom  one  escaped  to  the  Ouiatanons,  where  he  is  stay- 
ing with  a  Frenchman. 

In  the  fall  the  Chicachas  came  to  the  Charakis  Eiver^  in  a 
great  body.  They  saw  six  canoes  coming  up  from  the  jlinois 
in  order  to  return  to  the  post  of  Vincennes.  They  killed  19 
men,  one  woman,  her  daughter  and  a.  smiall  Boy.  Only  four 
escaped  unwounded,  and  four  with  dangerous  wounds. 

Since  that  time  parties  of  savages  have  been  continually  in 
the  Field  against  the  Chicachas ;  but  the  war  of  the  Scioux  and 
Renards  against  the  jlinois  prevents  themi  fromi  aooomplishing 

Monsieur  de  la  Veramdiere  [Verendrye]  wrote  me  on  Au- 
gust 7,  1741,  that  his  children  had  written  him  that  all  was 
quiet  in  the  posts. 

Monsieur  Marin  wrote  me  August  6,  that  all  was  quiet  at 
la  Baye  when  he  left  for  Michilimakina,  whither  he  went  at 
the  request  of  the  Sakis  and  Eeiiards  to  ask  Monsieur  de  Blain- 
ville  to  get  a  promise  from;  the  Outaovas  and  the  Sauteurs  not 
to  pass  by  way  of  La  Baye,  if  they  wish  to  go  against  the  Scioux, 
as  they  fear  there  may  occur  some  mischief  on  one  side  or  the 

On  April  26,  eight  Cabins  of  Mascoutins  arrived  among  the 
Ouiaitanons  to  settle  down  with  a  Chief  who  was'  already  there. 
They  are  in  fear  of  tlie  Elenards  who  are  with  the  Scioux  on 
the  Ouisconsin. 

A  party  of  100  Scioux  and  Renards  went  to  pimiteoui  to 
surprise  the  people  of  the  place ;  but  they  had  been  warned  by 
the  Sakis  to  be  on  their  guard.  The  Sakis  did  this  out  of  grati- 
tude, bcause  tliese  people  of  pimiteoui  had  restored  to  Them 

1  Cherokee  River  was  the  early  name  of  the  Tennessee,  from  the  large 
villages  of  that  tribe  settled  upon  it. — Ed. 

[  336  ] 

1740-41]     French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


ithree  of  Their  people,  whom  the  Kaokias  had  captured.^  A 
tllalf -breed  son  of  a  Frenchman  and  a  Savage  was  killed,  appar- 
Ifently  by  some  one  of  this  panty  of  100  men,  for  The  body  was 
'found  hacked  to  pieces  near  a  Sciau  Canoe.  This  happened  on 
May  26,  about  half  a  League  from  pimiteoui. 

A  party  of  100  pouteouatamis  and  Outaouas,  with  whom 
other  nations  had  joined  returned  from  the  Chicachas,  but 
nothing  was  accomplished  after  80  days  of  marching.  The 
Peanguichas,  on  their  passage  through  their  country,  gave  them 
three  prisoners  and  four  Scalps.  If  they  had  been  willing  to 
believe  one  of  their  slaves,  they  might  easily  have  killed  oo 
their  route  a  party  of  ten  of  their  enemies. 

The  Outaouas  brought  two  slaves  that  had  been  given  them 
by  the  poux  of  St.  Joseph  River,  a  post  under  the  command  of 
the  Sieur  Coulon  De\'illiers,  who  AVTites  me  these  last  three 
items  of  news. 

Three  bands  of  Sonountouans  came  back  from  the  Ohicacha 
country,  bringing  twelve  prisoners  and  ten  scalps;  they  had 
lost  but.  one  man  themselves.  They  were  expecting  two  other 
bands  July  24,  1741.  They  are  dying  of  hunger  in  the  Sonoun- 
touan  territory.  The  famine,  in  faet,  is  general  among  all 
the  savages  of  the  upper  country.  Indian  corn  was  worth  at 
Detroit  from  40  to  60  iivres  peir  Minot. 

All  The  Hurons  at  Detroit  were  ill  disposed  toward  the  Chica- 
chas, when  the  Chevalier  de  Beauhamais  arrived  there,  who 
was  sent  by  Monsieur  the  General  to  induce  them  to  come 
nearer  to  Him.  He  brought  three  of  them  with  him  to  select 
land,  and  they  are  to  come  in  great  niumbers  next  spring. 

There  came  to  Montreal  this  summer  a  large  deputation 
from  the  four  jroquois  Villages,  which  (in  the  Council  held 
with  Monsieur  the  General)  begged  Him  not  to  listen  to  evil 
speeches  that  might  be  miade,  because  their  father  could  count 
on  their  fidelity  in  preserving   peace.     They  begged  him  to 

iPimithouy  was  a  town  of  the  Peoria  tribe  of  the  Illinois,  located  near 
the  present  city  of  Peoria.  The  Kaokias  were  an  Illinois  tribe,  situated 
about  the  village  of  that  name  (Cahokia)  on  the  Mississippi. — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [vol. 


work  with  them  to  consolidate  and  strengthen  The  tree  of  peace, 
whicli  had  been  planted  in  the  presence  of  all  the  nations  as- 
aembled  at  Montreal,  about  forty  years  ago  (in  1702),  before 
the  tlien  General,  Monsieur  de  Caliere.  Tbey  begged  hiui 
alsoj  in  case  of  a  war  between  France  and  England,  not  to  make 
war  in  the  country  of  their  brothers  the  Dutch,  but  to  leave 
them  in  peace.  They  said  various  other  words  accompanied  by 
l")ollars,  and  all  in  favor  of  peace. 

Four  Cbaouanons  came  in  the  name  of  their  nation  to  bring 
messages  to  their  father,  proclaiming  themselves  very  rfeady  to 
execute  his  wishes.  I  do  not  speak  in  detail  of  those  things, 
which  are  reserved  for  Monsieur  The  General,  but  mention 
only  a  portion  which  was  made  public  like  this  whole  Memoir, 



[Extract  from  abstract  of  Beauharnois's  reports  for  1741.  Source: 
N.  Y.  Colon.  Docs.,  ix,  p.  1086.] 

The  news  received  from,  the  Upper  countries  to  the  effect 
that  some  underground  Belts  were  sent  by  the  English  to  divers 
Indian  Nations,  inviting  them  to  rid  themselves  of  the  French 
scattered  throughout  that  region ;  and  that  the  Foxes  had  sent 
out  some  war  parties  against  the  Illinois,  whereby  several 
Frenchmen  have  been  killed,  led  the  Marquis  de  Beauhamois 
to  think  that  some  brilliant  action  would  be  necessary  in  order 
to  kee]>  the  ^N'ations  in  check,  and  that  the  French  and  domi- 
ciliated Indians  who  had  been  called  out  for  the  expedition 
against  Choueguen  might  be  sent,  next  year,  against  the  Foxes. 
Eut  as  it  was  of  the  greatest  importance  to  keep  this  project  se- 
cret, he  contented  himself  with  giving  the  Indians  and  the 
Militia  who  had  been  warned,  to  understand  that  he  calcu- 
lated on  them'  for  next  year,  the  season  being  too  far  advanced 
for  the  execution  of  the  design  against  Choiieguen. 

The  Marquis  de  Beauhamois'   opinion  respecting  the  war 

[  338  ] 

1741]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

against  the  Foxes  has  been  the  more  readily  approved  by  the 
Baron  de  Longneuil,  Messrs  De  la  Chassaigne,  Lacome,  de 
Ligneiy,  La  !N^oue  and  Duplessis-f  abert,  whom/  he  had  assembled 
at  his  house,  as  it  appears  fromi  all  the  letters  that  the  Court  has 
written  since  several  years,  that  it  has  nothing  so  much  at  heart 
as  the  destruction  of  that  Indian  l^ation,  which  cannot  be  pre- 
vailed on  by  the  presents  and  good  treatment  of  the  rrench,  to 
live  in  peace,  notwithstanding  all  its  promises.  Besides  it  is 
notorious  that  the  Foxes  have  a  secret  understanding  with  the 
Iroquois  to  secure  a  retreat  among  the  latter,  in  case  they  be 
obliged  to  abandon  their  villages. 

They  have  one  already  secured  among  the  Sioux  of  the 
Prairies,  with  whom  they  are  allied ;  so  that  should  they  be  pre- 
advised  of  the  design  of  the  French  to  wage  war  against  them, 
it  would  be  easy  for  them  to  retire  to  the  one  or  the  otlier,  be- 
fore their  passage  could  be  intercepted,  or  themselves  attacked 
in  their  villages. 

1741:     HURON  AND  TfeTES  PLATES. 

[EJxtract  from  a  letter  of  Father  de  la  Richarie  to  Father  St.  P§, 
dated  Detroit,  June  10, 1741.  MS.  in  archives  of  Miniature  des  Colonies, 
Paris;  press  mark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  75,  c.  11,  fol.  90."] 

Revekewd  Father — Here  is  now  an  incident  that  will  pre- 
vent reconciliation  between  the  old  and  the  young  men:  A 
party  of  the  latter  want  to  break  the  peace  made  with  the  T^etes 
plates  by  the  elders  fifteen  years  ago-  The  young  men  say 
that  it  is  the  alliance  with  the  Tetes  plates  that  has  caused 
the  neighboring  Nations  to  hate  the  hurons;  the  elders  allege 
that  this  is  only  a  pretext,  and,  m,oreover,  that  the  Tetes  plates, 
far  fromi  doing  them  any  injury,  have  sent  their  people  back 
to  them  whenever  they  captured  any  who  went  without  cause 
to  kill  them  in  their  Villages.  The  young  mien  rely  on  what 
the  French  have  told  them,  viz:  that  Monsieur  the  General 
would  be  pleased  if  they  attacked  the  Tetes  plates.  If  I 
thought  that  Monsieur  the  General,  with  the  counsel  of  his 
22  [  339  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

eonscience,  consider  such  a  war  Lawful,  I  would  at  once 
side  witli  the  young  men,  but  as  I  have  nothing  decisive  on 
that  point,  and  as  My  conscience,  which  is  of  the  slightest,  tells 
me  that  such  a  war  would  be  murder,  I  cannot,  pending  the 
receipt  of  your  orders,  Avoid  giving  my  support  to  the  elders. 


[Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  149.] 

Secret  Council.  Message  of  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Beau- 
harnois,  Gorenwr  general  of  New  France,  to  the  hurons  of 
Detroit,  June  12,  IIJ^I. 

Sastabetsy^  Listen  attentively  to  the  message  of  thy  Father 
Onontio,  which  will  be  brought  thee  by  him  who  is  Dearest 
to  me,  who  is  of  my  blood,  that  thou  may  est  know  how  much 
I  think  of  thee  and  of  all  thy  Nation.  Monsieur  Duburon 
whom'  you  greatly  love,  will  accompany  him. 

Remiember  well.  My  son  Sastaretsy,  that  three  years  ago 
thou  didst  Send  a  message  to  thy  brothers  of  Lorette,  of  the 
Sault,  and  of  the  Lake  of  two  Mountains,  by  which  thou  didst 
inform  them  that  thou  wouldst  be  compelled  to  go  to  Ithein 
in  their  Village  in  the  autumn,  as  soon  as  thou  shouldst  have 
heard  of  the  min  of  thy  l^ephews.  Thou  didst  ask  them  to 
inform  Me  of  the  situation  ini  which  thou  wert  placed  by  the 
Multitud  of  thy  Elneniies.  They  brought  me  thy  message 
and  I  Felt  thy  trouble  to  such  an  extent  that  I  at  once  replied^ 
— thou  mu-st  remember  it.  I  Sent  presents  to  thy  Fathei 
Monsieur  De  Noyelle,  to  cover  the  dead,  to  console  th^ 
afflicted  and  to  stay  the  Tomahawk  of  the  young  men  wh( 
Hearts  might  be  turned  to  evil.  Judge  by  this  of  my  aff( 
tion  for  thee. 

Thy  Father,  Ondechaouasty,  ^  Wrote  me  the  Following  yeal 
that  thou  hadst  seemfed  to  acquesce  in  the  Orders  I  had  given 

iNote  on  original  MS.:     "Father  de  la  Richardie.' 

[  340  ] 



HI]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

o  oblige  thee  tO'  remain  at  Detroit  after  the  affair  imfputed 
to  thy  nephews  was  Completely  settled,  But  that  thou  might- 
€st  leave  thy  land  at  the  first  alarm. 

Thy  Father,  Monsieur  De  iNoyelle,  Wrote  me  at  the  same 
time  that  you  had  all  gone  inlx)  winter  quarters  and  had  aban- 
doned your  clearings;  you  had  told  him  that  you  could  not 
calm  the  Minds  of  your  wives  and  Children,  and  that  you 
would  always  live  in  Fear  at  the  Post  of  Detroit. 

Orontony^  Sent  me  Branches  of  Porcelain  on  behalf  of  the 
whole  Village,  by  which  he  asked  my  permission  to  come  and 
settle  near  me,  as  they  could  no  longer  live  in  peace  at  that 
Place,  because,  he  said,  whenever  the  Tetes  plates,  might 
make  an  Attack  on  the  Kations  of  the  Post,  you  would  always 
be  accused  of  having  a  share  in  it,  and,  in  order  to  Avoid  be- 
ing reduced  some  day  to  cruel  extremities,  he  re-iterated  the 
request  you  had  made  to  me. 

Monsieur  De  I^oyelle  Sent  me  two  Collars  on  your  behalf. 
By  the  first  you  asked  me  to  grant  you  a  piece  of  land  near 
me,  so  that  your  wives  and  Children  might  be  in  safety, 
which  they  were  not  at  Detroit.  You  said  to  me  by  that  mes- 
sage that  if  I  did  not  show  that  kindness  to  you,  you  would 
go  and  die  in  some  Distant  Spot. 

By  the  Second,  you  also  asked  me  to  give  you  an  oflBioer 
to  come  down  with  you  to  protect  you  from  injury- 

Your  Father,  Ondechaouasty,  Wrote  me  at  the  time  that 
you  begged  me  to  Excuse  you  for  not  coming  down  to  Mont- 
realj  as  I  had  ordered  the  elders  to  do,  because  it  was  the 
people  of  the  Sault  who  had  asked  you  to  do  so;  that  it  is 
not  the  Custom  amongst  you  Savages  tO'  go  and  ask  for  Pro- 
tection and  for  an  asylum,  and  that  if  Compassion  was, felt 
for  your  wives  and  Children,  it  was  the  duty  of  those  who 
had  pity  on  Them  to  come  and  console  them  on  their  Mat,  or 
even  to  light  a  fresh  fire  for  them  in  some  spot  where  they 
might  be  considered  in  safety. 

At  the  Beginning  of  the  affair  thou  didst  communicate  the 

iNote  on  original  MS.:     "Nicolas." 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


thought  that  was  in  thy  heart  to  thy  Father,  the  Comimiand- 
ant,  and  to  your  two  Fathers,  the  black  Gowns,  and  you  would 
have  no  witness  but  Them  so  as  to  Eixpress  it  more  freely. 
That  message  was  Sent  me  the  following  year. 

You  said  that  while  you  Were  at  Missilimakinac  you  received 
an  embassy  from  your  brothers  of  the  Sault  and  of  the  Lake 
of  two  Mountains  by  which  they  asked  you  to  go  to  Them, 
and,  as  a  pretext,  they  said  to  you:  Come,  my  brothers,  you 
Are  in  this  Place  in  the  midst  of  a  Multitude  of  Nations  that 
do  not  like  you  and  of  whose  cxistoms  you  are  ignoranit.. 

That  the  late  Monsieur  de  Vaudreuil  Urged  you  to  leave  as 
soon  as  possible  N"ations  that  hated  you  and  that  lie  said  to 
you:  settle  near  me;  you  will  find  a  safe  asylum,  a  Father 
and  a  Protector. 

You  replied  to  him  that  you  would  some  day  follow  the 
advice  he  had  just  given  you,  that  you  would  poize  the  first    | 
pretext  that  presented  itself  to  come  to  him,   and  that  you 
had  long  thought  seriously  of  fulfilling  the  promise  you  had 
made,  which  Was  to  come  here. 

By  another  message  you  said  that  the  reason  that  led  you 
to  take  that  step'  Was  that  you  wished  to  calmi  the  Minds  of 
your  wives  and  Children  which  Were  so  affected  that  they 
could  live  in  safety  nowhere  but  near  me;  that  the  K\^hol8 
village  Were  of  that  opinion  and  that  you  spoke  on  their  behalf. 
By  another  message  you  also  said  that  if  I  did  not  grant 
your  request,  the  sorrow  you  would  feel  would  lead  you  to 
take  another  step;  that  your  resolution  was  taken,  and  that 
you  were  prepared  to  die  near  the  first  spot  you  came  to  rather 
than  live  in  a  land  where  your  wives  and  Children  could  not 
venture  to  go  to  their  Work  without  fearing  that  they  might 
not  return  at  night  to  sleep  in  their  Cabins;  that  as  you  had 
always  Been  obedient  to  my  orders,  you  would  be  in  a  better 
position  to  Carry  them'  out  if  you  Were  near  me. 

By  a  iN'a.rtrow  Collar,  you  begged  me  not  to  refuse  your  re- 
•quest  to  bring  you  near  mje,  holding  it  by  one  end  and  ask- 
ing me  to  hold  the  other  so  as  to  calm  the  Minds  of  your  wives 
land  Children. 


1741]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

By  a  Wide  Collar  you  asked  me  for  some  one  to  take  yon 
to  the  land  where  I  dwell  so  that  you  might  travel  in  safety 
through  the  ^N'ations. 

Thou  Sastareitsy^  with  Tayetchatin  ^  and  Ol^ontony,  didst 
Send  me  a  message  to  Inform  me  of  your  design,  in  the  Hope 
that  I  would  have  compassion  on  your  conditon;  and  you 
told  me  that  if  I  had  pity  on  the  huron  I  would  bring  him 
near  me ;  that  your  thought  Was  supported  by  two  Collars. 

By  another  message  you  spoke  to  me  in  these  terms:  My 
Father,  our  intention  to  draw  near  you  is  a  lasting  one  and 
nothing  can  change  it. 

By  another  you  also  said  to  me  that  the  huron  knows  not 
what  it  is  to  break  his  word,  nor  to  have  a  second  thought 
succeed  a  first  one  he  has  considered  reasonable.  You  did 
not  conceal  from  me  that  you  might  take  a  istep  I  would  not 
approve  if  I  rejected  your  word,  and  said  that  you  would 
never  be  very  firmi  in  your  Religion  unless  you  were  separated 
from  JSTations  that  are  not  Christian. 

By  another  message  you  asked  to  he  put  alone  in  the  Place 
T  might  deem  suitable  and  that  the  Black  Gowns  might  live 
with  you  to  soothe  your  Minds.  You  added  that  what  you 
said  Was  said  in  the  name  of  the  whole  of  your  IsTation,  and 
that  if  any  evil  blow  were  struck  all  the  others  would  cer- 
tainly impute  it  to  the  hurons.  This  led  you  to  believe  with- 
out any  doubt  that  if  I  deferred  bringing  you  near  me,  you 
would  despair  of  your  lives  as  you  Were  threatened  on  all 

Then  you  begged  your  Father  the  Commandant  and  (the 
three  Black  Gowns  to  support  your  word  with  me  with  such 
strength  that  your  request  could  not  be  refused;  that  your 
words  be  taken  down  in  Writing  and  that  ISTicolas  alone  be 
admitted  to  my  private  Room.     I  did  this  as  you  know. 

iSastaretsy  and  Tayetchatin  (Taychatin)  took  no  part  in  the  attack 
on  Detroit  by  Orontony's  Sandusky  band  (1747;  see  ante,  p.  280). 
They  visited  Montreal  in  July  of  that  year,  where  Sastaretsy  died; 
Tayetchatin  was  also  seized  with  illness,  but  recovered  sufficiently  to 
return  home,  where  he  died  in  September. — Ed. 

[  343  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvh 

You  requested  Monsieur  de  Noyelle  to  Write  me  on  your 
behalf  to  thank  mie  for  my  kindness  in  granting  your  request, 
and  you  asked  him  to  assure  me  that  your  N"ation  would  never 
forget  the  proof  of  the  Protection  I  gave  your  wives  and 
Children.  You  sent  me  word  that  in  the  Event  of  any  one 
of  you  having  allowed  himself  to  be  won  over  to  Prevent  your 
coming  down,  I  was  not  to  alter  anything  of  what  I  had  granted 
you  to  have  you  dwell  near  me;  that  you  had  fully  reflected 
on  the  step  before  taking  it 

Your  Father,  the  Black  Gown  "Wrote  me  tliat  my  words 
had  been  received  by  your  village,  with  great  acclamations 
of  gratitude.  Monsieur  De  ^oyelle  wrote  me  that  he  had 
delivered  them  to  you  and  that  you  were  greatly  flattered  by 
them,  saying  that  I  continued  to  be  always  kind  to  you.  He 
added  that  you  had  not  altered  your  design  in  any  way. 

Last  year.  Monsieur  De  IsToyan  and  Father  de  la  Richardie 
Wrote  me  that  your  wives  and  Children  Were  in  a  continual 
state  of  alann^  that  you  yourselves  did  not  consider  them  safe 
in  such  a  neighborhood  as  that  of  Detroit,  and  that  Orontony, 
wishing  to  excite  my  compassion,  had  said  he  Hoped  I  would 
put  himi  under  my  wings. 

Monsieur  De  I^oyan  wrote  me  that  you  still  intended  to 
remove  your  fire  elsewhere,  and  that  you  begged  him  to  fol- 
low you  and  to  go  and  live  with  you  on  the  piece  of  land  I 
granted  you,  and  that  you  would  be  flattered  if  I  Sent  you  a 
message  to  Remove  you  from  your  fire  and  light  another  for 

I  have  carefully  considered  all  your  words;  I  have  granted 
with  pleasure  the  requests  you  have  mjade  to  me ;  H  wilj  always 
seek  rnoans  to  calm  the  Minds  of  your  wives  and  Children. 
Come,  I  hold  out  my  arms  to  you  to  take  you  under  my  wing, 
and  by  this  Collar  I  bind  you  Tightly  to  my  ISTephew  to  bring 
you  near  me.  Hold  it  by  one  end  and  he  will  hold  it  by  the 
other  so  thac  you  cannot  separate.  You  will  see  that  you 
will  find  ini  me^  as  in  Monsieur  De  Vaudreuil,  a  sure  Asylum, 
a  Father  and  a  Protector.  I  will  take  as  much  care  of  you 
as  of  my  Praying  Children  who  are  near  me.     I  will  love 

[  344  ] 

1741]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

jou  all  Evqually  without  distinction.  If  Monsieur  de  !N"oyaii 
continues  to  feel  the  Desire  he  now  has  to  conie  and  live  with, 
vou,  I  will  Send  another  to  relieve  him  in  his  place.  Your 
Fathers,  the  Black  Gowns,  will  follow  you  to  the  land  I  have 
destined  for  you  and  which  you  will  be  at  liberty  to  oh.oose 
for  jourseJves.  You  see  that  I  grant  your  requests  like  a 
good  Father  and  that  I  seek  every  means  to  secm^e  you  re-st 
and  peace. 

By  this  present,  I  clear  your  Road,  I  scatter  right  and  left 
the  obstacles  tliat  might  arise;  I  Dissipate  the  Clouds  and 
put  the  Sun  at  its  zenith  so  that  you  may  see  wbere  to  place 
your  steps  and  that  the  land  may  henceforth,  be  at  peace. 


[Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  91.] 

Council  to  Be  held  after  that  of  the  hurons. 

Message  of  Monsieur  the  Marquis  ds  BeoMhamcis,  Governor 
general  of  Nero  france,  to  his  Children,  the  Outaouacs,  Pout- 
ouatomis,  Sauteux,  arid  Mississagues  of  Detroit,  June  12, 17J/-1, 

My  Children,  I  Sent  My  Nenhew  to  your  Villages  to  an- 
nounce my  word  to  you  and  to  put  at  end  all  the  Disturb- 
ances, Uneasiness,  and  alarms  that  have  prevailed  there  for 
three  years. 

You  are  not  unaware  of  all  that  I  have  done  to  have  peace 
reign  in  your  land  and  to  Prevent  its  being  Reddened  with 
the  Blood  of  my  Children.  You  have  all  Seconded  me  in  tbe 
ifitention  I  Had  and  still  have  that  your  wives  and  Children 
shall  live  in  peace. 

In  spite  of  all  my  precautions  and  yours  I  am  informed 
that  in  the  Hearts  of  the  young  men  still  lurk  feelings  of  re- 
sentment that  might  lead  to  revenge  and  disturb  the  land  nM>re 
than  ever. 

To  prevent  any  accident  to  which  such  Resentment  might 
[  345  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

give  rise  and  to  prove  to  all  the  !N"ations  the  interest  I  take  in 
everything  that  concerns  my  Children  and  How  pleased  I  am 
to  have  them;  live  in  Peace  and  harmony  like  true  brothers. 
I  have  taken  the  decision  and  have  determined  to  light  a 
new  fire  and  to  place  the  huron  near  me.  I  think  this  pre- 
caution should  put  an  end  to  all  alarms  and  resentment,  and 
that^  Considering  the  Spirit  by  which  I  am  guided,  you  will 
act  in  accordance  with  my  Intentions  and  will  part  good 
brothecrs,  giving  one  another  mutual  proofs  of  a  thorough 

By  this  present  I  establish  my  word,  I  make  the  sky  serene 
over  your  villages,  I  cleanse  your  Hearts;  I  make  the  Roads 
smooth  and  practicable  By  this  Collar,  so  that  you  may 
always  come  and  see  me  in,  all  security,  for,  although  you  are 
far  away,  I  hold  you  in  my  heart,  like  those  who  are  near  me. 

As  to  Thee,  mekinac,  to  prove  to  thee  that  I  have  paid 
heed  to  thy  request  and  to  make  known  to  thee  my  satisfac- 
tion with  thee  and  with  those  whom  thou  hast  mentioned  to 
me,  I  send  to  Monsieur  De  iS'oyan  the  Marks  of  distinction 
thou  hast  asked  of  me  for  Them.  I  flatter  myself  that  these 
Fresh  favors  from;  me  will  Induce  you  to  strive  more  and 
more  for  Good  and  to  have  no  other  heart  than  mine. 

[Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  147.] 

Memorandum  to  serve  as  Instructions  to  the  8ieur  Chevalier 
de  Beauharnois,  Captain  of  a  Company  of  the  Troops  of  this 
Country,  ivhom  we  have  detached  to  remove  the  hurons  0/ 
Detroit^  according  to  the  requests  they  have  made  to  us,  and 
to  take  the  savages  of  Sault  St.  Louis  and  of  the  Lake  of  Two 
Mountains,  who  are  to  go  with  him  to  invite  them  to  come 
down  here. 

The  chief  cai'e  of  the  Sieur  Chevalier  de  Beauhamois  shall 
be  to  exercise  great  Circnmspection  during  the  journey  with 
regard  to  the  savages  imder  his  Guidance. 

[  346  ] 

.741]        Fl-ench  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

He  shall  take  no  other  Eoute  than  that  to  the  ^orth  of  Lake 
Ontario,  to  Avoid  passing  by  Choueghen  [Oswego],  where 
the  said  savages  might  amuse  themselves  or  receive  bad  imr 
pressions  at  that  Place. 

While  on  the  Way  he  shall  hold  such  Councils  with  Them 
as  they  may  ask  for,  and  always  speak  very  gently  to  them. 

While  crossing  the  Niagara  portage,  where  he  will  find 
Iroquois  of  the  five  Nations,  he  shall  tell  them  with  his  sav- 
ages, by  means  of  branches  of  Porcelain,  that  they  are  pro^ 
ceeding  to  Deti'oit  solely  in  connection  with  peaceful  Matters, 
and  he  shall  not  inform  them  of  the  object  of  his  journey. 

On  his  arrival  at  the  Post  of  Detroit,  he  shall  communicate 
to  the  Sieur  De  Noyaji,  the  comnnandant  there,  all  the  Orders 
and  instructions  with  which  he  is  charged. 

He  shall  deliver  to  Jiini  the  messages  of  the  hurous  and  those 
of  the  Oiitaouacs,  I'outoiiataniis,  Saiiteux,  and  Mississagues  of 
the  said  Post,  that  two  secret  Councils  miay  Be  held  separately 
in  the  house  of  the  said  Sieur  de  Noyan. 

To  the  first  Council  the  hurons  alone  shall  be  summoned, 
with  the  Iroquois,  to  Hear  our  message;  and  if  they  decide  to 
come  down  to  light  their  fire  on  the  land  I  have  set  apart  for 
them  near  me,  then  the  Outaouacs  and  other  Nations  of  the  said 
Post  shall  also  be  gathered  together,  with  the  Iroquois,  at  the 
house  of  the  said  Sieur  de  Noyan,  that  my  message  may  be 
repeated  to  them,  and  the  hurons  shall  not  be  there. 

After  the  Sieurs  De  Noyan  and  Chevalier  de  Beauhamois 
shall  have  spoken  to  the  hurons  and  other  Nations  of  the  Post, 
if  the  hurons  come  down  here,  as  there  is  every  likelihood  of 
their  doing,  and  the  other  savages  seem  pleased  at  it^  thev' 
shall  do  their  best  to  reconcile  them.  Together;  they  shall  give 
them  a  feast  so  that  they  may  part  good'  brothers. 

In  the  event  of  the  hurons  deciding  not  to  come  down  until 
next  spring,  as  might  well  happen  under  the  pretext  of  getting 
their  crops,  of  their  young  men  not  Yet  having  returned  from 
tiie  war-patli,  or  of  other  reasons  they  may  allege,  the  Sieur 
Chevalier  de  Beauharnois  shall  pass  the  winter  with  Themy 
as  well  as  the  Sieur  Duburon  whom  we  have  chosen  to  accom- 

[  347  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvu 

pany  him,  and  he  shall  do  his  best  to  Induce  the  Iroquois  not 

to  leave  them. 

We  rely,  moreover,   on  the  prudence  and  wise  conduct  of 

the   Sieurs   De   Noyan    and   Chevalier   de   Beauhamois  with 

regard  to  any  Events  we  cannot  foresee,   and  even  empower 

them  to  act  according  to  Circumstances  and  to  do  everything 

that  may  be  advisable  and  that  they  miay  deem  necessary  for 

the  welfare  of  the  service. 

MoNTBEAL,  June  14,  1741. 

1741:     HURON  OF  DETROIT 
[Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  154.] 

Copy  of  the  Letter  Written  hy  Monsieur  the  marquis  de 
Beauhariiois,  Governor  general  of  New  France,  to  Father  de  la 
Richardie,  Missionary  at  Detroit,  on  June  IJf,  17Jf-l, 

EiEVEKEND  Father — I  received  the  three  Letters  yo^i  did  me 
the  honor  of  Writing  to  me  on  the  1st  of  August  and  lYth  of 
September  last,  and  on  the  22nd  of  April  of  this  year.  I  Wrote 
to  Monsieur  De  I^oyan  on  the  14th  of  October  last  with  refer- 
ence to  my  project  of  removing  the  hurons  with  the  savage 
Ceremonies  they  asked.  I  directed  him  to  beg  you  to  excuse 
my  not  answering  you  or  himself  with  reference  to  all  that  you 
had  Written  to  me,  owing  to  my  many  occupations  in  the  au- 
tumn. I  have  no  doubt  that  he  has  performed  that  commis- 
sion, so  you  must  think  no  ill  of  my  silence. 

I  am  Sending  my  Nephew  with  the  Sieur  Duburon  to  carry 
my  message  to  the  hurons,  Outaouacs,  Poutouatamis,  Sauteux, 
and  Mississagues.  You  will  see  what  it  says,  and  I  have  rea- 
son to  think  that,  knowing  the  importance  of  the  miatter,  you 
will  second  me  to  the  best  of  your  ability ;  and  I  will  tell  you  on 
this  occasion,  as  I  have  told  the  savages,  that  I  have  full  con- 
fidence in  you. 

You  wrote  me  that  there  was  nothing  to  fear  with  regard  to 
the  report    that  they  might  go  to  the  Sonontouans.     I    have 


HI]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

levertheless  been  credibly  informed  that  they  bad  given  tbem 
OoUars  to  that  End,  and  that,  before  they  can  remove  from 
Detroit,  they  cannot  dispense  with  withdrawing  them. 

You  write  me  that  somebody  who  was  to  come  down  here 
5eemed  greatly  prejudiced  against  the  hurons,  and  had  flattered 
aimself  that  he  could  influence  my  Mind  against  them,  and  in 
favor  of  Angouirot.  I  guessed  to  whom  you  referred,  but^  Eev- 
erend  Father,  I  cannot  help  telling  you  that  I  am  perfectly 
aware  that  Chief  [Anguirot]  is  held  in  high  esteem,  by  his  l^ar 
tion  and  controls  one  half  the  village ;  consequently  he  is  a  man 
to  be  treated  with  circumspection.  Several  persons  have  told 
me  that  you  did  not  like  him,;  that  you  would  not  admit  him 
to  any  Council ;  that  his  people  had  spoken  and  ho  had  said 
nothing;  and  that  when  he  saw  me  he  would  show  me  that  he 
has  reason  to  complain  because  you  represent  him  to  me  as  a 
dangerous  and  pernicicu?  individual.  On  the  present  occasion 
it  is  better  to  appear  to  have  confidence  In  him,  so  as  not  to  re- 
buff him,  and  thereby  Induce  him  not  to  thwart  my  intentions. 
I  give  Orders  Accordingly  to  my  Nephew. 

I  have  Written  to  Monsieur  De  Noyau  that  I  would  decor- 
ate the  Chief  you  speak  of  with  the  Medal  you  ask  of  me  for 
him^  when  he  comes'  down  here. 

In  your  Letter  of  the  iTth  of  September  you  tell  me  that  you 
have  often  Written  tO'  Your  Father  Superior  that  if  I  deemed 
it  advisable  to  grant  the  hurons  tlie  refuge  they  ask  near  me, 
they  would  like  that  their  brothers  of  the  Sault  should  go  and 
remove  them  and  light  a  fresh  fire  for  them.  You  do  not  men- 
tion the  people  of  the  Lake,  who  are  their  brothers  as  well  as 
the  Others,  and  even  their  Close  friends.  And  Yet  in  the  mes- 
sage you  sent  to  Father  Dfe  lauzon^  on  the  12th  of  August,  1738, 
Sastaretsy  asks  that  I,  as  well  as  his  brothers  of  the  Sault,  of 
the  Lake,  and  of  Lorette,  be  informed  of  the  situation  in  which 
he  is  placed  by  the  Multitude  of  his  Enemies.     For  this  rea- 

1  Pierre   de  Lauzon,   superior   of   Canadian   missions    from   1732    to 
1739.— Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

son  I  have  determined  to  send  with  the  people  of  the  Sault  those 
of  the  Lake  and  twoi  hurons. 

I  have  reason  to  think,  Keverend  Father,  that  it  would  bo 
necessary  to  attract  the  hurons  who  have  gone  over  to  the  Side 
of  the  English  toward  belle  Riviere;  although  bandits,  accord- 
ing to  the  description  you  give  me  of  them. 

By  your  last  Letter  you  tell  me  that  there  is  no  change  as 
Regards  the  hurons,  except  that  their  Desire  to  Settle  at  Mon- 
treal has  diminished  without  passing  away,  because  they  are  con- 
vinced they  are  not  wanted ;  that  only  a  strong  message  from  me 
with  a  similar  one  from  their  brothers  of  the  Sault  can  attract 
them  (you  are  again  silent  with  respect  to  those  of  the  Lake.) 
You  add  that  you  would  not  like  to  guarantee  that  all  would  go, 
although  you  think  that  those  who  would  remain  would  grad^ 
ually  join  the  others. 

The  settlement  upon  the  island^  of  which  you  speak,  where 
all  would  gather,  is  not  suitable  in  any  way,  because  I  should 
consider  them  much  less  in  safety  at  that  Place  than  at  the 
Post  of  Detroit.  Therefore,  Reverend  Father,  they  must  de- 
cide to  come  here,  because  I  think  they  cannot  remain  at  that 
place ;  they  must  also  be  Removed  f romi  that  spot  to  put  an  end 
to  all  uneasiness  and  to  quiet,  the  land.  It  is  publicly  stated 
here  that  they  have  planned  to  go  and  Live  with  the  Tetes- 
plates,  at  the  first  movement  against  them. 

I  ami  delighted.  Reverend  Father,  that  Monsieur  and  Mar 
dame  de  ]N'oyan  should  be  to  your  liking;  they  are  greatly  to 

I  remain  etc., 

iNote  on  original  MS.:     "Grosse  isle  3  or  4  Leagues  from  Detroit.' 


mi]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 


[Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  95;    of.  transcript  in 
N.  Y.  Colon.  Docs.,  ix,  pp.  1072-1073.] 

Speech  of  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Beauharnois,  Governor 
general  of  New  france,  to  the  Outaouacs  of  Missilimahinac,  on 
July  8,17  Jfl. 

My  Childrem,  I  Wrote  last  year  to  the  Commandant  of  Mis- 
silimakinac  and  gave  him  orders  to  Induce  Mincheokima, 
Akikanijingue,  Clielaoiliskaouois,  Otolinois/  Oliiskaouois^  and 
other  Chiefs  of  Xote,  both  Kiskakous"^  and  Sinagos,^  to  come 
here  and  Listen  to  my  message. 

He  wrote  me  that  the  reason  that  Prevented  the  majority  of 
those  Chiefs  from  coming  down  was  their  remaining  at  the 
grande  Traverse^  to  look  for  Lands  suitable  (for  the  Establish- 
mient  of  their  Villages,  owing  to  the  dearth  of  food  that  had 
prevailed  the  previous  winter,  iu\d  that,  your  Lands  Being  ex- 
hausted, they  feared  the  same  might  happen  Again.  I 

Several  years  ago.  My  Children,  Monsieur  de  Celoron,  who    \    / 
is  here  present,  wrote  me  that  yon  Intended  to  Remove  your  Yil-    j 
lages  elsewhere  for  the  same  reason. 

In  obedience  to  the  orders  I  gave  him  he  Sought  you  at 
Maskigon,^  where  you  Wished  to  Establish  yourselves,  and 
brought  you  back  to  your  Villages,  as  that  land  was  in  nowise 
suited  to  you,  because  the  frequent  maladies  that  prevail  at  that 
Place  might  have  destroyed  you.  Moreover,  it  ruins  your  Hunt- 
ing, and  you  must  have  observed  that  whenever  any  of  your*  !N"a- 
tion  have  spent  the  Summer  at  that  Place,  they  have  found  the 
Animals  Scattered  and  your  hunting  less  productive. 

The  point  in  question  at  present.  My  Children,  is  to  settle 
you  in  a  place  where  you  may  find  good  land  capable  of  yield- 
ing profitable  crops,  in  order  to  enable  you  to  procure  subsist- 

iNote  on  original  document:     "Chiefs  of  the  Sauteux." 
a  Note  on  original  document:     "two  branches  composing  the  outa- 
vacs  nation." 

3  Grand  Traverse  Bay,  Mich. — Ed. 

4  Muskegon  River,  Mich. — Eto. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


ence  for  your  families  and  retain  your  hunting  Grounds, 
Through  the  interest  I  take  in  all  that  concerns  you,  and  the 
great  affection  I  have  for  My  Children,  the  Outaouacs,  I  se© 
none  more  suitable  for  you  than  Poutchitaouy,  ^  the  point  of 
Pamitobe,  or  L'arbre  C'roche  [the  Crooked  tree],^  which  how- 
e\'er  I  find  rather  Far.  Choose,  My  Children,  that  one  of  all 
those  Places  that  Suits  you,  and  reflect  well  upon  the  matter. 
Remember  the  advantages  you  have  enjoyed  in  Being  near  the 
French,  who  buy  your  Canoes,  your  gum^  your  Indian  com^ 
your  fats,  and  all  that  your  industiy  produces;  this  enables  you 
to  live  more  Comfortably  with  your  families,  and  you  would 
not  enjoy  those  advantages  if  you  Were  far  Away  from  theim. 

By  a   great  Collar    that  you  will  Undertake   to  deliver   to 
Monsieur  de  Celoron,  I  light  your  fire  at  the  Spot  you  will  se-    i 
lect  from  amongst  those  I  have  indicated  to  you.  m 

I  will  also  charge  you  to  deliver  to  him  a  large  Flag  that  he  ' 
himself  may  set  it  over  your  villages,  and  he  will  raise  it  so 
high  that  I  shall  be  able  to  see  it  and  have  the  satisfaction  of 
saying:  I  have  Settled  My  Children  in  a  Place  where  they 
can  live  in  peace  and  comfort.  I  shall  learn  the  'News  of  thia 
with  pleasure  next  spring. 

As  your  Elders  appeared  to  me  to  have  great  confidence  In 
Monsieur  de  Celoron,  I  S^nd  himi  to  found  that  Establishment* 
Listen  well  to  his  words  which  are  Mine. 

I  have  learned.  My  Children,  that  you  went  to  Choueghen 
[Oswego]  to  get  Bad  milk ;  there  is  good  milk  here.  Why  do 
you  not  come  and  get  it  since  you  like  it  so  much  ?  You  have 
never  been  refused  any  and  my  Breasts  are  full.  I  will  make 
them  flow  with  pleasure  when  their  milk  does  not  spoil  the 

i"The  locality  between  Carp  and  Pine  rivers  at  the  extremity  of 
Bay  St.  Ignace  [St.  Martin's  Bay],  at  the  head  of  Lake  Huron.  See 
Belin's  Carte  du  Detroit  du  Lac  Superieur.'' — Note  of  O'Callaghan  to 
transcript  in  N.  T.  Colon.  Docs.  PamitabS  is  apparently  another  name 
for  the  same  spot. — Ed. 

2  Immediately  north  of  Little  Traverse  Bay,  at  the  northwest  corner 
of  the  peninsula  of  Michigan. — O'Callaghan. 

[  352  ] 

French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

jnds  of  mj  Children/  and  I  Vvill  give  you  Tokens  of  My 
friendship  for  you  and  your  villages.  I  have  not  Yet  had  time 
-to  have  anything  prepared.  It  has  afforded  me  much  pleasure 
to  speak  to  you  in  the  presence  of  Monsieur  de  Celoron,  who 
starts  tomorrow,  and  who  will  repeat  my  speech  in  your  vil- 




[Letter  of  Chevalier  de  Beauharnois  to  his  uncle,  the  Marquis  de 
Beauharnois,  dated  Aug.  2,  1741.  MS.  in  archives  of  Ministere  des 
Colonies,  Paris;  pressmark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  g6n.,  vol.  75,  c.  11,  fol. 

My  Dear  Uncle — I  found,  on  my  arrival,  only  seven  op 
eight  decrepit  old  Men,  and  a  village  deserted  and  without  war- 
riors, as  The  chicachas  have  something  over  160  at  their  heels. 
I.  have  not  yet  entered  deeply  into  matters;  but  judging  by 
what  I  have  been  able  to  learn,  all  appear  to  be  quite  disposed 
to  listen  to  everything,  without  being  in  a  humor  to  make  any 
positive  answer  before  the  return  of  this  band.  I  Hear  only 
things  that  are  unpromising  for  the  success  of  my  enterprise; 
and  if  I  can  rely  on  what  is  said  and  thought  by  those  who  can 
and  ought  to  know  something  about  the  matter,  the  huroiis 
are  now  as  indifferent  and  averse  to  coming  down  as  they  were 
formerly  desirous  and  ready  to  do  so.  This  contributes  not 
a  Little  to  making  my  position  a  most  uncomfortable  one.  In- 
cessantly occupied  with  the  wheels  that  I  try  to  set  in  motion  in 
order  to  operate  so  crazy  and  anomalous  a  machine,  I  ami  ex- 
pending all  my  rhetoric  to  win  and  to  confirm  minds,  which 
the  merest  Bagatelle  may  disturb  and  divert.  Finally,  my  dear 
uncle,  whether  it  be  ill-will  on  the  part  of  the  hurons,  or  frivol- 
ity and  inconstancy,  I  discover,  or  to  speak  more  to  the  point, 
I  see  through  the  fact,  thai  an  arm  more  powerful  than  my  own 

iNote  on  original  document:     "Before  leaving  you  will  come  and 
see  me." 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xvii 

binds  and  holds  them.  Angoiiirot,  a  famous  chief  of  the  oppo- 
site party,  that  is,  of  those  who  do  not  wish  to  go  down, 
Angouirot,  I  say,  more  obstinate  than  ever,  persists  still  in  the 
same  feelings.  I  have  every  reason  to  Fear  that  this  man  miay 
spoil  my  success,  as  he  joinsi  to  a  cunning  and  subtle  mind,  the 
ability  of  an  accomplished  politician.  He  listens  to  every- 
thing and  never  makes  answer.  Presents  and  lother  induce- 
ments— ^nothing  is  spared;  and  in  order  to  prove  to  you,  My 
dear  Uncle,  how  far  I  have  to  carry  my  Flattery  in  order  to  get 
a  hold  on  The  stubborn  Spirit  of  this  firm  antagonist,  I  invited 
him  yesterday  evening  to  take  supper  with  me.  Invoked  to 
speak  frankly  This  sly  rogue,  fearing  the  wine  might  betray 
him,  and  lead  him  to  disclose  what  was  in  his  mind,  took  the 
precaution  of  eating  and  Drinking  only  with  the  very  greatest 

The  Fair  sex,  Among  the  hurons  as  with  us,  has  absolute 
power  over  the  Minds  of  the  men.  I  brought  nothing  from 
Montreal  for  them,,  but  I  have  remedied  this  deficiency  by  hav- 
mg  made  a  Fine  Collar  of  1500  beads  of  porcelain,  which  I 
Intend  to  give  to  them  with  some  bags  of  flour,  in  order  to  gain 
themi  over  to  my  side.  I  have  proposed  this  schemie  to 
Monsieur  de  IsToyan,  and  he  seemed  to  approve  of  it.  I  have 
the  honor  of  reporting  to  you  the  speeches  to  be  made  on  that 

The  large  Collar  which  you  did  me  the  honor  of  sending  me 
was  found  too  White;  I  have  had  1400  beads  of  black  porce- 
lain added  to  it.  The  Convoy  Has  not  yet  arrived,  and  I  do 
not  know  what  orders  you  send  me  by  it.  Here  everybody  is 
:fasting  and  lamenting.  You  could  not  get  a  livre  of  flour 
in  the  whole  fort  for  Gold  or  silver. 

As  the  provisions  I  brought  are  not-  very  abundant  and  will 
not  last  long,  if  I  am  obliged  to  spend  the  winter  here,  as  ap- 
pears extremely  probable,  I  ami  taking  advantage  of  the  gra- 
cious offers  made  me  by  Monsieur  de  Laperade.  I  will  bring 
what  I  ISTeed  in  the  Canoes  of  his  brother,  while  waiting  for 
supplies  to  arrive  from  Montreal. 



fii]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

If  mj  letter  should  ari'ive  soon  enough,  my  dear  uncle,  to 
riake  it  possible  to  send  me  a  Canoe  this  fall,  I  should  be 
greatly  obliged  if  you  would  give  orders  for  sending  one.  The 
]:iesents  you  have  given  me  for  The  savages  are  scant.  I  have 
T  0  more  porcelain  though  1  need  it  every  day.  Messieurs 
The  hurons  do  not  care  at  all  for  the  White  kind.  I  decided 
to  write  to  the  keeper  of  the  stores  at  niagara  to  send  me  by 
the  first  Canoes  that  come  up  three  or  four  thousand  beads. 

I  have  set  up  house-keeping  in  a  house  which  I  found  in 
readiness  on  ray  arrival,  thanks  to  the  attentions  of  Monsieur 
de  N^oyan.  He  urged  me  not  to  keep  my  own  table  but  to  live 
with  him;  but  I  did  not  consider  that  advisable,  so  I  decided 
to  set  up  a  private  establishment  with  Messieurs  dubaron 
[Duburon]  and  la  Chavinguerie.^ 

I  he  Reverend  Father  de  larichardie,  with  The  principal 
chiefs  of  his  village,  came  out  to  meet  me  four  leagues  from  de- 
troit.  This  Jesuit,  as  shrewd  and  Intelligent  as  his  profession  re- 
quires, has  seemed  to  me  thus  far  to  be  greatly  interested  ini  The 
success  of  my  enterprise ;  but  As  I  know  that  the  most  cunning 
policy  is  that  which  seems  The  most  natural,  sic  et  sic  illi  fido. 

1  am  with  very  great  Respect  Monsieur,  my  dear  Uncle, 
Youi*  very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant 

Detroit,  August  2,  1741.     The  Chevalieb  DE  Beauhaenois. 

The  convoy  has  just  arrived,  Aug.  5,  1741.  The  black- 
robe  [Jesuit  priest]  from  whom  I  come  has  just  received  let- 
ters fromj  the  Company,  I  mean  from  his  superiors,  who  write 
him  that  your  interest  in  the  pursuit  and  success  of  my  enter- 
prise has  slackened.  If  you  have  not  the  goodness,  my  dear  un- 
cle, to  write  here  in  a  firm  tone  and  to  declare  yourself  against 
the  migration  from  detroit  to  Grosse  Isle  pro  rex  et  membrum 
societatis,  do  not  appear  to  me  to  be  disposed  to  second  me — far 
from  it.  Monsieur  Duburon  Has  not  yet  arrived ;  I  expect  him 
to-dav  or  to-morrow  at  the  latest. 

iProbab'ly  Michel   Maray,   sieur   de   la   Chauvignerie,    son   of   LotJis 
Maray,  an  officer  in  the  marine.    Michel,  an  Iroquois  interpreter,  was 
born  in  1704,  and  married  Marie  Joseph  Raimbaut   (1740). — Ed. 
23  [  355  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.xv 


[Letter  of  De  Noyan  to  the  French  Minister.     Source  same  as  prece^ 
ing  document,  but  fol.  279.] 

Detroit,  August  24,  1741. 

MoNSEiGNEUR — I  have  not  received  your  grace's  orders  fc 
two  years.  Monsieur  Tiie  Marquis  De  Beauhamois  wrote  m 
last  autunan  that  he  would  Send  Them  to  me  by  The  fir^ 
opportunity.  Nevertheless,  Monseig-neur,  I  have  not  Had  Tli 
Happiness  of  their  Having  Keached  me. 

Your  Grace  has  not  honored  me  with  a  sufficiently  ampl 
Commission  to  allow  of  my  acting  On  my  own  Initiative  [and! 
succeeding  in  The  Settlement  Of  Detroit.  Monsieur  The  Gei 
eral — who  In  nowise  Divests  himself  of  his  rights  in  ray  favc 
and  who,  on  the  contrary,  governs  T'his  Post  altliougli  he  is  ver 
Distant — sometimes  Blames  me  owing  To  net  having  see 
Things  and  to  not  Knowing  my  reasons  And  The  Principle 
On  Which  I  act.  And  he  Prequently  deprives  me  of  The  mear 
of  succeeding  Without  Wishing  It  And  Without  Thinking  la 
is  doing  So. 

He  has  not  so  fully  yielded  to  me  The  advantages  Of  thi 
Post  as  not  frequently  to  diminish  Them'  by  granting  Fre'e  c 
charge  demi-Licenses  that  I  would  have  been  Pleased  to  grai 
myself.  It  also  often  happens,  Monsiegneur,  that  he  favoi 
Persons  who  I^eed  least. 

It  would,  therefore,  be  desirable,  Mon seigneur  (I  venture  t 
say  For  The  advantage  of  this  Country),  that  Your  Grac 
should  Leave  The  disposal  of  the  Licenses  Entirely  to  me.  An 
that  in  ail  matters  Not  of  Exceeding  Importance,  I  be 
mitted  to  act  Without  Eear  of  Being  Exposed  To  the  annoy; 
that  may  be  Caused  me  by  The  Jealous  Envy  of  my  Enem: 
near  Monsieur  The  General.  I  am  attacked  all  the  Moi 
boldly,  Monseigneur,  because  it  is  Seen  that  I  am  Not  decoratei 
with  The  Mark  of  honor  that  distinguishes  An  Officer. 

It  Will  be  Necessary  if  I  am  To  Impress  with  respect 

[  356  ] 





n]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

'he  l^ations  within  the  jurisdiction  Of  This  Post.  The  num- 
ber of  Savages  who  Flock  to  it  from  all  Sides;  The  Wealth  Of 
its  Trade,  which  Amounts  to  from  150  thousand  to  200 
thousand  Livres  of  Furs  per  annumi;  And,  Finally,  Monseig- 
neur,  The  Beauty  of  the  Country,  And  the  number  of  French 
Settlements,  which  I  have  Greatly  increased  within  a  year,  all 
These  Things  deserve  either  that  Your  Grace  Procure  me  from 
His  Majesty  a  Commission  of  King's  Lieutenant  with,  a  Cross 
of  St  Louis,  or  that  You  should  honor  with  it  him  whom  you 
may  Deem  more  Capable  than  I  of  pushing  The  Settlement  of 
this  Post,  for  which  i^evertheless  I  have  neglected  nothing  the 
past  year. 

The  state  of  abandonment  into  Which  it  had  been  Allowed 
to  fall  for  seven  or  eight  years  by  my  predecessors  called  fof  a 
Remedy  as  prompt  as  that  which  I  applied ;  And  Monsiegneur 
will  be  informed  that  ihe  fort,  which  is  600  paces  in  Length 
by  30  in  Width,  was  oj-en  on  ail  Sides,  Without  Bastions,  watch- 
towers,  or  Platforms,  and  a  Prey  to  Licentiousness  And  Bri- 

I  have  had  it  Completely  restored  with  Suitable  fortifioar 
tions,  so  that,  Monseigneur,  one  is  safe  not  Only  from  attack 
but  also  From  License. 

The  People,  although  easy  lo  restrain,  Had,  through  lack  of 
Correction,  Imperceptibly  fallen  Into  ignorance  of  The  most 
Common  Laws  and  then  into  Neglect  of  their  duties,  and,  as 
impunity  had  too  long  favored  disorder,  insubordination  would 
have  gained  tlie  upper  hand,  had  I  not  Found  in  the  Hearts  of 
tlie  old  Burgesses  of  This  Town  deep-Eooted  Feelings  of  Prob- 
ity and  honor,  supported  by  which  I  soon  saw  good  faith  re- 
turn, with  Police,  Order,  And  Love  for  Agriculture,  all  of 
which  had  too  long  been  banished  from  here.  I  caused  the 
Town  to  be  Extended  last  year  and  I  Am  About  to  do  the  same 
This  Year. 

The  Tillage  of  the  Soil  is  my  Chief  Object,  convinced  as  I 
Am  that  it  is  the  source,  of  the  Power  and  Wealth  of  States. 
To  That  end  I  beg  you,  Monseigneur,  to  allow  me  to  Grant 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvu 

lands  and  to  have  the  Deeds  dra\\ii  up  by  the  [Notary  Of  the 

The  English  have  been  coming  For  a  Number  Of  years  to 
corrupt  the  Savages  Within  the  Sphere  of  This  Post,  and  I 
Have  resolved  to  have  them  pillaged.  I  will  Begin  by  send- 
ing Them  a  Summons.  I  will  not  send  anybody  there  empty- 
handed  on  account  of  the  Savages  but  the  equipment  will  be 
supplied  by  the  traders.^ 

The  Trade  of  the  Savages  with  The  English  has  Greatly  de- 
creased within  a  year  owing  to  the  measures  I  have  taken  and 
which  are  succeeding.  I  have,  Nevertheless,  constantly  re- 
fused to  allow  Brandy  to  be  Sold  to  the  Sax'ages,  and  it  is  wrong 
to  Fear  that  Such  Conduct  will  detach  them  from  Us.  Far 
from;  It,  Monseigneur,  they  have  tendered  me  many  thanks  for 
this,  and  all  The  Chiefs  of  the  Villages  have  given  me  their 
word  not  to  return  there.  I  gave  medals  yesterday  to  four 
Chiefs  by  order  of  Monsieur  The  General,  and  I  took  advantage  | 
of  The  occasion  to  close  that  road  to  them.  Your  Grace  Will 
be  more  fully  informed  respecting  This  Change  next  year. 

It  was  not  a  difficult  matter  to  put  a  stop  to  the  Trade  be- 
tween the  French  and  The  English  by  the  mediumi  of  the 
Savages ;  they  were  tired  of  Being  Robbed  by  the  latter. 

Monsieur  The  General  Sent  Monsieur  The  Chevalier  de 
Beauhamois  here  to  remove  the  hurons  and  take  them  to  Mon- 
treal. They  seemed  to  Wish  It,  but  The  inconstant  Mind  of  thi 
Savages  leads  me  to  Fear  he  will  not  succeed;  he  is  still  he 
Thus,  Monseigneur,  if  Your  Grace  will  permit  me  to  say  so,  i 
would  have  been  Better  to  have  sent  me,  in  the  shape  of  presen 
for  them.  What  This  proceeding  will  Cost.  I  would  hav( 
awaited  the  proper  time  to  make  the  Most  of  them,  and,  witlij 
out  Compromising  the  King's  honor  and  Authority,  I  woul< 
have  Sounded  their  Minds  and  gradually  made  arrangemem 
for  their  migration,  giving  nothing  except  on  a  Certainty; 
Monsieur  The  General   could   have  written  me  to  send  The 

1  Copyist's    note:     "This    sentence    is    added    between    the    lines    li 
Monsieur  De  Noyan's  handwriting.'" 


mi]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

Chiefs  to  Him,  that  he  might  see  Whether  they  were  firm'  in 
their  resolution. 

I  Think,  Monseigneur,  there  should  not  be  such  Persistence 
to  get  them.  Times  Avill  Change,  and  then  we  will  profit 

I  remain  with  very  Profound  Kespect,  Monseigneur,  Your 
Grace's  Very  humble  and  very  obedient  Servant, 


Should  my  enemies  bring  charges  against  me  and  should 
these  be  brought  to  you,  Monseigneur,  I  very  humbly  Beg  Your 
grace  to  give  me  an  opportunity  to  justify  myself  and  confound 

I  am  informed  that  Monsieur  hocquart  wishes  to  appoint  a 
Subdelegate  at  Detroit.  I  can  assure  you,  Monseigneur,  that 
tliere  is  not  the  slightest  xsecessity  for  this,  And  that  I 
make  a  fairly  good  use  of  a  little  law  I  learned,  lliere  has  not 
not  been  a  suit  whieh  I  have  not  decided  since  I  have  been  here^ 
although  there  have  been  Many,  some  of  which  were  very  old* 

[Source,  same  as  preceding  document,  but  fol.  221.] 

Copy  of  the  Letter  of  the  Sienr  de  Celoron,  Corrmia/ndant 
at  Missilimakinac,  Writtein  to  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  BeanJh 
hamois  on  the  2nd  of  September,  17Jfl. 

Monsieur — I  have  at  length  induced  the  savages  to  go  and 
inspect  the  depths  of  their  clearings.  They  are  to  start  to- 
morrow, and  as  soon  as  they  return,  if  the  Lan3s  be  found  suit* 
able,  I  will  Send  the  French  there  to  work  so  as  to  enable  thena 
to  sow  in  the  Spring.  I  think,  Monsieur,  you  will  approve 
some  expenses  I  shall  be  obliged  to  incur  to  place  them  in  ao- 

1- Copyist's  note:     "Only  the  signature  is  autograph;   the  postscript 
is  in  De  Noyan's  writing." 

[  359  ] 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi.  xvh 

cordance  with  your  intentions;  I  will  bo  as  economical  as  pos- 
sible. It  is  impossible  to  avoid  assisting  them,  for  otherwise 
they  would  Settle  at  the  grande  Traverse  where  they  have  al- 
ready begun  to  do  some  clearing;  that  Spot  is  twenty-five 
Leagues  Distant  from  here,  and,  consequently,  not  very  Con- 
venient for  Trade. 

As  neither  Poutchitaouy,  L'arbre  croche  (crooked  tree),  nor 
the  point  of  Pamitobe  Are  to  their  liking,  I  thought  I  could 
not  do  better  than  Induce  them  to  Settle  on  the  Extension  of 
their  Lands,  which  will  not  Eemove  them  farther  from  the 
French  fort  than  two  Leagues  at  the  most.  I  will  neglect  noth- 
ing, Monsieur,  to  make  them  conform  Entirely  to  your  wishes. 
The  good  of  the  service  and  my  Respect  for  the  Otders  given 
mo  will  lead  me  to  make  every  Efforti  to  succeed  in  accordance 
with  your  desires. 

I  have  The  honor  te  Be,  with  very  profound  Respect,  Mon- 
sieur, Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant. 




[Extract  from  a  letter  from  Beauharnois  to  the  French  Minister, 
dated  Sept.  26,  1741,  MS.  in  archives  of  MinistSre  des  Colonies,  Paris; 
pressmark,  "Canada,  Corresp.  gen.,  vol.  75,  c.  11,  fol.  174."] 

Moi^sEiGNEUR — I  have  learned  from  your  communicatiion 
of  May  6,  that  His  Majesty  would  have  Been  glad  to  hear  that 
the  Scioux  had  come  down  last  year  to  Montreal.  They  had 
a  talk  with  the  Sieur  Marin  on  January  18,  at  the  Mouth  of 
the  Ouiskonsin  River,  and  he  ransomed  a  Sauteux  woman,  who 
Was  a  prisoner  among  Them.  They  told  him  that  they  had 
Been  killed  three  or  four  times  by  the  Sauteux  of  Point  Cha- 
gonamigon  and  by  those  of  the  Sault  Saint©  Marie.  They  said 
they  did  not  Know  what  to  think  of  the  attacks  made  on  Them, 
aft€ir  the  Father  of  all  the  nations  had  granted  them  their  lives; 

[  360  ] 

ra]        French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

a  id  that  tbey  believed  the  cause  might  possibly  Be  the  report 
tiiat  had  circulated  that  the  Warriors  whoin  they  had  Sent  to 
]\[ontrea]  were  mere  Slaves.  They  added  that  some  of  their 
c  liefs  Were  ready  to  go  down  there  if  he  would  take  them. 

As  soon  as  I  was  informed  of  this,  Monseigneur,  I  wrote  to 
the  Sieur  Marin  to  ask  him  what  his  reason  Was  for  not  coming 
with  the  Scionx  who  had  asked  to  be  brought  here.  He  !re- 
plied,  under  date  of  August  8,  that  he  had  not  dared  to  Leave 
Them  for  fear  of  the  Attacks  which  they  might  make  on  dif- 
ferent Nations. 

In  the  same  Letter  he  writes  me  that  the  Sieur  L'Ecuyer* 
had  just  arrived  from,  la  Pointe,  and  had  reported  to  him  that 
the  Sauieux  had  attacked  the  Scioux  and  had  killed  a  great 
number  of  them,  and  that  he  could  not  answer  for  the  Results. 
This,  Monseigneur,  agi'ees  with  what  the  son  of  the  late  Sieur 
Be  la  Ronde  Wrote  to  me  from  that  Place  on  the  10th  of  the 
same  month.  He  says  that  the  Sauteux,  to  the  Nlumber  of  ten, 
have  gone  among  the  Scioux  this  fall  and  killed  eleven'  of  them-, 
men,  women  and  Children,  although  he  did  his  best  with  the 
aid  of  the  Sieur  L'Ecuyer  to  Prevent  them,  from  going  to  war 
With  this  Nation.  However,  nothing  could  restrain  them  and 
they  Had  set  out  this  spring,  130  in  numiber,  and  had  killed 
Seven  More  Scioux.  He  no  longer  Hoped  to  be  able  to  prevent 
them  from  going  against  them. 

Otolinois,  one  of  the  chiefs  of  this  Nation,  who  Is  the  Father- 
in-law  of  Pendalouan,  camie  down  to  Montreal  this  Summer. 
After  speaking  to  him  of  the  affair  of  his  Son-in-law,  whom  he 
blamed  severely,  I  told  him  that  I  had  learned  that  the  Sau- 
teux had  made  an  attack  On  the  Scioux,  and  that  he  ougEt  to 
Know  that  I  had  granted  them  their  lives,  and  that  this  would 
disturb  the  peace  of  the  country.  I  gave  him  a  Collar  and  some 
presents  for  His  Nation  in  order  to  bar  their  path. 

iWe  are  unable  to  identify  this  person,  there  being  a  number  of 
Canadian  colonists  who  bore  that  name.  He  may  have  been  a  relative 
of  Marin,  who  in  the  Register  of  Fort  Duquesne,  on  the  occasion  of 
his  burial,  was  entitled  "Paul  Marin  Ecuyer." — Ed. 


Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  [voi. 


The  Sieur  Ct^ulon  de  Villiers  Wrote  me  fromi  St.  Joseph 
Kiver,  July  0,  that  a  party  of  100  men,  Scioux  and  Kenards, 
going  to  attack  the  Ilinois  of  Pimiteouy,  had  passed  through 
the  territory  of  the  Sakis,  and  that  the  latter  had  notified  them 
so  they  might  be  on  their  guard.  He  said  he  had  just  received 
at  that  Moment  a  letter  from'  that  Place  informing  him  that 
the  natural  son  of  the  Sieur  Gatineau  had  Been  cut  to  pieces, 
half  a  league  from  the  fort,  and  that  a  Scioux  Canoe  had  been 
found  near  him.  The  Sieur  Marin  has  Written  me  about  The 
same  matter. 

In  another  Letter,  dated  the  29tJi  of  tlie  same  month,  he  writes 
me  that  he  has  learned  from  the  Sakis  that  it  was  Ouabacha, 
one  of  the  two  Scioux  who  Had  been  at  Montreal  with  the  Sieur 
Marin,  that  had  committed  this  murder,  although  he  had  been 
overwhelmed  with  favors. 

The  Mississagues,  at  the  end  of  Lake  Ontario,  loft  this  Spring 
to  gp  to  War  With  the  Scioux. 

The  Sakis  and  Renard  chiefs,  Monseigneur,  spoke  to  the 
Sieur  Marin  in  the  presence  of  the  Scioux.  They  assured  him 
that  they  were  thinking  day  and  night  of  what  their  Father 
Onontio  had  said  to  them ;  that  he  wished  absolutely  that  they 
should  go  and  rekindle  their  fire  at  la  Baye;  and  ithey  said 
that  they  had  not  failed  to  repeat  this  message  to  their  young 
men ;  that  I  had  Spread  a  Mat  for  them  by  means  of  Collars  and 
presents  in  thia  Place,  where  they  should  live  at  peace  with  all 
the  Nations,  and  that  I  would  never  abandon  them  as  long  as 
they  Listened  to  my  words. 

They  said  they  thoroughly  believed  all  that  I  had  told  them 
but  that  one  party  of  their  Warriors  and  of  their  old  men'  Was 
very  much  Alarmed  by  the  words  of  the  French  who  came  to 
Chikagon  [Chicago]  and  to  Meolaki  [Milwaukee],  who  had  ad- 
vised them  Secretly  not  to  abandon  Rock  River,  saying  that 
if  they  returned  to  la  Baye,  some  mischief  would  be  done  them. 
They  thought  that  those  who  spoke  thus  had  their  own  inter- 
ests in  view  in  doing  so,  but  they  could  never  pacify  their  young 
men,  as  long  as  these  Frenchmen  kept  coming  so  near  to  Them 
with  Brandy.     They  begged  the  Sieur  Marin  to  inform'  me  of 

[  362  ] 


1741]         French  Regime  in  Wisconsin 

tlieir  feeling  im  this  matter,  and  they  added  that  tbey  Were 
sure  they  could  induce  them  to  come  back  to  their  Former  vil- 
lage. I  immediately  Wrote  to  the  Sieur  Coulon  to  Prevent  any 
French  from  the  St  Joseph  River  from  going  there  to  trade, 
and  I  have  forbidden  all  voyageurs  who  have  set  out  for  the 
Ilinois  to  carry  on  any  trade  with  tliese  Nations,  either  directly 
or  indirectly,  under  penalty  of  Being  declared  coureurs  de  bois. 

The  Puants  came  down  to  Montreal  this  summer.  They 
have  nearly  all  come  back  to  la  Baye.  Those  who  Were  not 
there,  were  to  come  and  join  the  rest  in  a  short  time. 

The  Sieur  Marin  wrote  me  on  June  13,  that  he  had,  on  April 
6,  stopped  a  party  of  Sakis  and  Renards,  who  were  going  to 
attack  a  Cabin  of  folles-avoines,  that  Were  huntin